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DISTRIBUTION, BIOLOGY, SEED COLLECTION, NURSERY
REARING AND CULTURE TECHNIQUES OF GROUPER
Sk.Umme salma,
MFK1710,
AEM.
INTRODUCTION.
IMPORTANT SPECIES.
DISTRIBUTION.
BIOLOGICAL FEATURE.
HABITAT.
 NURSERY REARING.
OUTDOOR SYSTEM.
INDOOR SYSTEM.
ONGROWING TECHNIQUES.
RESEARCH PAPER.
INDEX
• The word “grouper”orginate from the portuguese language.
• 2 mts (6 feet) & 225 kg.
• Protogynous hermaphrodites.
• Easy to grow & fast-growing, hardy.
• Tasty meat, high demand, live long lives.
INTRODUCTION
Taxonomic Classification
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Actinopterygii
Order : Perciformes
Family : Serranidae
Common name: Grouper
IMPORTANT SPECIES
• Epinephelus coioides= Orange-spotted grouper
• Epinephelus malabaricus= Malabar grouper
• Epinephelus lanceolatus= Giant grouper
• Epinephelus Tauvina= Greasy grouper
• Epinephelus fuscoguttatus= Brown-marbled grouper
• Epinephelus Akaara= Honkong grouper
• Epinephelus awoara= Yellow grouper
• Epinephelus quoyanus= Longfin grouper
• Epinephelus trimaculatus= Threespot grouper
• Cromileptes altivelis= Humpback grouper
• Plectropomus leopardus= Leopard coral grouper
DISTRIBUTION
• Occurs in the western Indian Ocean from the southern Red Sea
to Natal and east to the western Pacific where it is distributed
from Ryukyu Islands to New South Wales.
• It ranges east into Oceania only to Palau in the Northern
Hemisphere and Fiji in the Southern.
BIOLOGICAL FEATURE
• Body elongate, not very compressed
• Teeth in 2 rows; nostrils sub equal; serrae at corner
• 4th dorsal spine usually longest; spinous portion of dorsal fin
incised; caudal fin - pelvic fin
• Body colour .
HABITAT
• Orange spotted groupers inhabit turbid coastal reefs and are
often found in brackishwater over mud and rubble.
• Juveniles - shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and
gravel and among mangroves, feeding on small fish, shrimp,
and crabs.
• eurythermal and euryhaline
SIZE, AGE, AND GROWTH
• The major spawning period is March to June.
• Females mature at 250-300 mm TL @2-3 years.
• Sexual transition @550-750 mm.
FOOD HABITS
 Carnivorous ,Shrimps and smaller fish predominate in the diet
of adult
 Juveniles feed on Acetes and Mysid shrimps
SEED SUPPLY AND HATCHERY TECHNIQUES
• Brooders are stocked in separate 50 m3 tanks.
• Most of the brooders are collected from the wild
• Reared for 1 to 7 years using seawater at a constant
temperature of 27-28 °C
• The fish are fed with frozen sardines, mackerels, cuttlefish,
squids and top shell clams
NURSERY REARING
• Two production systems
• Indoor system @30-50 m3
• Outdoor system@ >200 m3
OUTDOOR SYSTEM
• Hatchery reared or wild caught fry are nursed in tanks or hapa nets until
they reach 6 cm.
• Hapa nets [1 x 2 x 1.5 m; 2 mm mesh] are set in tanks or ponds or
inside floating net cages and stocked <2.5 cm fry at 1000-2000/net.
• Sorting and grading are essential during the nursery phase. Lamps are
placed at the centre above the hapa nets to attract live prey such as
adult Artemia, copepods, mysids, small fish or crustacean larvae.
• Fish are fed to either with high protein formulated feeds of various sizes or
finely chopped frozen or fresh fish mixed with a vitamin mineral premix [1
kg trash fish; 1020 g vitamin and mineral mix].
INDOOR SYSTEM
• Nursery tanks vary from 30 to 50 m3 in either semi intensive or
intensive flow through systems. Such tanks are stocked with <2.5
cm fry at 50-200/m3.
