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Case study on amazon.com

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This case study report is detail analysis of Amazon.com. The report describes the List of areas that
it has been working, the business models it has adopted and the various strategies that it has
implemented to make it one of the most successful E-commerce platform. This case study reflects
that using the strategies and model adopted by Amazon's can leads any other E-commerce site to get
successful. This case study also shows that how the different models and strategies must be
implemented with respect to the dynamic environment of the E-commerce.

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Case study on amazon.com

  1. 1. Lumbini ICT College Gaindakot-2, Nawalparasi Nepal Case Study of E-Commerce on Submitted by : Kaushik Raj Panta Roshan Sharma Department of Bachelor in Computer Science and Information Technology (Bsc CSIT) of Lumbini ICT College 4th February 2017
  2. 2. Abstract Amazon.com, often simply Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company and the largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales and market capitalization which has been serving worldwide from last two decades. The founders vision was to build a virtual shopping place for book lovers. Amazon.com brings the world largest book store to the door step of the people around the world. All people has to do is search and select the desired book. It took 30 day to deliver books to the customers of 50 states and 45 countries. Amazon.com was a huge success in nineties. Amazon.com became a platform for the retailer and individuals in 2000.Amazon.com offers their services towards four types of customers, consumers, sellers, enterprises and content creators. This case study report is detail analysis of Amazon.com. The report describes the List of areas that it has been working, the business models it has adopted and the various strategies that it has implemented to make it one of the most successful E-commerce platform. This case study reflects that using the strategies and model adopted by Amazon's can leads any other E-commerce site to get successful. This case study also shows that how the different models and strategies must be implemented with respect to the dynamic environment of the E-commerce. To gather such information on Amazon's we use the informal way like as reading the articles and other case study documents and pointed out some key points and finally we visited to the Amazon.com to verify the finding as as well as to discover more that we might have been missing. After doing the sort of analysis, we tends to find that Amazon is totally uses the Business to Customer Model. Amazon totally rely on the customer and customer satisfaction is its primary goal. Amazon handle its better relationship with customer by using CRM such as collecting information of the customer like as all personal information of customers their credit card record, transaction record, order record, profile, their past purchase history are collected in the database. Using of CRM, Amazon provides sort of advantages to the customer like as Personalization, User ratings and reviews, 1 click purchase, secure way for payment, minimum shipping charge, etc. Not only this Amazon.com carries out some of Associate programs to boost the customer traffic and rate of sale Amazon.com with customers and small businessman. Developing and offering new products to gain higher revenues is the goal of this intensive growth strategy. Amazon grows partly by developing new products over time. On the part of conclusion we conclude that Amazon.com uses Business to Customer Model for its better growth. Amazon mainly focuses on the customer satisfaction by providing the various ways to ensure that like as personalization, user ratings and reviews, minimum shipping charge which act as the key ingredients for success of Amazon.com. But still Amazon have to do some change on its system like as Global Expansion, Integrating on New Technologies, Innovation of New products. I
  3. 3. Table of Contents Abstract I Table of Contents II List of Figures III 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. Objective 1 2. Methodology 2 3. Analysis 3 3.1 Lines of Business 4 3.2 Business Models 5 3.3 E commerce Strategies 5 3.3.1 Generic Strategy(PORTERs Model) 5 3.3.2 Intensive Strategies (Intensive Growth Strategies) 6 3.3.3 User Reference Strategies 7 3.3.4 Supply Chain Management (SCM) Strategies 10 4. Discussion 12 5. Recommendations 13 6. Conclusions 14 7. References 15 II
  4. 4. List of Figures (a) Fig 0 : Logo of Amazon.com (b) Fig 1 : Porters Model (c) Fig 2 : Personalize the Shopping Experience (d) Fig 3 : Making a Breeze Search (e) Fig 4 : Customer Review III
  5. 5. 1. Introduction : 1.1 Background For the last two decade Amazon.com has been serving customer worldwide. Amazon.com, often simply Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company, founded on July 5, 1994, by Jeff Bezos and based in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales and market capitalization. Amazon started as an online bookstore, later diversifying to sell DVDs, Blu-rays, CD s, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audio book downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics— notably, Amazon Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, and Fire TV—and is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services (IaaS). In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization, and is, as of 2016 Q3, the fourth most valuable public company. Fig 0 : Logo of Amazon.com 1.2. Objective : Following are the objectives of this case study : (a) Identifying the Line of Business of Amazon.com (b) Identifying the types of Business models used by Amazon.com for expanding its E- commerce Business (c) Identifying the list of E - commerce Strategies deployed by the Amazon.com regarding its intensive growth, generic strategies and user referenced. (d) Identifying Supply Chain Management (SCM) Strategies and how such strategies are implemented. (e) Identifying what are the more steps to be taken by Amazon.com in coming future. 2
