Ppt on depository system in india


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Ppt on depository system in india

  1. 1. Prepared by Nagabhushan nagabhushan
  2. 2. <ul><li>An effective and fully developed depository system is essential for maintaining and enhancing the effeciency of a mature capital market </li></ul>nagabhushan
  3. 3. <ul><li>Before introduction of Depository system, the problems faced by investors and corporates in handling large volume of paper were as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Bad deliveries </li></ul><ul><li>Fake certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of certificates in transit </li></ul><ul><li>Mutilation of certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Long settlement cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch of signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Delay in refund and remission of dividend etc </li></ul>nagabhushan
  4. 4. <ul><li>The first depository was set up way back in 1947 in Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>In India it is a relatively new concept introduced in 1996 with the enactment of Depositories Act 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Their operations are carried out in accordance with regulations made by SEBI ,bye-laws and rules of Depositories Act and SEBI (Depositories and Participants) Regulations Act 1996 </li></ul>nagabhushan
  5. 5. <ul><li>The term Depository means a place where a deposit of money, securities, property etc is deposited for safekeeping under the terms of depository agreement </li></ul><ul><li>A depository is an organisation, which assists in the allotment and transfer of securities and securities lending. </li></ul><ul><li>The shares here are held in the form of electronic accounts i.e dematerialised form and the depository system revolves around the concept of paper-less or scrip-less trading. </li></ul>nagabhushan
  6. 6. <ul><li>It holds the securities of the investors in the form of electronic book entries avoiding risks associated with paper </li></ul><ul><li>It is not mandatory and is left to the investor to decide </li></ul><ul><li>Depositories carry out its operations through various functionaries called business partners </li></ul>nagabhushan
  7. 7. nagabhushan
  8. 8. <ul><li>A depository system is governed by the following acts </li></ul><ul><li>Securities & Exchange Board of India Act 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>The SEBI(Depositories and Participants) Regulations, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Bye –laws of depository </li></ul><ul><li>Business rules of depository </li></ul><ul><li>The Companies Act 1956 </li></ul>nagabhushan
  9. 9. <ul><li>Presently there are two Depositories working in India: </li></ul><ul><li>National Securities Depository Limited </li></ul><ul><li>(NSDL) </li></ul><ul><li>It was registered by the SEBI on june 7 1996 as India’s first Depository to facilitate trading and settlement of securities in the demat form. It is promoted by IDBI, UTI, NSE </li></ul>nagabhushan
  10. 10. <ul><li>Central Depository Services (India) Limited (CSDL) </li></ul><ul><li>It commenced its operations during feb 1999 and was promoted by Stock Exchange Mumbai in association with Bank of Baroda, Bank of India, SBI and HDFC Bank </li></ul>nagabhushan
  11. 11. <ul><li>At present 10 Stock Exchanges are connected to the Depositories </li></ul><ul><li>NSE </li></ul><ul><li>The SE , mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>Calcutta Stock Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi SE </li></ul><ul><li>Ludhiana SE </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore SE </li></ul><ul><li>Over the counter exchange of India </li></ul><ul><li>Madras SE </li></ul><ul><li>Inter connected SE </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmedabad SE </li></ul>nagabhushan
  12. 12. <ul><li>Market trade: trade done settled through a SE and clearing corporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Off market trades: trades done privately without involvement of stock brokers and SE </li></ul><ul><li>Again investor may either choose to invest privately, through SB or DP </li></ul>nagabhushan
  13. 13. <ul><li>Depository </li></ul><ul><li>Depository Participant (DP) </li></ul><ul><li>Securities, Issuers and Registrars and Share Transfer Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Exchanges and Stock Brokers </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing Corporation/ Clearing House and Clearing Members </li></ul><ul><li>Banking system </li></ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul>nagabhushan
  14. 14. <ul><li>Depository : it is an organisation where the securities are held in electronic form and carries out the securities transaction by book entry </li></ul><ul><li>DP : DP is an agent of the depository and functions as the interacting medium between the depository and the investor </li></ul><ul><li>He should be registered with the SEBI </li></ul>nagabhushan
  15. 15. <ul><li>Must possess requisite qualifications prescribed by the concerned depository of which he is a participant </li></ul><ul><li>He is responsible for maintaining the investors’ securities a/c with the depository and handles them as per the investors written instructions </li></ul><ul><li>He is linked to a broker who trades on behalf of investors </li></ul>nagabhushan
