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Classical conditioning theory

K
Kavitha R

Classical conditioning refers to learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally produces a behaviour. After the association is learned, the previously neutral stimulus is sufficient to produce the behaviour.

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CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
THEORY
PEDODONTICS AND
PREVENTIVE
DENTISTRY
KAVITHA.R
4TH YEAR
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Experiment
 Example
 Principles
 Components of classical conditioning theory
 Dental application
 Merits and demerits
 Reference
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY
This theory was first described by the
Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov in 1927.
He discovered during his studies of
reflexes that apparently un associated
stimuli could produce the reflexive
PRINCIPLES
Acquisition
Generalization
Extinction
Discrimination
Learning a new response from the environment
by conditioning
It is the act or process of responding to a stimulus
similar to but distinct from the conditioned stimulus
Removal of conditioned behaviour results if the
association between the conditioned and the
unconditioned response is not reinforced.
It is the opposite of generalization i.e. Differentiating
from each stimulus
Classical conditioning theory
Classical conditioning theory
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Classical conditioning theory

  • 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Experiment  Example  Principles  Components of classical conditioning theory  Dental application  Merits and demerits  Reference
  • 3. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY This theory was first described by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov in 1927. He discovered during his studies of reflexes that apparently un associated stimuli could produce the reflexive
  • 4. PRINCIPLES Acquisition Generalization Extinction Discrimination Learning a new response from the environment by conditioning It is the act or process of responding to a stimulus similar to but distinct from the conditioned stimulus Removal of conditioned behaviour results if the association between the conditioned and the unconditioned response is not reinforced. It is the opposite of generalization i.e. Differentiating from each stimulus
  • 8. EXAMPLES Acquisition Salivation in response to bell sound Generalization Salivation in response to similar sound of bell Extinction Any change in the sound of the bell may lead to delay in response Discrimination Differentiating from the sound of bell and music
  • 9. Unconditioned stimulus o It is defined as a stimulus that elicits unconditioned response as in withdrawal from hot radiator, contraction of pupil on exposure to light. It evokes a response without the organism going through any previous learning occurring naturally.  Eg-Smell of food  Evokes response and cause automatic reflex. Unconditioned response o An unconditioned response is a response that is reflexive and involuntary in nature which is reliably induced every time an organism comes across to biologically significant stimuli.  Eg- Salivation  Automatically happens and continuously thinking about that.
  • 10. Conditioned response o A conditioned response is a behaviour arising from a learned response towards a previously neutral stimuli  Eg-Salivation in response to bell  Reflex that you have learnt Conditioned stimulus o It is a even that produces an involuntary response that after repeated being paired with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicit that behaviour  Eg-Bell sound  Created by learning and no response is obtained
  • 11. DENTAL APPLICATION:  A young child is exposed to an initial stimulus like sound of the handpiece which produces anxiety. This is an unconditioned reflex. When the sound of the handpiece was coupled with dentist who was the neutral stimulus, it again produced an unconditioned reflex of anxiety. - Later when dentist was presented alone, it also produced a conditioned response of anxiety
  • 12.  Classical conditioning occurs readily with young children and has considerable impact on them on first dental visit. By the time a child is brought for the first visit to a dentist, it is highly likely that the child would have had many experiences with other doctors.
  • 13.  When child experiences pain, reflex reaction is crying and withdrawal.  In Pavlovian terms, the infliction of pain is unconditioned stimulus.  For instance, it is unusual for a child to encounter people who are dressed entirely in white uniforms or long white coats.
  • 16.  If the unconditioned stimulus of painful treatment comes to be associated with the conditioned stimulus of white coats, a child may cry and withdraw immediately at the first sight of a white coated adult.  Later, the mere sight of the white coat is enough to produce the reflex behavior initially associated with pain.  If individual in white coats are the ones who give painful injections that cause crying, the sight of an individual in white coat soon may provoke an outburst of crying
  • 17. MERITS & DEMERITS OF CLASIICAL CONDITIONED THEORY MERITS DEMERITS A strength of classical theory is that it is scientific Classical conditioning emphasizes the importance of learning from the environment and support nurture over nature based on empirical evidence carried out by controlled experiments Final criticism of classical conditioning theory that it is deterministic Conditioning is also a reductionist explanation of behaviour Does not allow any free will in the individual Complex behaviour is broken down into smaller stimulus