  6. 6. 2. Methodology Since Amazon.com is an intentional E-commerce website for selling and buying goods and products so it is not possible to interview the developer and it is also not possible to interview the users because it is not available in our country. So we basically uses informal way for carrying out our case study with following steps to gather the information : a) First of all we read the available paper and documents of case study on Amazon.com done by others and noted some key points such as Areas of Business, Adopted Strategies, Adopted Business Models, etc. b) We too watched some videos based on customer and merchant reviews as well as videos explaining the working of Amazon.com and its Strategies. c) Finally We validate gathered information from the Amazon.com website and also target for getting more information regarding the services it provides currently, how it maintains its supply chain, etc. 3
  7. 7. 3. Analysis : Known best as the largest internet retailer in the world, Amazon.com is not a simple case study in terms of business model analysis. Even if we begin by looking at it's consumer retail business, it quickly becomes clear that the company is anything but a traditional retailer. While Amazon does sell products at a standard mark-up, it has also pioneered alternate retail strategies by acting as the gateway for other retailers and a very robust marketplace for used goods. But retail is only part of the picture when it comes to Amazon.com. 3.1 . Lines of Business The company itself defines its lines of business in terms of product sales, service sales, AWS, fulfillment, publishing, digital content subscriptions, advertising, and co-branded credit cards. For our purposes, I'll define Amazon's lines of businesses as : a) Online Retail : The online retail line of business includes those products sold by Amazon as a traditional retailer, most commonly as a low-cost retailer. Amazon claims to have "Earth's Biggest Selection" of products available through its family of websites, sold at the lowest cost at a small profit. The company started as an online book seller, rapidly expanding into music and movies, and ultimately into electronics and household goods. But Amazon doesn't stock everything that is sold through its website. Another part of its retail strategy is to serve as the channel for other retailers to sell their products and taking a cut of every purchase. Amazon maintains its status as a destination website, but does not have to maintain inventory on slower-selling products. This strategy has made Amazon a leading long-tail retailer, expanding its available selection without a corresponding increase in overhead costs. Extending this long tail retail model further, Amazon introduced the sale of used products through its seller marketplace. Originally developed to compete with eBay, the seller marketplace provides another retail revenue stream for the company without the need to stock products in its warehouses. Advertising and shipping are handled exclusively by sellers, with Amazon taking a cut of every sale simply for providing the channel. b) Internet Services : Amazon's Internet services cannot easily be discussed as a standalone line of business because it is deeply intertwined with both its retail business and the Kindle ecosystem. From the consumer perspective, Amazon has begun to provide services like Amazon Prime, which provides free two-day shipping on retail purchases, on-demand video streaming, and free access to the Kindle library, all for an annual fee. Amazon Prime overlays the subscription and all you can eat business models with the retail model to provide additional customer value. Unknown to most Amazon customers, however, are the other Internet services provided by Amazon, referred to as AWS (Amazon Web Services). Originally developed as a side business, Amazon decided to lease out its own server space to other companies and individuals. While not a core part of the company's strategy, Amazon found itself managing a large number of servers and Internet services, and it was a fairly small effort to manage those services for others. c) Kindle Ecosystem : Amazon has expanded its business into manufacturing and distributing the family of Kindle tablets. Originally designed as an electronic book reader (supplementing its online book seller business), the Kindle has become a fully functional tablet and media device. With the Kindle, Amazon serves as both manufacturer and traditional retailer (and also wholesaler by selling the device through other retailers). While the company does not admit as much, it is assumed that the Kindle devices are sold at a loss, which would more correctly put this line of business into the razors & 3