  16. 16. <ul><li>To avail their services an account similar to a bank a/c has to be opened with the DP </li></ul><ul><li>As per SEBI Regulations , financial institutions, banks, custodians, stock brokers etc can become DP’s </li></ul><ul><li>However investors may choose DP’s of their choice and also deal with 1 or more DP;s at a time </li></ul>nagabhushan
  17. 17. <ul><li>Securities, Issuers and Registrars and Share Transfer Agents: eg: an agreement between the depository , issuer of security and the designated registrar/ share transfer agents for the underlying security in the cases of issues like transfer of securities by their beneficial owners </li></ul>nagabhushan
  18. 18. <ul><li>Stock Exchanges and Stock Brokers </li></ul><ul><li>SE is an organised market for dealings in securities commonly referred as secondary market.one of its main functions is price discovery i.e to cause prices to reflect currently avalable information about a security </li></ul><ul><li>SB are members of SE primarily engaged in 2 main activities i.e buy and sell securities for their clients charging a comm and as dealers or traders and dealers they buy and sell on their own a/c for trading gains </li></ul>nagabhushan
  19. 19. <ul><li>Clearing Corporation/ Clearing House and Clearing Members </li></ul><ul><li>A clearing corporation is a central organisation created to facilitate efficient , fast and economical settlement of transactions at a SE . it being an internal department of a SE is an independent entity </li></ul><ul><li>The members of Clearing Corporation brokerage firms, banks or other financial institutions who are called as clearing members. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:all trades done at NSE & OTCEI are settled through National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited (NSCCL) </li></ul>nagabhushan
  20. 20. <ul><li>It acts as a central mechanism for consolidating and settling transactions instead of the member firms settling each trade individually amongst themselves </li></ul>nagabhushan
  21. 21. <ul><li>Banking system </li></ul><ul><li>Depository essentially plays a dual role i.e of a depository and a limited bank </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains current a/c’s for participants and executes fund transactions relating to securities transactions for participants </li></ul>nagabhushan
  22. 22. <ul><li>Investors :may be individuals or corporates who have acquired shares either in primary market or in secondary market </li></ul>nagabhushan
  23. 23. <ul><li>Opening of depository system </li></ul><ul><li>Dematerialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Rematerialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement of trades in dematerialised securities </li></ul><ul><li>Account transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer ,transmission and transposition </li></ul>nagabhushan
  24. 24. <ul><li>Pledge and hypothecation </li></ul><ul><li>Redemption or repurchase </li></ul><ul><li>Stock lending and borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate action </li></ul><ul><li>Account freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Nomination </li></ul><ul><li>Demat of debt instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing in govt securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  25. 25. <ul><li>Opening of depository system: SEBI has made compulsory trading of shares of all the companies listed in stock exchanges in demat form w.e.f 2 nd jan 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Hence if the investor wants to trade in respect of the companies which have established connectivity with NSDL & CSDL, he may have to open a beneficiary a/c </li></ul>nagabhushan
  26. 26. <ul><li>Beneficiary a/c is an a/c opened by the investor or a broker with a DP of his choice to hold shares in demat form and undertake scripless trading </li></ul><ul><li>For opening demat a/c, the following documents are required: </li></ul><ul><li>Demat opening form duly filled </li></ul><ul><li>Address proof </li></ul><ul><li>photograph </li></ul>nagabhushan
  27. 27. <ul><li>Once a demat a/c is opened investor must sign an agreement with the DP and the investor will be allotted an account no. called as client identity </li></ul><ul><li>No minimum balance is required </li></ul><ul><li>The investor is provided with a transaction statement by his DP at regular intervals based on which the investor will know his security balances </li></ul>nagabhushan
  28. 28. <ul><li>Dematerialisation </li></ul><ul><li>It means conversion of the physical certificates into dematerialised holdings at the request of the investor </li></ul><ul><li>Only shares registered in the name of the a/c holder are accepted for dematerialisation at the depository </li></ul>nagabhushan
  29. 29. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>First open a demat a/c or security a/c with any DP of investor’s choice </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a/c no. from his DP </li></ul><ul><li>A dematerialisation request form (DRF) to be submitted to the DP who intimates depository of the request </li></ul><ul><li>DP then submits the certificate along with the DRF to the registrar who confirms the demat request </li></ul><ul><li>Registrar validates the request, updates records ,destroys the certificates and informs depository who in turn credits the DP a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Depository participant updates the investor a/c and informs the investor </li></ul>nagabhushan