• Higher densities of over 1000/m3 are sometimes used in flow
through or recirculation water systems.
• Graded every 57 days until they reach >6 cm after 45-60 days.
• Grow out ponds or floating cages.
ONGROWING TECHNIQUES
• Earthen pond systems
• Floating net cage systems
• Fish -200 g -@ Chopped frozen fish 5%BW or pellets @ 2 %BW.
• 20-50% Water exchange takes advantage of spring tides or pumped
water from reservoirs and is carried out at least twice/week.
• Paddlewheel aerators are use when DO2 falls < 4 ppm.
• Water quality is maintenance.
 pH 7.5-8.3,
 Temp 25-32°C,
 DO2 4-8 ppm
 NO2N <0.05 ppm
 NH3N <0.02 ppm.
EARTHEN POND SYSTEMS
FLOATING NET CAGE SYSTEMS
• Net cages (8 mm mesh) are used for 210 cm fingerlings; 25
mm mesh is used for larger fish.
• Grouper fingerlings are stocked at 15-20/m3.
• Grading is carried out at least once a month.
• Floating net cages should be moved to a new site for
deteriorating bottom conditions to recover.
• The duration of culture in the grow out phase is 47
months,depending on the preferred size at harvest.
• Fish are fed with appropriate fresh or frozen chopped fish
daily at 10 % BW or with pelleted feeds 3 % BW, half early in
the morning and half late in the afternoon. 0.5 per cent vitamin
and mineral premix is added to the properly thawed trash fish
before feeding.
FEED SUPPLY
• Generally, farmers depend on commercial suppliers for
growout feeds.
• Costs for groupers vary from USD 1100 to 1200/ton.
HARVESTING TECHNIQUES
• Groupers are harvested at 400 g or above, depending on
specific market demand.
• Fish are marketed either live for the restaurant business and
international markets or freshly caught for local markets.
HARVESTING IN EARTHEN PONDS
 Fish are harvested by seine in the early morning or late
afternoon.
 The water is disturbed (agitated) two hours before harvest to
prevent occurrence of rigid muscles in the fish.
 Alternatively, for partial harvesting, modified lift nets may be
installed in feeding areas
 These have to be lifted slowly to avoid fish escape.
 It is advisable to install 8x2x1.5 or 8x4x1.5 m net cages (25
mm mesh) in the ponds to hold fish temporarily.
 The stocking density in these holding cages should not exceed
20/m3
HARVESTING IN NET CAGES
• Feeding is stopped 12 days before marketing.
• The net cage should be inspected for any damage and then
lifted slowly from one side to concentrate the fish in one
corner.
• A fine, soft knotless scoop net or soft plastic screen is used to
catch the fish.
• Care must be taken to avoid loss of scales or causing lesions
on fish during harvesting
HANDLING AND PROCESSING
• Harvested fish are stocked in an aerated conditioning tank.
• To slow metabolic activity, the water temperature is slowly
lowered to 20 °C (2-3°C/hr) by adding crushed ice in plastic
bags or by using cooling pumps.
• 3-5 fish are stocked into each 20x20x30 cm double lined
plastic bag.
• Biomass is limited to 2-3kg/bag.
• Oxygen is added at a 1:3 water:oxygen ratio before sealing
with a rubber band.
• This method is suitable for air transport for a period not
exceeding 8 hours after packing
• The bags are packed in styrofoam boxes to which an adequate
amount of frozen gel packs, ice bags or frozen water in sealed
plastic bottles wrapped in old newspapers is added to keep the
temperature low during transportation.
PRODUCTION COSTS
• Fry usually comprise between 15-20%of on growing costs.
• In hatcheries, labour costs are 20 to 25% of the total.
• Other large factors are feed (30%), followed by administrative
expenses and fuel and power requirements for heater/chillers
and automatic feeders.
• Generally, on growing costs are lower in larger scale farms.