  8. 8. blades category of business model. By selling the hardware at a loss, Amazon is betting that customers will purchase enough electronic books, games, and videos to justify the initial loss. 3.2 . Business Models : Amazon has three distinct businesses, plus a slew of nascent enterprises and developing opportunities : a) Amazon Retail Starting in books and then expanding into electrical and other goods, Amazon built an online retail business around three aims: ➢ Best prices: Amazon products are generally offered at a discount, a steep discount in the case of books. ➢ Unrivaled selection: Amazon often has the largest selection of goods in a particular category, especially books (outside S/H marketplaces like Abebooks). ➢ Convenience: Amazon focus on the customer and try make purchasing an enjoyable experience, offering:  An attractive, easy-to-use customer interface (which evolved through many trials).  Fast and reliable delivery from vast, fully automated warehouses, first located in strategic spots in the US but increasingly worldwide.  A no-nonsense returns policy.  Reviews by customers of the product.  Purchase suggestions based on previous purchases and web page viewing (an example of Real time systems). b) Amazon Marketplace Amazon also offers a third-party selling platform, Amazon marketplace, that allows merchants to offer goods and services through an online shopping mall. Amazon charges a commission based on a formula involving the sale price of the item, a shipping credit, a referral fee of 6-25% of the sale price, a variable closing fee and a $0.99 fixed closing fee. This has now been augmented or replaced by four comparable services:  Sell on Amazon : Merchants pay $39.99 per month, plus a commission varying as above, generally between 15% and $1.35 per item.  Amazon Webstore : More complete service. Merchants pay $24 per month plus 2% of sales.  Checkout by Amazon : Similar to PayPal and Google Checkouts, but needs to integrated into shopping cart.  Fulfillment by Amazon : Allows merchants to use Amazon's advanced fulfillment technology. The services are being expanded from USA, Canada, UK and Germany to other countries. Amazon does not release information on these businesses, either revenues or usage levels. c) Amazon Web Services Amazon leveraged the technology it developed in retails to offer an increasing number of web services : 1. Computer- Related • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud • Amazon Elastic MapReduce • Auto Scaling 4
  9. 9. 2. Content Delivery • Amazon CloudFront 3. Database • Amazon SimpleDB • Amazon Relational Database Services 4. Deployment & Management • AWS Elastic BealStalk • AWS CloudFormation 5. E-Commerce • Amazon Fulfillment Web Service 6. Messaging • Amazon Simple Queue Services • Amazon Simple Notification Services • Amazon Simple Email Service 7. Monitoring • Amazon CloudWatch 8. Networking • Amazon Route 53 • Amazon Cirtual Cloud • Elastic Load Balancing 9. Payment & Billing • Amazon Flexible Payment Services • Amazon DevPay 10. Storage • Amazon Simple Storage Services • Amazon Elastic Block Storage • AWS Import/Export 11. Support • AWS Premium Support Web • Traffic Alexa Web Information Services • Alexa Top Sites 12. Workforce ◦ Amazon Mechanical Turk 3.3. E - commerce Strategies : 3.3.1. Amazon.com’s Generic Strategy(PORTERs Model) : Amazon’s generic competitive strategy enables the e-commerce business to offer goods and services at affordable rates. Amazon uses cost leadership as its generic strategy for competitive advantage. Minimization of operational costs is the objective in this generic competitive strategy. For example, Amazon.com uses advanced computing and networking technologies for maximum operational efficiency, which translates to minimized costs. Considering the nature of e-commerce, the company benefits from process automation, which is generally used in purchase processing, scheduling, and other operational processes. These benefits enable Amazon.com Inc. to minimize the cost of its online retail and other services. 5
  10. 10. Fig 1 : Porters Model A strategic objective linked to Amazon’s cost leadership generic strategy is to build e-commerce competitive advantage through continuous improvement of information technology infrastructure. In relation, the company also has the strategic objective of heavily investing in research and development (R&D) to optimize the performance of its IT resources. In addition, the cost leadership generic competitive strategy pushes Amazon.com Inc. to minimize its price levels. This strategic objective impacts Amazon’s marketing mix. The low prices are significant in attracting consumers. Thus, through the generic strategy of cost leadership, competitive advantage is gained to support the fulfillment of Amazon.com Inc.’s mission statement and vision statement, especially with regard to online retail global growth and leadership. 3.3.2 . Amazon.com’s Intensive Strategies (Intensive Growth Strategies) : a) Market Development. Amazon uses market development as its current primary intensive growth strategy. Entry and growth in new markets is the main objective in this intensive strategy. Amazon.com Inc. adds new countries where it offers its services. For example, the company initially provided its online retail services to consumers in the United States. Amazon now operates e-commerce websites in more than 10 countries, including Canada, the United Kingdom, China and India. Each new country is considered a new market that creates growth opportunities for the firm. Amazon’s generic strategy builds competitive advantage that allows the company to implement this intensive strategy of market development. A strategic objective related to this intensive growth strategy is for 6