  30. 30. <ul><li>Once the company is admitted into depository system, an ISIN (international securities identifiction number) is allotted by the depository. This no. is unique for each security of the company that is admitted in the depository </li></ul><ul><li>The entire process takes about 15 days time. </li></ul><ul><li>However when large no. of certificates are submitted from institutions, it takes upto 30 days for demat </li></ul>nagabhushan
  31. 31. <ul><li>An investor may demat a part of his holdings and hold the balance in physical mode for the same security </li></ul><ul><li>Demat shares are fungible because they do not have any distinctive or certificate numbers </li></ul>nagabhushan
  32. 32. <ul><li>Rematerialisation </li></ul><ul><li>It means conversion of demat holdings back into certificates </li></ul><ul><li>If the investors wish to get the securities in physical form ,all he has to do is to request DP for remat </li></ul>nagabhushan
  33. 33. <ul><li>Procedure : </li></ul><ul><li>Investor must fill up a remat request form (RRF) </li></ul><ul><li>The DP will forward the request to depository after verifying that the shareholder has the necessary balances </li></ul><ul><li>Depository will in turn intimate the registrar </li></ul><ul><li>RTA (registrar & transfer agent) will print the certificates and dispatch the same to the investor </li></ul>nagabhushan
  34. 34. <ul><li>Settlement of trades in dematerialised securities </li></ul><ul><li>The following stock exchanges have been admitted on the depository to conduct this activity </li></ul><ul><li>NSE </li></ul><ul><li>The SE , mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>Calcutta Stock Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi SE </li></ul><ul><li>Ludhiana SE </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore SE </li></ul><ul><li>Over the counter exchange of India </li></ul><ul><li>Madras SE </li></ul><ul><li>Inter connected SE </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmedabad SE </li></ul>nagabhushan
  35. 35. <ul><li>Account transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Depository gives effect to all transfers resulting from the settlement of trades and other transactions that take place between various beneficial owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Buying of securities: </li></ul><ul><li>It is similar to buying of physical securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  36. 36. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Investor purchases securities in any of the SE connected to Depository through a broker </li></ul><ul><li>Investor pays broker </li></ul><ul><li>Broker pays clearing corporation </li></ul><ul><li>On the pay – out day broker receives credit for securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  37. 37. <ul><li>He gives instructions to DP to debit clearing a/c and credit clients a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Investor receives shares into his a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Investor has to make sure that the broker transfers the securities into his a/c before the book closure </li></ul><ul><li>Or else the company may hive corporate benefits to the broker </li></ul>nagabhushan
  38. 38. <ul><li>Selling of securities: procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Investor sells securities in any SE linked to depository through a broker </li></ul><ul><li>Investor gives instruction to DP to debit his a/c and credit broker’ a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Before the pay-in day, investor’s broker transfers the securities to clearing corporation </li></ul>nagabhushan
  39. 39. <ul><li>Broker receives payment from SE </li></ul><ul><li>Investor receives payment from broker </li></ul><ul><li>Sale in demat form is similar to sale under physical mode </li></ul>nagabhushan
  40. 40. <ul><li>Transfer: </li></ul><ul><li>Depository being electronically linked to DP’s, issuer company or registrar & transfer agent and the clearing corporation of the SE, serves as an integrated set up for maintenance of investor a/c’s </li></ul><ul><li>Hence , here transfer of securities occur merely by passing book entries in the records of the depository as and when instructed by the beneficial owners </li></ul>nagabhushan
  41. 41. <ul><li>Transmission: the claimant will have to fill a TRF i.e a transmission request form supported by documents like death certificate, succession certificate etc </li></ul><ul><li>The DP after verifying that the application is genuine, will transfer securities to demat a/c of claimant </li></ul><ul><li>Demat transmission all the formalities can be completed in one go </li></ul>nagabhushan
  42. 42. <ul><li>Transposition </li></ul><ul><li>Security certificates for this purpose must be submitted along with TRF and DRF to the DP </li></ul>nagabhushan
  43. 43. <ul><li>Pledge and hypothecation </li></ul><ul><li>Depositories allow the securities placed with them to be used as collateral to secure loans and other credits </li></ul><ul><li>Pledging demat securities is easier and advantageous than pledging physical securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  44. 44. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Both borrower (pledger) and lender (pledgee) must have depository a/c’s </li></ul><ul><li>Details of securities to be pledged should be submitted by the pledger to his DP in a standard format </li></ul><ul><li>Pledgee should confirm the request through his DP </li></ul><ul><li>Once this is done, securities are pledged.then the financial transactions between pledger and pledgee are handled outside the depository system </li></ul>nagabhushan