RESEARcH
PAPER!!!!!
Groupers are cultured in either ponds or cages and being
euryhaline in nature
•
(Sim et al., 2005)
INTRODUCTION
They can thrive well in brackish water environments.
However, they are mostly cultured in floating net cages either
in the open sea or near the seaward end of estuaries
In India, grouper culture practices are entirely supported by the supply of seeds
collected from the wild (Nammalwar et al., 1998).
At present, growth and development of grouper farming industry in India has
been constrained by inadequate supply of juveniles for stocking.
FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION OF SEA CAGES:
1. The site for installation of sea cages was selected at a distance of
about 500 m from the shore in the Bay of Bengal off
Visakhapatnam
2. 8 m water depth during low tide was ensured at the site to
facilitate efficient water exchange.
3. Two circular HDPE cages of 6 m inner ring and 8 m outer ring dia
was fabricated and launched for stocking adult groupers
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All fishes were tagged for identification and to maintain
the history of individual fish
Broodstock development
Groupers collected from the commercial hook and line operations
BROODSTOCK DEVELOPMENT
Fishes were recompressed by inserting a needle through their anal
openings to relieve barotrauma stress
A total 63 nos. of E. coioides were selected
9 fishes were stocked in 5 t FRP tanks 54 nos. were stocked in two 6 m dia
HDPE floating cages
Acclimatisation for a period of four months
4 fishes from tanks
20 fishes from the cages
17 α-methyl testosterone aimed at developing male brooders
The fishes were fed twice a day at 5% body weight with Decapterus russelli,
sardine and squids. Vitamins, cod liver oil and mineral supplements were also
given twice in a week along with feed
Growth of the fishes was monitored regularly by taking body weight
INDUCED SPAWNING
 For induced spawning experiment, female fish with intra-ovarian eggs of
around 450 μ dia were selected.
 Trials were conducted using mature females and sex reversed males in the
ratio 1:1.
 Followed by luteinising hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) @
40 μg kg BW-1 after 24 h of the final HCG injection in the first two
induction trials.
 All trials were undertaken in FRP tanks except the last trial of induced
spawning where the brooders were kept in the cage itself.
Physicochemical parameters of the rearing water in cage and
FRP tank during the experimental period
• The survival, growth and maturity status of fishes in the
experimental cages and tanks were recorded for a period of one year.
• The survival rate was higher in tanks (100%) compared to cages
(94.11%).
• The observation from the present study that the same group of fish
when stocked in cages matured within one year, indicated that open
sea floating cages are better for domestication, conditioning and
broodstock development of greasy groupers than indoor tanks
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
• The global aquaculture production of groupers has been increasing from
the year 1990 onwards in which the major contributors were Taiwan and
Thailand (Pierre et al., 2008).
• It is well understood that only continuous supply of grouper seeds can lead
to the development of grouper aquaculture in India.
• The present success in the broodstock development of the greasy grouper in
sea cage is a major step towards development of successful seed production
technology for groupers in captivity and grouper farming in India.
CONCLUSION
• APHA 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and
wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, American
Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington, D.
C., p. 45. Cacot, P., Legendre, M., Dan, T. Q., Tung, L. T., Liem, P. T.,
Mariojouls, C. and Lazard, J. 2002. Induced ovulation of Pangasius
bocourti (Sauvage, 1880) with a progressive
• HCG treatment. Aquaculture, 213: 199-206. Caylor, R. E., Biesiot, P. M.
and Franks, J. S. 1994. Culture of cobia (Rachycentron canadum):
cryopreservation of sperm and induced spawning. Aquaculture, 125: 81–
92. Chen, F. Y., Chow, M., Chao, T. M. and Lim, R. 1977. Artificial
spawning and larval rearing of the grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal)
in Singapore. Singapore J. Pri. Ind.,
• 5:1-21. FAO 1989. Propagation of seabass, Lates calcarifer in captivity.
Seafarming Development Project (Jakarta, Indonesia).