  11. 11. Amazon.com to establish new online retail websites that correspond to new countries added to the company’s global market reach. b) Market Penetration. Market penetration is a secondary intensive growth strategy in Amazon’s online retail business. The objective of this intensive strategy is to generate more revenues from the markets where the company currently operates. Amazon.com grows with increasing consumerism. For example, as consumers develop increasing interest in online retail, the company benefits from higher sales revenues, especially when considering the popularity of the Amazon brand. Market penetration is responsible for the initial rapid growth of Amazon.com Inc. in the United States. The company’s generic strategy creates the competitive advantage necessary to penetrate markets based on low costs and prices. A strategic objective based on this intensive growth strategy is to implement an aggressive marketing campaign to attract more consumers to Amazon’s e-commerce website. c) Product Development. Amazon.com Inc. applies product development as a supporting intensive strategy for business growth. Developing and offering new products to gain higher revenues is the goal of this intensive growth strategy. Amazon grows partly by developing new products over time. For example, the company now offers Amazon Basics products and Amazon Web Services (AWS). The company’s cost leadership generic strategy supports this intensive strategy by providing the company with low-cost business processes to introduce new products. A strategic objective related to this intensive growth strategy is to increase research and development (R&D) investment for rapid product development and release to the online retail market. d) Diversification. Diversification is the least significant among Amazon’s intensive growth strategies. Growth based on new business is the objective in applying this intensive strategy. For example, Amazon grew through its acquisition of Audible, which is a producer of audio books and related products. In this regard, the company partly uses acquisition to implement this intensive growth strategy. Amazon.com Inc.’s cost leadership generic strategy enables the organization to grow in diversification by applying the same approaches to minimize operating costs and selling prices. A strategic objective associated with this intensive strategy is to grow the e-commerce business through an aggressive acquisition strategy. e) Customer Relation Management Strategy : When a customer first enter into Amazon.com he/she is provided “ Featured Product “ by the website, But when the customer visit for the second time the recommender system automatically provide products by studying customer interests and personality. Customer acquisition and retention has been the most priority to Amazon.com s strategy. Through web site Amazon maintain sophisticated communication‟ that automates the process of creating value for the customer. f) Associate Program : To boost the customer traffic and rate of sale Amazon.com started a associate program with customers and small businessman. Approximately 200,000 websites have enrolled in the associate program. 3.3.3. Amazon’s User Reference Strategies: a) Personalize the Shopping Experience : 7
  12. 12. One thing that Amazon does very well is personalizing the shopping experience to each user. Going to Amazon’s homepage you’ll see different sections such as “Related to Items You’ve Fig 2 : Personalize the Shopping Experience Viewed,” “Inspired by Your Shopping Trends,” Recommendations for You in..,” etc. Amazon knows that the more relevant the product is to the user the more likely users will purchase. Online retailers can learn from Amazon and personalize the shopping experience as much as possible. This may be easier said than done but many common E-commerce platforms offer 3rd party addons to provide similar functionality. An easier alternative involves showing users recently viewed products. While it might not be as fancy as Amazon’s elaborate personalization strategy, it’s a simple way to personalize the shopping experience while improving the average order value. b) Make Searching a Breeze The search bar can have a significant impact on the user experience, especially for larger online retailers with many products. The faster a user can find their desired product the more likely it is that the user will purchase. Amazon makes searching a breeze by automatically suggesting popular products and categories. Other e commerce websites can use this tactic to drive users straight to the product pages and improve conversion rates. Fig 3 : Making a Breeze Search 8
