Introduction Conduct preliminaries:- Check attendance Check seating arrangement Recap casualty-care practices and confined space entry procedures. Arouse interest Tell a joke or mention the effects of improper handling of casualties. Announce the topic Introduce the topic “Emergency method of evacuating casualties without equipment” to the trainees.
State the reason/need for the lesson Emphasise that rescuers must always be aware of need for the casualty’s well being. Hence, under non-life threatening situations, care must be taken to package the casualties and evacuate them on stretchers to minimise suffering and promote recovery. However, under emergency, where there is eminent threat to life of the casualty and rescuer, the casualty must be removed quickly using the appropriate emergency casualty evacuation techniques.
State the Learning Objectives and Scope of the Lesson The Learning Objectives are (1). Understand and explain the correct techniques to be applied on casualties; (2). Ability to execute the correct methods of evacuating the casualty; and (3). Ability to demonstrate the necessary safety measures taken to prevent injury to the rescuers.
The Scope encompasses; (1) Factors influencing methods used; (2) Demonstration of casualty evacuation methods without equipment from surface (open) areas and confined spaces; and (3) Safety Precautions.
Factors influencing methods, General rules Open the Stage Introduce the lesson by citing that casualties’ conditions are often made worst by improper handling. Thence explain the factors that influence the methods used;- a. Type and severity of the injuries b. Casualty’s status Conscious Unconscious c. Weight of the casualty d. Availability of rescuers e. Distance and route taken
Present the general rules of locating casualties The generals rule when searching for casualties are as follows; ) Search should commence at the point of the greatest survival rate. ) In multi-storey buildings, search should start from the top and work your way down. ) Common places where casualties are found are; Near doors Near windows At staircases In the restrooms.
Safety Precautions The safety precautions to be adhered to during such rescue operations are: Put on all safety gears Always work in pairs Bring along a torch Attach a life line to the rescuer Take extra care when using edged tools Ensure the the proper placement of the feet for the selected techniques The correct method of lifting and gripping must be adhered
Open the Stage Introduce the stage with a Demonstration that puts a casualty in great discomfort to capture the participants’ attention. Introduce the methods employed in open spaces without equipment: Explain the points above while demonstrating the one rescuer method: Fireman’s Lift - To convey casualties who are unconscious, and normally lighter than the rescuer. Fore Method - For casualties who are of similar or heavier in weight.
The Cradle This method is used for children or light-weight casualties. You should; place one and under the casualty’s shoulders, supporting the head with the upper arm place the other arm under the casualty’s knees or thighs raise the casualty to your chest stand up and carry the casualty to safety. Pick-a-back This technique is used when the casualty is able to cling on and there is no danger of the casualty losing conscience. The casualty is raised to a sitting position in bed or a chair. Their legs are placed down over the side and parted. Rescuer sits at the edge between the parted legs and places casualty’s arms over shoulders. Grasp their legs behind the thighs, lean forward, stand and carry casualty away to safety.
The backward drag is used when the casualty is too heavy to be lifted. This technique requires: the casualty to be laid on his back. kneel down behind the casualty. pass your hands under their armpits. cross the casualty’s wrists slightly in front of the body and tie them together. grab their wrists, stand almost upright and raise the casualty’s head and shoulders off the floor. moving backwards, drag the casualty to safety. The human crutch is used with casualties who can walk with assistance. It can be used with one or two people assisting. One rescuer method stand on the casualty’s injured side. place the casualty’s arm over your shoulder. grasp the casualty’s wrist and with the other arm support the casualty around the waist.
Two rescuers method Here the casualty is supported on each side by a rescuer. The fore and aft technique is used if the casualty is unable to walk. It requires two rescuers. You should: lay the casualty on their back raise the person to a sitting position. your partner stands between the casualty’s legs facing away from the feet while you stand behind the casualty and grasp the person under the arm pits. your partner bends down and grasps each leg behind the knees. lift the casualty together. stand facing in the same direction. move forwards. remove the casualty to safety.
