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Breeds of Beef Cattle .ppt

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Breeds of Beef Cattle .ppt

  1. 1. Classification and Identification of Cattle Breeds
  2. 2. Development of Breeds • Cattle, like most agricultural animals are bred. • Most are the result of many generations of breeding. • Most breeds were developed for a geographical area. • Cattle with desirable characteristics are kept. • Undesirable animals are no longer bred (culled). • No breed has is perfect in all of its traits. • No animal exhibits all of the perfect characteristics of its breed.
  3. 3. What is a Breed • A Breed of cattle is a race or variety, the members of which are related by descent and similar in certain distinguishable characteristics. • There are more than 250 breeds of cattle recognized throughout the world, and several hundred other varieties and types that have not been identified with a name. • New cattle breeds, such as the Brangus, Beefmaster and Santa Gertrudis, are composite or synthetic breeds, that have been developed during the last 50-75 years by combining the desirable characteristics of several existing breeds.
  4. 4. Ancestry Bos indicus- humped cattle, developed in tropical countries Bos taurus- humpless cattle, developed in more temperate zones.
  5. 5. Traits and Their Measurement • The most economically important traits of beef cattle are classified as follows: • Reproductive performance • Percent calf crop (calves born/cows in breeding herd) • Calving interval of less than 365 days • Calving season of less than 90 days • Ease of calving (reduced incidence of dystocia, retained placenta, etc) • Weaning weight and age at puberty • Postweaning growth: growth from weaning to finished weight
  6. 6. Traits and Their Measurement • The most economically important traits of beef cattle are classified as follows: • Feed efficiency: pounds of feed per pound of live-weight gain • Carcass merit: quality grades and yield grades • Longevity (functional traits): length of productive life • Conformation: form, shape and visual appearance of the animal • Freedom from genetic defects • Temperament
  7. 7. Breeds of Beef Cattle • Tropics • Tropical Cattle of European Type • Intermediate Type
  8. 8. Tropical – Zebu Cattle • Most of the cattle indigenous to the tropics belong to the zebu species • External trait which most clearly separates zebu from European type cattle is the hump over the shoulders or the posterior part of the neck. • Hump consists of muscle, connective tissue, and variable amounts of fat • vary by breed, sex, and age of the animal • Narrow body, a sloping rump, and rather long legs
  9. 9. Tropical – Zebu Cattle • Hide is thin, loosely attached, and the brisket and dewlap are usually well developed, particularly in males • Size of the animals varies over a wide range, and breed averages from below 200 to above 400 kg
  10. 10. Why Zebu? (Heat Tolerance) • A high degree of heat tolerance, derived partly from low heat production and partly from a large ability to dissipate heat • A high density of efficient sweat glands increases the loss of heat through evaporation, and the short, sleek coat facilitates the convection to the surrounding air • Small body size contributes to the heat tolerance, as small animals have a higher surface to body mass ratio
  11. 11. Why Zebu? (Partial Resistance to Ticks) • Zebu animals have the ability to repel ticks by movements of the skin, but this is only part of the explanation of their larger resistance • When animals are infested with tick larvae, fewer larvae develop into ticks in zebu than in European type cattle • Zebu cattle are often claimed to posess a certain degree of resistance also to many other tropical diseases
  12. 12. Why Zebu? (Nutrition) • Low nutritional requirements, because of small size, low metabolic rate, and possibly also more efficient digestion at low feeding levels.
  13. 13. Zebu – Milk Production • Potential for milk production is poorly developed in most zebu cattle • Milk yield is low, often not much more than needed to feed the calf properly • Cows usually do not let down milk unless stimulated by the sucking of the calf, and adapt poorly to modem milking routines • Zebu animals are late maturing, both physiologically and sexually, and heat symptoms are weaker than in European cattle
  14. 14. Sahiwal • It is tick-resistant, heat-tolerant and noted for its high resistance to parasites. • Cows average 2270 kg of milk during a lactation while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. • Due to their heat tolerance and high milk production they have been exported to other Asian countries as well as Africa and the Caribbean. • They are generally docile and lethargic, making them more useful for slow work.
  15. 15. Senepol • Naturally polled (hornless) -very desirable trait • When bred to other, horned breeds, the Senepol heredity will ensure that most of the progeny are also polled. • Has the heat tolerance necessary for efficient beef production in hot regions. • Senepol’s short red coat presents a striking sight as they graze in the noonday heat while other breeds seek the shelter of shade. • Rosette-like “patterns” appear along the back of Senepol cattle. • Efficiently functioning baggy sweat glands that reduce the body temperature of the animal.
  16. 16. Senepol • Senepol cattle have greater immunity when compared with other breeds • Carries fewer external parasites such as ticks • Cervix is straight • Selected for ease of handling and docile temperament. • Passed on to their progeny when used in cross breeding programmes.
  17. 17. Angus • History: • Originated from Scotland. • Earliest records date to 1700. • Imported to Kansas in 1873. • Suited well to Midwestern climate. • Today are found in every state in the USA. • Breed Characteristics • Black in color, smooth hair coat; also Red Angus • Polled (naturally have no horns). • Good carcass with well-marbled meat
  18. 18. TROPICAL CATTLE OF EUROPEAN TYPE N'Dama: • Hardy breed, medium size type (100 cm at shoulder height for cows; 120 cm for bulls) with a large and strong head and with lyre-shaped horns • Its skin,with short and thin hair, is fawn colored but varies from sand to black color, sometimes spotted • Average liveweight for a mature steer varies between 250 to 300 kg. • The N'Dama breed is used for meat and the ratio carcass/liveweight is around 50%
  19. 19. Temperate Breeds
  20. 20. Charolais • History • One of the oldest French breeds; central France. • Imported to Mexico in 1930. • Imported to Texas in 1936. • Breed Characteristics • White to light blonde in color, pink skin. • Large and very well-muscled. • Naturally horned. • Bulls: 2,000-2,500 lbs.; cows: 1,500-1,800 lbs..
  21. 21. Shorthorn (polled and horned) • History • Originated in northern England, about 1600. • Imported to Virginia in 1783. • First herdbook in the USA. • Breed Characteristics • Red, White, or roan (mix of red and white) coat. • Docile breed • Bulls: up to 2,400 lbs.; cows: up to 1,500 lbs., • Excellent milking capability.
  22. 22. Shorthorn
  23. 23. Shorthorn
  24. 24. Brahman • History • Developed in southwestern USA. • Closely related to Zebu, or Bos indicus cattle (India). • Used mostly for crossbreeding. • Breed Characteristics • Characteristic “hump” over shoulder. • Light or medium gray coat color. • Large, drooping ears and loose skin.
  25. 25. Brahman
  26. 26. Brangus • History • A result of a cross of Brahman and Angus. • Crosses made as early as 1912 in Louisiana. • Red Brangus developed in Texas in 1946. • Breed Description • Solid black or red in color. • Polled. • Good mothering ability & feed efficiency.
  27. 27. Brangus (Red)
  28. 28. Texas Longhorn
  29. 29. Belgian Blue

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