  13. 13. c) Onsite product reviews Extensive online product research has become a crucial part of the buying process for consumers: a whopping 88% of consumers reportedly research products online before purchasing. The online shopper’s attention span is short, and if they go off-site to search for product reviews, there’s a good chance they won’t return. Additionally, including product reviews on-site might be effective in attracting the customers of your competition. Fig 4 : Customer Review Clearly displaying product reviews can significantly improve the conversion rate of a product page. Amazon also leverages email to solicit reviews from customers. This trick can help other online retailers build social proof for products and boost sales. d) Free or Minimum shipping Charge Reducing the cost of Shipping can boost up the customer. In other words, the number one reason why more than half of your consumers aren’t converting is based solely on the cost of shipping. It's not always easy or cheap to offer free shipping to customers, but ultimately it can be a financially effective decision. A simple way to do this without losing profit is to pinpoint your average order value and average shipping costs, and offer free shipping on a minimum purchase amount that covers your average shipping cost and provides enough profit to increase your average order value. e) 1-click purchase: Amazon brings 1 click ordering, personalized shopping services and easy to use card transaction, e-mail communication with customers and direct shipping around the world. Customer with previously activated functionality can order items clicking only one button without fulfilling order form. Amazon’s secured server automatically provide the information required for the registered customer. f) Secure Credit/debit card payment: For secure transaction Amazon.com use secured server software. Customer’s personal information, credit card number and everything is encrypted in order to secure information over Internet. g) Customer Care : “If you do build a great experience, customer tells each other about that. Word to mouth is very powerful” - Jeffry p. Bezos 9
  14. 14. One of the success factors of Amazon.com is word of mouth. Because of excellent customer service customers trusted Amazon. They used to talk about Amazon.com to other. This spread rapidly by creating increasing traffic on the web site. 3.3.4. Supply Chain Management (SCM) Strategies: For the huge success by 2004 the “Supply Chain System” played a huge role. In 2000 amazon spent good amount in order to build automated warehouse and automated supply chain management. All the supply chain activities are controlled by CRM system. a) Enterprise Resource Management (ERP System): Amazon uses oracle as the ERP. It has huge database which hold information related to customer. Customer s ordering process is‟ automated as the order is taken as it automatically find the nearest distributing center for the delivery. This system fastens the order fulfillment process with the order tracking and reduces any distribution mistakes. By this system the company reduced 50% of its customer service contacts since 1999 because of fewer mistakes. b) Customer Relation Management (CRM) : In order to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty Amazon use Customer Relationship Management system (CRM). CRM system follows the following application to collect information of the customer. All personal information of customers their credit card record, transaction record, order record, profile, their past purchase history are collected in the database. The order processing system takes care of the transaction record with secured transaction method and it delivers instruction to the delivery system for the execution of shipment. Through customer feedback, customer interest, wish list, product reviews web page system collect customer information. Automated communication is ensured with customers through e-mail and massage systems and order information systems. With the CRM system amazon successfully integrates customer sales, services and communication. c) How amazon implement CRM ? Amazon has extensive implementation of customer relationship management. Each and every customers are taken in account in Amazon.com. i. Customer Selection : Customer selection part through Amazon.com website has given amazon a extra benefit in order to boost their business. Amazon uses numerous methods to select customer by knowing their customer behavior. Amazon s early target was people who love books.‟ But days its target market is vast and challenging. ii. Customer Acquisition : a) Customer account : Every customer buying through amazon.com has his/her profile in amazon website. Amazon.com creates a database to store the account, information of the customer, credit/debit account. Through the customer account amazon knows about the customer, their personality and last of all can satisfy them. b) Wish List, review system : Amazon always encourage customer to add favorite items to the wish list. This helps amazon to know better about the customer. Product review by customer not only be help customers to find and select product but also acts as direct marketing event for Amazon.com. Amazon allows making connection in between the customer, communicating and viewing their interest help to amazon to gain customer trust and initiate world of mouth. In the first 3 month of 2000, amazon acquired 3 million new customers without any investment.To satisfy customer amazon uses information acquired through customer account, wish list etc. Amazon brought number of system to satisfy customer. 1-click ordering has been an 10