REFERENCES
distribution,biology,seed collection,nursery rearing and culture techniques of grouper

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distribution,biology,seed collection,nursery rearing and culture techniques of grouper

  • 1. DISTRIBUTION, BIOLOGY, SEED COLLECTION, NURSERY REARING AND CULTURE TECHNIQUES OF GROUPER Sk.Umme salma, MFK1710, AEM.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION. IMPORTANT SPECIES. DISTRIBUTION. BIOLOGICAL FEATURE. HABITAT.  NURSERY REARING. OUTDOOR SYSTEM. INDOOR SYSTEM. ONGROWING TECHNIQUES. RESEARCH PAPER. INDEX
  • 3. • The word “grouper”orginate from the portuguese language. • 2 mts (6 feet) & 225 kg. • Protogynous hermaphrodites. • Easy to grow & fast-growing, hardy. • Tasty meat, high demand, live long lives. INTRODUCTION
  • 4. Taxonomic Classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Class : Actinopterygii Order : Perciformes Family : Serranidae Common name: Grouper
  • 5. IMPORTANT SPECIES • Epinephelus coioides= Orange-spotted grouper • Epinephelus malabaricus= Malabar grouper • Epinephelus lanceolatus= Giant grouper • Epinephelus Tauvina= Greasy grouper • Epinephelus fuscoguttatus= Brown-marbled grouper • Epinephelus Akaara= Honkong grouper • Epinephelus awoara= Yellow grouper • Epinephelus quoyanus= Longfin grouper • Epinephelus trimaculatus= Threespot grouper • Cromileptes altivelis= Humpback grouper • Plectropomus leopardus= Leopard coral grouper
  • 6. DISTRIBUTION • Occurs in the western Indian Ocean from the southern Red Sea to Natal and east to the western Pacific where it is distributed from Ryukyu Islands to New South Wales. • It ranges east into Oceania only to Palau in the Northern Hemisphere and Fiji in the Southern.
  • 7. BIOLOGICAL FEATURE • Body elongate, not very compressed • Teeth in 2 rows; nostrils sub equal; serrae at corner • 4th dorsal spine usually longest; spinous portion of dorsal fin incised; caudal fin - pelvic fin • Body colour .
  • 8. HABITAT • Orange spotted groupers inhabit turbid coastal reefs and are often found in brackishwater over mud and rubble. • Juveniles - shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves, feeding on small fish, shrimp, and crabs. • eurythermal and euryhaline
  • 9. SIZE, AGE, AND GROWTH • The major spawning period is March to June. • Females mature at 250-300 mm TL @2-3 years. • Sexual transition @550-750 mm.
  • 10. FOOD HABITS  Carnivorous ,Shrimps and smaller fish predominate in the diet of adult  Juveniles feed on Acetes and Mysid shrimps
  • 11. SEED SUPPLY AND HATCHERY TECHNIQUES • Brooders are stocked in separate 50 m3 tanks. • Most of the brooders are collected from the wild • Reared for 1 to 7 years using seawater at a constant temperature of 27-28 °C • The fish are fed with frozen sardines, mackerels, cuttlefish, squids and top shell clams
  • 12. NURSERY REARING • Two production systems • Indoor system @30-50 m3 • Outdoor system@ >200 m3
  • 13. OUTDOOR SYSTEM • Hatchery reared or wild caught fry are nursed in tanks or hapa nets until they reach 6 cm. • Hapa nets [1 x 2 x 1.5 m; 2 mm mesh] are set in tanks or ponds or inside floating net cages and stocked <2.5 cm fry at 1000-2000/net. • Sorting and grading are essential during the nursery phase. Lamps are placed at the centre above the hapa nets to attract live prey such as adult Artemia, copepods, mysids, small fish or crustacean larvae.
  • 14. • Fish are fed to either with high protein formulated feeds of various sizes or finely chopped frozen or fresh fish mixed with a vitamin mineral premix [1 kg trash fish; 1020 g vitamin and mineral mix].
