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  • Low Glycemic Index Diet ( GI Diet ) - GI stands for Glycemic Index and is a measure of the impact of food on your blood sugar.
  • Rest With The: Identify and validate nutrigenetic, nutritional epigenetic & transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers of effect and susceptibility Effective communication about “omics” information to the health care community and consumers Ability to work within a responsible bioethical framework
  • $140 Billion current global market. Skeptics suggest nutrigenomics for Rich world activity and not global issue Adds confusion to already complex public health approaches Shifts investments from other challenges: inequalities, etc. Ethical Minefield
  • about how the kits not only test for disease but also serve as tools for customizing medicine, vitamins, and foods to each individual's genetic makeup.
  • Neutrigenomics

    1. 1. NUTRIGENOMICS Kavisa Ghosh
    2. 2. Hippocrates Proclaimed almost 2500 years ago: Let thy food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food
    3. 5. Nutrigenomics is the study of the effect of genetic variation on the interaction between diet and health You can do something about your diet, but you cannot pick your parents…
    4. 6. Goal Improving health and preventing diseases through tailored diet and lifestyle prescriptions.
    5. 8. Nutrigenomics Genomics Transcriptomics Proteomics Metabolomics
    6. 9. Nutrigenomics & Nutrigenetics: Two Sides of a Coin
    7. 10. Nutrigenomics Vs. Nutrigenetics <ul><li>Nutrigenomics </li></ul><ul><li>Its the application of genomics in nutritional research. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The way in which food/ food ingredients influence the gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrigenetics </li></ul><ul><li>study of individual differences at the genetic level influencing diet response. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences may be at the level of SNPs than at gene level. </li></ul>
    8. 11. Nutrigenomics Vs. Nutrigenetics <ul><li>Nutrigenomics </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the effect of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrigenetics </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on gene variants responsible for differential responses to nutrients. </li></ul>
    9. 12. Nutrigenomics can be used as : • mechanisms underlying the beneficial or adverse effects of nutrient or diet • identify important genes, proteins or metabolites , act as molecular biomarkers • identify and characterize pathways of gene regulation.
    10. 13. Advances in molecular biology have made it possible for nutrition to undergo a revolution.
    11. 15. <ul><li>Transcriptomic analysis in nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Some studies are done. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Breakfast rich in proteins or </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>High and low GI-diet </li></ul>
    12. 16. Proteomics <ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>2D electrophoresis </li></ul><ul><li>HPLC </li></ul><ul><li>Mass spectrometry </li></ul><ul><li>enzyme digestion </li></ul><ul><li>microarray </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of post-translational modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of protein-protein interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma proteomics </li></ul>
    13. 17. <ul><li>Proteomics in nutrition research </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Zn-deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Flavonoids and colon cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Genistein and endothelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma proteomics </li></ul><ul><li>Milk proteomics </li></ul>
    14. 18. Metabolomics <ul><li>Spectra of metabolites and nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>NMR </li></ul><ul><li>GC/HPLC-MS </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of substances </li></ul><ul><li>standard libraries (PubChem) </li></ul>
    15. 20. The future of Nutrigenomics?
    16. 23. Appeal for Nutrigenomics <ul><li>Individualized/targeted approach </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Hi-technological Approach </li></ul><ul><li>New Market Niches </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for capital investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeptics </li></ul><ul><li>complexity between diet and public health </li></ul><ul><li>create more inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>ethical minefield </li></ul>
    17. 24. Potential Benefits <ul><li>Increased focus on healthy diet and lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate positive behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of risk for certain conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health and quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased morbidity and premature mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced health care costs </li></ul>
    18. 25. Potential Harms <ul><li>modifiable risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>decreased use of other services </li></ul><ul><li>false sense of security </li></ul><ul><li>focus on specific nutrients/foods </li></ul><ul><li>ineffective or harmful </li></ul><ul><li>misleading claims </li></ul><ul><li>personalized diets and designer foods </li></ul><ul><li>confidentiality, insurance concerns </li></ul>
    19. 26. Nutrigenomic Testing Promises versus Reality! <ul><li>Commercial Nutrition-Gene </li></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genelex Sciona 19 genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$395 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene Care CVD nutritional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic test $400 </li></ul></ul>
    20. 27. On the internet
    21. 28. It is to help shoppers understand what they can do in their daily food choices to either maintain their good health or help correct certain genetic defects that the test may have identified.
    22. 29. <ul><li>Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not </li></ul><ul><li>regulate. </li></ul><ul><li>handful of companies have started marketing test </li></ul><ul><li>kits </li></ul><ul><li>dubious claims made </li></ul><ul><li>wastage of money </li></ul>Why the Concern?
    23. 30. Thank You