  15. 15. excellent system innovated by amazon which revenue less than 20 sec to enable purchase. c) Customer Retention: Amazon.com emphasizes customer retention over just acquisition. An analysis shows 40% of amazon s customers are frequent users. This‟ indicates customer always come back to purchase product in Amazon.com. Amazon does retain customer very smartly and sincerely by satisfying its best buyer through good service and effective communication. Integrating lean advertising, service and selling amazon acquires customer and through great customer experience it retain the customer. d) Customer Extension: The market place is very competitive even for Amazon.com with competitor like e-Bay, best buy breathing very behind amazon. Customers now days get every single distraction through other competitor s service and brand value.‟ It is very challenging to every retain customers. But even though Amazon s better‟ customer service, trust factor, brand value initiate them rapid and growing customer popularity. About 70% of amazon s customer trust amazon and recommend amazon‟ to their friend Amazon integrated communication in between customers. This helped amazon to retain even extends their customers. Customer s reviews of products‟ trusted by other customer and motivate them to buy. 11
  16. 16. 4. Discussion After doing the sort of analysis, we tends to find that Amazon is totally uses the Business to Customer Model. Amazon totally rely on the customer and customer satisfaction is its primary goal. Amazon handle its better relationship with customer by using CRM such as collecting information of the customer like as all personal information of customers their credit card record, transaction record, order record, profile, their past purchase history are collected in the database. Using of CRM, Amazon provides sort of advantages to the customer like as Personalization, User ratings and reviews, 1 click purchase, secure way for payment, minimum shipping charge, etc. Not only this Amazon.com carries out some of Associate programs to boost the customer traffic and rate of sale Amazon.com with customers and small businessman. Developing and offering new products to gain higher revenues is the goal of this intensive growth strategy. Amazon grows partly by developing new products over time. 12
  17. 17. 5. Recommendation : Amazon.com is the ultimate online retailer around the world. Its nearest but not even close competitors are e-bay and best buy. But the competition is growing day by day. a. Competing in the market: Like past, amazon in future will have to come up with special something. The global market is changing day by day. Business competitors are investing large to take amazon down. There is no room for relaxation. It is very challenging and has to be consistent in the market to be number one retailer shop . b. Innovation of new Product: It is essential for amazon to think out of the box and bring new products to satisfy and retain customer to be loyal to Amazon.com. Amazon always offered its customer better quality and better service. But in future it may not be the same. People in today s world ask for more. Amazon has to‟ be smart enough to understand the customer need before even customers know about it . c. Integration of New Technology: Technology is making progress like the spread of light. Company like “Amazon” needs to be adaptive and technology friendly to retain its domination in the market. Amazon s new technology‟ of Drone delivery system indicates it is planning and investing significant amount of money in technology for near future. d. Customer Loyalty: For a upward revenue stream customer loyalty is essential.. Amazon s most of the buyers are its‟ repeat customers who are loyal to amazon. But growing competition can be a risk to amazon s‟ loyal customer . e. Global Expansion: Amazon is expanding its business around the world. But this may cause significant strain in number of sectors like management, inventory, supply system and more over to amazon s market place.‟ International market is very challenging because of political and economic conditions. Upgrading e- CRM and investing more towards customer information for better understanding the customer needs and behavior is essential. 13
  18. 18. 6. Conclusion : On the part of conclusion we conclude that Amazon.com uses Business to Customer Model for its better growth. Amazon mainly focuses on the customer satisfaction by providing the various ways to ensure that like as personalization, user ratings and reviews, minimum shipping charge which act as the key ingredients for success of Amazon.com. But still Amazon have to do some change on its system like as Global Expansion, Integrating on New Technologies, Innovation of New products. 14
  19. 19. 7. References : a) Manjoo, F. (2011) "The Great Tech War of 2012" Fastcompany October 19th b) Hottovy, R. (2011) "Amazon.com AMZN Hare Stock Focus" Morningstar StockInvestor c) Bacheldor, B. (2004)" From Scratch: Amazon Keeps Supply Chain Close to Home" Informationweek d) Businessweek (2003) "Reprogramming Amazon" Bloomberg Businessweek December 23th e) Jenkinson, A. (2005) "Amazon: Bounding Customers with Integrated Service" Centre for Integrated Marketing, University of Luton f) Jenkinson A., Sain B. “ Amazon bonding customers with integrated service: Amazon s‟ interest in technology is as a means to deliver value through integration and CRM thinking”, Luton Business School g) FAVERNOVEL (2013 updated), “Amazon: The Hidden Empire” URL: https://www.fabernovel.com/work/amazon-com-the-hidden-empire/ h) Annual report (1998) AMAZON.COM, INC. URL: media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/97/.../reports/123198_10k.pdf i) Annual report (1999) AMAZON.COM, INC. URL:media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/97/.../reports/123199_10k.pdf j) Annual report (2013) AMAZON.COM, INC. URL:http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1018724/000119312513028520/d445434d10 k.htm 15

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