  • 15. INDOOR SYSTEM • Nursery tanks vary from 30 to 50 m3 in either semi intensive or intensive flow through systems. Such tanks are stocked with <2.5 cm fry at 50-200/m3. • Higher densities of over 1000/m3 are sometimes used in flow through or recirculation water systems. • Graded every 57 days until they reach >6 cm after 45-60 days. • Grow out ponds or floating cages.
  • 16. ONGROWING TECHNIQUES • Earthen pond systems • Floating net cage systems
  • 17. • Fish -200 g -@ Chopped frozen fish 5%BW or pellets @ 2 %BW. • 20-50% Water exchange takes advantage of spring tides or pumped water from reservoirs and is carried out at least twice/week. • Paddlewheel aerators are use when DO2 falls < 4 ppm. • Water quality is maintenance.  pH 7.5-8.3,  Temp 25-32°C,  DO2 4-8 ppm  NO2N <0.05 ppm  NH3N <0.02 ppm. EARTHEN POND SYSTEMS
  • 18. FLOATING NET CAGE SYSTEMS • Net cages (8 mm mesh) are used for 210 cm fingerlings; 25 mm mesh is used for larger fish. • Grouper fingerlings are stocked at 15-20/m3. • Grading is carried out at least once a month. • Floating net cages should be moved to a new site for deteriorating bottom conditions to recover. • The duration of culture in the grow out phase is 47 months,depending on the preferred size at harvest.
  • 19. • Fish are fed with appropriate fresh or frozen chopped fish daily at 10 % BW or with pelleted feeds 3 % BW, half early in the morning and half late in the afternoon. 0.5 per cent vitamin and mineral premix is added to the properly thawed trash fish before feeding.
  • 20. FEED SUPPLY • Generally, farmers depend on commercial suppliers for growout feeds. • Costs for groupers vary from USD 1100 to 1200/ton.
  • 21. HARVESTING TECHNIQUES • Groupers are harvested at 400 g or above, depending on specific market demand. • Fish are marketed either live for the restaurant business and international markets or freshly caught for local markets.
  • 22. HARVESTING IN EARTHEN PONDS  Fish are harvested by seine in the early morning or late afternoon.  The water is disturbed (agitated) two hours before harvest to prevent occurrence of rigid muscles in the fish.  Alternatively, for partial harvesting, modified lift nets may be installed in feeding areas
  • 23.  These have to be lifted slowly to avoid fish escape.  It is advisable to install 8x2x1.5 or 8x4x1.5 m net cages (25 mm mesh) in the ponds to hold fish temporarily.  The stocking density in these holding cages should not exceed 20/m3
  • 24. HARVESTING IN NET CAGES • Feeding is stopped 12 days before marketing. • The net cage should be inspected for any damage and then lifted slowly from one side to concentrate the fish in one corner. • A fine, soft knotless scoop net or soft plastic screen is used to catch the fish. • Care must be taken to avoid loss of scales or causing lesions on fish during harvesting
  • 25. HANDLING AND PROCESSING • Harvested fish are stocked in an aerated conditioning tank. • To slow metabolic activity, the water temperature is slowly lowered to 20 °C (2-3°C/hr) by adding crushed ice in plastic bags or by using cooling pumps. • 3-5 fish are stocked into each 20x20x30 cm double lined plastic bag. • Biomass is limited to 2-3kg/bag.
  • 26. • Oxygen is added at a 1:3 water:oxygen ratio before sealing with a rubber band. • This method is suitable for air transport for a period not exceeding 8 hours after packing • The bags are packed in styrofoam boxes to which an adequate amount of frozen gel packs, ice bags or frozen water in sealed plastic bottles wrapped in old newspapers is added to keep the temperature low during transportation.
  • 27. PRODUCTION COSTS • Fry usually comprise between 15-20%of on growing costs. • In hatcheries, labour costs are 20 to 25% of the total. • Other large factors are feed (30%), followed by administrative expenses and fuel and power requirements for heater/chillers and automatic feeders. • Generally, on growing costs are lower in larger scale farms.
