• In the packaging of meat two
factors have to be considered,
1.Color of meat
• Colour of the meat is one of the
main attributes of meat quality.
• The association of colour of red
meat with freshness has been the
dominant factor in retail meat
• The loss of bright red colour of
meat is known as “bloom”.
• The composition of bacteria that
is present on meat at the starting
of spoilage is affected by the
qualities of the tissues on which
the bacteria is growing, the
composition of atmosphere
around the product and the
number of bacteria at the time of
The most common packages for
retail fresh meat cuts are trays
over wrapped with a transparent
Meat thus wrapped may keep for
approximately 10 days at a
temperature of 0⁰ c.
• polystyrene foam or clear plastic trays
can be used.
• Cellophane coated with nitrocellulose on
one side can be used for wrapping fresh
meat for a considerable period.
• Another grade of cellophane with
polyethylene coating on one side is also
used though it is not much in use.
• Vacuum packaging achieves its
preservative effect by maintaining
the product in an oxygen-deficient
• In anaerobic conditions ,potent
spoilage bacteria are severely or
totally inhibited on low pH (<5.8)
• Thus shelf life of meat can be
• Vacuum packaging involves enclosing
boneless meat in flexible plastic
containers or bags to prevent moisture
loss and exclude oxygen from the meat’s
• Packing under a vacuum reduces the
volume of air sealed in with the
• In packaging fresh meat, many cuts
contain bones, which are often sharp
and abrasive and readily puncture
the flexible plastic materials used in
vacuum packaging. To overcome
this bone puncture ,a BONEGUARD
material consisting of a wax-impregnated
and coated cotton
scrim is employed
• It involves placing the meat into a heat
shrinkable barrier bag and then
evacuating the bag prior to sealing by
• Golden Eagle is a brand of hot water,
cook-in shrink bags which provide
excellent clarity, tremendous shrink
capabilities, and puncture resistance
for bone-in meat applications.
• Barrier Bags enhance products
appearance by utilizing monolayer film
technology that combines nylon and
polyolefin resins to produce a high
quality, puncture resistant bags.
• The low oxygen and moisture
transmission rates extend
products shelf life.
• The bag is then heat shrunk by
placing in water at 90 c.
• After shrinking, the bag
conforms closely to the meat and
produces a tight vacuum pack.
• In this technique, meat is placed into a
pre-formed plastic bag which is then
put in an enclosed chamber which is
• When a predetermined low pressure
has been reached, heated jaws close and
• Typical bag constructions consist of
laminates or co-extrusions which
include polyamide or PET as the
outside layer to provide strength and
a good oxygen barrier ,and inner
layers of LLDPE ,ionomer or EVA
copolymer which are good moisture
barriers and can be easily heat
• In this method, deep trays are
thermoformed in-line from a base
web of plastic.
• Meat is placed in the trays and an
upper web of plastic is heat sealed
under vacuum to form a lid.
• This type of vacuum packaging is
particularly well suited to hot
boned,pre-rigor meat which is
difficult to package in bags, the
tray providing a certain degree of
molding to the meat as it cools
• Laminates of polyamide ,PET or
PVC ,sometimes with a
PVC/PVDC copolymer coating and
heat sealing layers such as
LDPE,EVA copolymer or ionomer.
• In this technique, meat portions are
skin packed in a barrier film material,
the top web of which is softened by
heating before applying a vacuum and
• During this operation ,soft film molds
itself to the shape of the meat to give a
skin-tight package , the meat thus being
held under anaerobic conditions.
• The meat retains, for at least 2 weeks
storage at 1 ⁰C, its ability to develop
a bright red colour when exposed to
• Frozen meat is stored and displayed
between -10⁰ C and 30 ⁰C at which
temperatures microbial growth is
• It is claimed that ionomer film will
keep the bright red colour for at
least a year if the meat is stored in
the dark at -20⁰C.
• When frozen meat and meat
products are stored without an
adequate moisture vapor barrier an
opaque dehydrated surface known as
freezer burn is formed.
• Freezer burn is caused by the
sublimation of ice on the surface of
the product. it can be eliminated by
reducing the head space in the
• Frozen products have traditionally
been packaged in bags, pouches
trays, overwraps and plastic-coated
paperboard, with polyolefin's being
the most common material used.
• They must ,of course contain
appropriate plasticizers so that their
mechanical properties are not
impaired at sub-zero temperatures.
• Vacuum skin packaging is also
used for frozen meat products.
• Typically a heat-softened
ionomer film is draped over the
product which is supported on a
lower web of the same material.
• Thermal processing at above 100⁰ C
usually accomplished under
pressure ,is done to prepare
commercially sterile meat products.
• The packaging of this considers two
• Meat products like
sausages,nuggets,meat balls, etc
can be packaged in pouches
made up of PE,PP,PVDC, for
short-term storage lasting for
10-12 days at 4 ⁰C.
• Meat products like corned beef,
corned pork, meat gravies, meat
soups, liver sausages, chicken curry,
boneless chicken etc are hermetically
sealed and cooked to make
commercially sterile for long term
storage at room temperature.
• Two types of containers are
suited for this purpose.
Canned meat products are shelf
stable for a number of years at
room temperature which uses
• A retort pouch is a plastic and
metal foil laminate pouch that is
used as an alternative to traditional
industrial canning methods
• A retort pouch is constructed from
a flexible metal-plastic laminate
which is able to withstand thermal
processing via sterilization.
• The food is first prepared, even raw or
semi-cooked, and then sealed into the
retort pouch. The pouch is then heated
to 240-250°F (116-121°C) for several
minutes under high pressure, inside
retort or autoclave machines. The food
inside is cooked, similar to pressure
• This process reliably kills all commonly
occurring microorganisms preventing it
• The lamination doesn’t allow
permeation of gases into the pouch.
• Dehydration is a successful
means of preserving many meats
with proper packaging.
• Tinplate cans
• Metal/foil/plastic film laminates
• Flexible pouches made of