Two-handed seat In this technique, you should: stand behind the casualty and face the other rescuer. using your hands closest to the casualty, lock your fingers to form a seat. place the formed seat beneath the casualty’s thighs and seat the casualty. with your free arms, reach across the back of the casualty and grasp the clothing to form the back of the seat. direct the casualty to drape their arms over your shoulders, then, carry the casualty to safety. Three-handed seat This technique is useful when one of the rescuers needs a free hand eg. to support a casualty’s injured leg. You should: stand on the casualty’s uninjured side, grasp one of your own wrists with your other hand. the rescuer standing on the opposite side of the casualty forms a seat by grasping your free wrist. lock onto the other rescuer’s wrist with your free hand to complete the seat. This leaves the second rescuer with a free arm to support the casualty. direct the casualty to drape their arms over your shoulders, then carry the casualty to safety.
Four-handed seat Rescuers position themselves as for the two and three-handed seats. You should: each grasp your left wrist with your right hand. form a seat with your hands by joining hands together, the free left hand grasping the other’s right wrist. the casualty places one or both arms around the necks of the two rescuers. place the seat under the casualty’s thighs and lift the casualty. walk with short cross over steps carry the casualty to safety.
Conclusion Rescuing of casualties may be conducted under any conceivably adverse conditions. Methods employed will depend location and type of injury sustained. Remember objective of rescue operations is to save and prevent further loss of lives. Speed is essential, but must be consistent with safety and proper handling of casualties. Ensure personal safety, as accidents and injuries to rescuers may jeopardise the whole operations.
33 emergency methods of moving casualties
EMERGENCY METHODSOF EVACUATING CASUALTIES WITHOUT EQUIPMENT 1
INTRODUCTIONNon-Risky Situation• Package casualties wherever possible• Evacuate casualties with stretchers• Ensure comfort or minimize the suffering of the casualtiesEmergency or Risky Situation• No stretchers or time to construct improvised stretchers• The casualty must be removed quickly due to potential dangers• Do not attempt to rescue if your own life is in danger 2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES• Understand the correct techniques to be applied on the casualty• Execute the correct method of carrying the casualty• Demonstrate the necessary safety measures taken to prevent injury to the rescuers 3
SCOPE• Introduction• Factors influencing methods used• Safety Precautions• Demonstration and Practical of 1-Man Emergency Methods of Evacuating Casualties• Demonstration and Practical of 2-Man Emergency Methods of Evacuating Casualties• Conclusion 4
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE METHODS USEDMethods employed will depend on acombination of the following factors:a. Type and severity of the injuriesb. Casualty’s status • conscious • unconsciousc. Weight of the casualtyd. Availability of Rescuerse. Distance and Route 5
GENERAL RULES• Search should commence at the point of the greatest survival rate• In multi-storey buildings, search should start from the top and work your way down• Common places where casualties are found: a) Near doors b) Near windows c) At staircases d) In the restrooms 6
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS• Always work in pairs• Ensure the proper placement of your feet for the selected techniques – to prevent falling• The correct method of lifting and gripping must be followed• Put on safety gears• Bring along a torch• Ensure that the method selected does not suffocate or cause further injury to the casualty• Do not drop the casualty• Squat down to Lift casualty instead of bending body down 7
Emergency Methods of Casualty Evacuation from Surface Area One-Man Operations 1. Fireman’s Lift • Light casualty, no back/spinal injuries2. Fore Method• Casualty of similar weight or heavier than rescuer 8
3. The Cradle• Light-weight casualties or children 4. The Pick-a-back • Casualty is able to hang on • Will not lose consciousness 9
5. Backward drag• Casualty is too heavy to be lifted 6. The Human Crutch • Casualty can walk with assistance 10
Emergency Methods of Casualty Evacuation from Surface Area2-Man Operations1. Double Human Crutch• Casualty can walk with assistance 2. The Fore & Aft • Casualty is unable to walk 12
3. 2-Handed Seat• Casualty need to be carried rather than dragged• Casualty’s weight beyond the capability of 1 rescuer 4. 3-Handed Seat • Useful when rescuer needs a free hand • Can support casualty’s injured leg 13
5. 4-Handed SeatCasualty needs to be carried rather than draggedCasualty’s weight beyond the capability of 1 person 14
CONCLUSION1. Rescuing of casualties may be conducted under any conceivably adverse conditions.2. Methods employed will depend location and type of injury sustained.3. Remember objective of rescue operations is to save and prevent further loss of lives.4. Speed is essential, but must be consistent with safety and proper handling of casualties.5. Ensure personal safety, as accidents and injuries to rescuers may jeopardise the whole operations. 16