  • 29.
  • 30. Groupers are cultured in either ponds or cages and being euryhaline in nature • (Sim et al., 2005) INTRODUCTION They can thrive well in brackish water environments. However, they are mostly cultured in floating net cages either in the open sea or near the seaward end of estuaries
  • 31. In India, grouper culture practices are entirely supported by the supply of seeds collected from the wild (Nammalwar et al., 1998). At present, growth and development of grouper farming industry in India has been constrained by inadequate supply of juveniles for stocking.
  • 32. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION OF SEA CAGES: 1. The site for installation of sea cages was selected at a distance of about 500 m from the shore in the Bay of Bengal off Visakhapatnam 2. 8 m water depth during low tide was ensured at the site to facilitate efficient water exchange. 3. Two circular HDPE cages of 6 m inner ring and 8 m outer ring dia was fabricated and launched for stocking adult groupers MATERIALS AND METHODS All fishes were tagged for identification and to maintain the history of individual fish
  • 33. Broodstock development Groupers collected from the commercial hook and line operations BROODSTOCK DEVELOPMENT Fishes were recompressed by inserting a needle through their anal openings to relieve barotrauma stress A total 63 nos. of E. coioides were selected 9 fishes were stocked in 5 t FRP tanks 54 nos. were stocked in two 6 m dia HDPE floating cages Acclimatisation for a period of four months
  • 34. 4 fishes from tanks 20 fishes from the cages 17 α-methyl testosterone aimed at developing male brooders The fishes were fed twice a day at 5% body weight with Decapterus russelli, sardine and squids. Vitamins, cod liver oil and mineral supplements were also given twice in a week along with feed Growth of the fishes was monitored regularly by taking body weight
  • 35. INDUCED SPAWNING  For induced spawning experiment, female fish with intra-ovarian eggs of around 450 μ dia were selected.  Trials were conducted using mature females and sex reversed males in the ratio 1:1.  Followed by luteinising hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) @ 40 μg kg BW-1 after 24 h of the final HCG injection in the first two induction trials.  All trials were undertaken in FRP tanks except the last trial of induced spawning where the brooders were kept in the cage itself.
  • 36. Physicochemical parameters of the rearing water in cage and FRP tank during the experimental period
  • 37. • The survival, growth and maturity status of fishes in the experimental cages and tanks were recorded for a period of one year. • The survival rate was higher in tanks (100%) compared to cages (94.11%). • The observation from the present study that the same group of fish when stocked in cages matured within one year, indicated that open sea floating cages are better for domestication, conditioning and broodstock development of greasy groupers than indoor tanks RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 38. • The global aquaculture production of groupers has been increasing from the year 1990 onwards in which the major contributors were Taiwan and Thailand (Pierre et al., 2008). • It is well understood that only continuous supply of grouper seeds can lead to the development of grouper aquaculture in India. • The present success in the broodstock development of the greasy grouper in sea cage is a major step towards development of successful seed production technology for groupers in captivity and grouper farming in India. CONCLUSION
  • 39. • APHA 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington, D. C., p. 45. Cacot, P., Legendre, M., Dan, T. Q., Tung, L. T., Liem, P. T., Mariojouls, C. and Lazard, J. 2002. Induced ovulation of Pangasius bocourti (Sauvage, 1880) with a progressive • HCG treatment. Aquaculture, 213: 199-206. Caylor, R. E., Biesiot, P. M. and Franks, J. S. 1994. Culture of cobia (Rachycentron canadum): cryopreservation of sperm and induced spawning. Aquaculture, 125: 81– 92. Chen, F. Y., Chow, M., Chao, T. M. and Lim, R. 1977. Artificial spawning and larval rearing of the grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal) in Singapore. Singapore J. Pri. Ind., • 5:1-21. FAO 1989. Propagation of seabass, Lates calcarifer in captivity. Seafarming Development Project (Jakarta, Indonesia). REFERENCES