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  1. 1. Basic Measurement UnitsLight of speed in vacuum c=2.99792x108m/s1light year 9.4605x1015mMass of earth M =5.9736x1024kgAcceleration m/s2Volume m3Density kg/m3Temperature Kelvin=0 k=-273.15 oCAstronomical(AU) =149598000kmunit
  2. 2. Physical properties of Jupiter Jupiter Orbital radius(AU) 5.2 Orbital period(year) 11.9 Orbital velocity(km/s) 13.1 Mass(kg) 1.8987x1027 Equatorial 143 diameter(1000km) Density(g/cm3) 1.326 Rotational period(hours) 9.9 Obliquity(degrees) 3.1 Surface gravity(m/s2) 25.1 Escape velocity(km/s) 60.2 Orbital eccentricity 0.048 No. of moons 64known moons Eccentricity 0.04839266
  3. 3. Ancient astronomers didn’t have telescopes, but they knew there was something strange about the planets. They tracked the motion of the planets with incredible accuracy and believed that they were somehow associated with gods in their mythologies. Jupiter is named after the Roman god, thought to be the head of the gods; he’s the same as Zeus in Greek mythology.when Galileo pointed his first rudimentary telescope at Jupiter. What he saw was the disk of Jupiter and the 4 largest moons orbiting the planet. Since all the heavenly bodies were thought to orbit the Earth, it was thought to be impossible for objects to orbit one another.
  4. 4. Jupiter’s Great Red SpotThe Great Red Spotis a huge stormmeasuring 12,000 by25,000 km (7,500 by15,500 miles), whichis big enough to holdtwo Earths side byside. While Jupiterscloud patterns canchange within hoursor days like on Earth,the Spot has lastedfor over 300 years.
  5. 5. Mystery of storms in Jupiter
  6. 6. Magnetic Powerhouse - Jupiter At very high pressures inside Jupiter, hydrogen begins to act like a liquid metal This provides an electrically conducting fluid in which a magnetic field is generated. Jupiters magnetic field is inclined 10o to its rotation axis, an orientation similar too Earth’s, but its axis is displaced about a tenth of a radius from the planet’s center. The total strength of Jupiter’s magnetic field is nearly 20,000 times that of Earth’s.
  7. 7. Magnetic Powerhouse - Jupiter
  8. 8. Are there any seasons in Jupiter There is almost no seasons in Jupiter. This is due to 3 degree inclination. As the inclination of its equatorial plane to its orbital plane called obliquity.
  9. 9. JUPITER MAGNETOSPHERER PRODUCE SYNCHROTORN RADITAIONRapidly moving ELECTRONS IN Jupiter magnetosphere spiral around the direction of magnetic field, and as they do so they emit synchrotron radiation. To emit synchrotron radiation electrons have to spiral to nearly speed of light. To listen synchrotron radiation you can take radio and the charrrrr…. When the radio doesn’t catch any frequency that voice contain 10 % of synchrotron radiation coming from different cosmos.
  11. 11. Radiation BeltsThe fast moving charged particles slam into neutral atoms in magnetosphere of Jupiter, and the energy released in the resulting high- speed collision heats the plasma to extreme temp. The temperature of plasma is over 300 Kelvins : 20times the temperature at the center of the Sun! The density of plasma (around 10,000atoms/m3) was much lower than the vacuum we can produce on Earth. This situation was encountered by Voyager1.
  12. 12. Io’s Plasma TorusThe most intense radiation belt in the solar system is a toroidal ring of plasma associated with Io, the innermost of Jupiters four Galilean moons. Because of its low surface gravity violence of volcanism, some of the gases erupting from its interior can escape moon and can become the part of Jupiter’s radiation belt.
  13. 13. Io’s Flux tubeJupiter’s auroras have an added twist that we do not see on Earth , however. As Jupiters magnetic field sweeps past Io, it behave like a dynamo, generating an electric potential of 4000,000 volts. Electrons accelerate by this enormous electric field spiral along the direction of Jupiter’s magnetic field. This result in magnetic channel, called a flux tube.
  14. 14. Moons of Jupiter There are 64 known moos of Jupiter . The first person to view them throw a telescope was Galileo Galilei so they were named as Galilean moons. They are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
  15. 15. • Europa or Jupiter II, is the sixth closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. Slightly smaller than Earths Moon, Europa is primarily made of silicate rock and probably has an iron core. It has a tenuous atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen. Its surface is composed of ice and is one of the smoothest in the Solar System. It is believed that beneath the surface there is liquid water and life is also possible.
  16. 16. Callisto