  45. 45. <ul><li>After the loan is repaid, the borrower can request for a closure of pledge by instructing his DP </li></ul><ul><li>If the pledgee agrees , the investor may change the securities offered in a pledge. </li></ul>nagabhushan
  46. 46. <ul><li>Redemption or repurchase </li></ul><ul><li>This occurs when the securities are surrendered to the issuer either on maturity or in pursuance of an option given by the issuer , in lieu of agreed consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>The consideration may be in cash or new securities in lieu of existing securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  47. 47. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>RRF (repurchase request form) is used instead of remat RF </li></ul><ul><li>Client may be paid in cash or new securities in lieu of existing securities </li></ul>nagabhushan
  48. 48. <ul><li>Stock lending and borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>It involves lending and borrowing of securities under an approved scheme </li></ul><ul><li>It is executed through approved intermediaries duly registered with SEBI under the securities lending act 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries may deal in a depository system only through a special a/c known as intermediary a/c opened with a participant </li></ul>nagabhushan
  49. 49. <ul><li>Corporate action </li></ul>nagabhushan
  50. 50. <ul><li>Nomination </li></ul><ul><li>Like shares in physical form, shares in electronic form also can be nominated </li></ul><ul><li>Nomination can be made only by individuals holding beneficiary a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Minor can nominate only through guardian </li></ul><ul><li>It can be made demat a/c wise and not security wise </li></ul>nagabhushan
  51. 51. nagabhushan
  52. 52. <ul><li>Demat of debt instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Debt instruments can also be held in demat form </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments like bonds, debentures, CP’s, CD’s </li></ul><ul><li>From oct 31 st 2001, RBI has mentioned that banks and financial institutions shall make investment in deb and bonds only in demat form </li></ul>nagabhushan
  53. 53. <ul><li>Investor need not open separate demat a/c for demat of debt or instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure for demat of debt instruments is same as that of equity shares </li></ul><ul><li>The investor has to ensure that before the certificates are handed over to the DP for demat, he marks ‘surrendered for dematerialisation’ on the face of the certificates </li></ul>nagabhushan
  54. 54. <ul><li>Dealing in govt securities </li></ul><ul><li>A subscriber to govt securities who opts for SGL securities may open an SGL a/c with RBI or any other approved entity on its own a/c are held in SGL 1 a/c and investments held on a/c of other clients are held in SGL 2 a/c </li></ul>nagabhushan
  55. 55. <ul><li>To ensure safety to the investors the following measures are existing: </li></ul><ul><li>DP cannot effect any debit or credit in the demat a/c of the investor the valid authorisation of the investor </li></ul><ul><li>Regular reconciliation between DP and depositories </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic inspection by depositories of the office of DP and registrar ( RTA) </li></ul>nagabhushan
  56. 56. <ul><li>All investors have a right to receive their statement of a/c’s periodically from the DP </li></ul><ul><li>If the depository goes bankrupt, the creditors of the DP will have no access to the holdings in the name of the clients of the DP. Such investors may however transfer their holdings to another DP </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory internal audit of operations of DP by practicing Chartered Accountant every quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to be taken for safe keeping and back up of data at all levels </li></ul>nagabhushan
  57. 57. <ul><li>To the nation: </li></ul><ul><li>Growing and more liquid markets </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in competitiveness in the international market place attracting many investors </li></ul><ul><li>Improved prospects for privatisation of public sector units by creating a conducive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable reduction in delay </li></ul><ul><li>Minimises settlement risk and fraud restoring investors’ faith in the capital markets </li></ul>nagabhushan
  58. 58. <ul><li>To the investing public </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of risks associated with loss, mutilation, theft and forgery of physical scrip </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of financial loss from loss of physical scrip </li></ul><ul><li>Greater liquidity from speedier settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in delays in registration </li></ul><ul><li>Faster receipt of corporate benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced transaction costs through greater efficiency </li></ul>nagabhushan
  59. 59. <ul><li>To issuers: </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date knowledge of shareholders’ names and addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in printing and distribution costs of new issues </li></ul><ul><li>Easy transfer of corporate benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ability to attract international investors without having to incur expenditure of issuance in overseas markets </li></ul>nagabhushan
  60. 60. nagabhushan