Sustainable Water Savings for Irrigation Systems

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Proven examples of how to save water with existing landscape irrigation systems and maintain low water usage.

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Sustainable Water Savings for Irrigation Systems

  1. 1. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 1 Landscape Irrigation SystemsLandscape Irrigation Systems And Implementing Changes For Less Water Use & Long Term Sustainability Presented ByPresented By Larry KeesenLarry Keesen Keesen Water ManagementKeesen Water Management
  2. 2. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 2 What we’ll Cover:What we’ll Cover:  Audit Recommendations That Will Work.Audit Recommendations That Will Work.  Design for Existing Irritation systems.Design for Existing Irritation systems.  Quality Monitored Installation.Quality Monitored Installation.  Proper System Operation & Maintenance.Proper System Operation & Maintenance.  Develop Water Budgets & Monitor Actual Use.Develop Water Budgets & Monitor Actual Use.
  3. 3. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 3 Audit RecommendationsAudit Recommendations Will They Work?Will They Work?  Smart Controllers & Rain Sensor.Smart Controllers & Rain Sensor. OKOK  Replacing Heads with Pressure Control & Check ValvesReplacing Heads with Pressure Control & Check Valves if Head Spacing is “Head-to-Head”.if Head Spacing is “Head-to-Head”. Usually.Usually.  Control High Pressure - Pressure Reducing Devices.Control High Pressure - Pressure Reducing Devices. OKOK  Increase Low Pressure-Lower Flow Nozzles.Increase Low Pressure-Lower Flow Nozzles. CautionCaution..  Replace Spray Nozzles with Rotator Nozzles.Replace Spray Nozzles with Rotator Nozzles. CautionCaution.. (Application rate is Lower & More Runtime is Required.)(Application rate is Lower & More Runtime is Required.)
  4. 4. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 4 Audit RecommendationsAudit Recommendations Will They Work? (cont.)Will They Work? (cont.)  Raise Heads if Spray is Blocked by Turf.Raise Heads if Spray is Blocked by Turf. YesYes  When Distribution Uniformity is Below 60%:When Distribution Uniformity is Below 60%: And one or more apply:And one or more apply:  Pressure at heads are to low to meet recommendedPressure at heads are to low to meet recommended optimum operating pressure.optimum operating pressure.  Head Spacing is erratic and stretched.Head Spacing is erratic and stretched.  The system is over 30 years old.The system is over 30 years old. Then consider:Then consider:  Installation of a New Irrigation System.Installation of a New Irrigation System. BestBest
  5. 5. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 5 Design for Existing Irritation systems.Design for Existing Irritation systems.  Distribution Uniformity Above 70%.Distribution Uniformity Above 70%.  Correct Water Pressure at the Head.Correct Water Pressure at the Head.  Consider Rotator Nozzles.Consider Rotator Nozzles.  Use Subsurface Drip for Turf & Beds.Use Subsurface Drip for Turf & Beds.  (Highest Uniformity at 90% or Higher.)(Highest Uniformity at 90% or Higher.)  Limit Run Time to 10 Hours per Day.Limit Run Time to 10 Hours per Day.  Zone for Exposure & Application Rates.Zone for Exposure & Application Rates.
  6. 6. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 6 Quality Installation.Quality Installation.  Precise Spacing of Sprinkler Heads.Precise Spacing of Sprinkler Heads.  Correct Nozzles & Arc Settings.Correct Nozzles & Arc Settings.  Heads Set Plumb & at Correct Height.Heads Set Plumb & at Correct Height.  Verify Water Pressure at the Head.Verify Water Pressure at the Head.  Designer CDesigner Check for Proper Installation  Furnish “as-built” record drawings.
  7. 7. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 7 Proper System Operation &Proper System Operation & Maintenance.Maintenance.  Post Operating Schedules & Zone Location Map in Clock.  Reset Controllers Monthly According to Seasonal Demand.  Check, Adjust & Repair Equipment Weekly After Mowing. Identify System Leaks & Repair Promptly.  Inspect System at Activation & Verify Pressure is Same as Previous Year.  Replacement Hardware for Repairs Must Match Original Equipment.  Require an Audit Every 5 Years by a CLIA.
  8. 8. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 8 Water BudgetsWater Budgets vs. Actual Use.vs. Actual Use.  Water Budget is Based on Historical ET.  Water Budget for Turf Should not Exceed:  15 Gallons / 24 Inches per Square Foot.  For Plants SeeFor Plants See GreenCO BMPs, Appendix E: Plant Water Requirement Estimates.  Monitor Water use vs. Water Budget.Monitor Water use vs. Water Budget.  Give Budget to System Operator.Give Budget to System Operator.
  9. 9. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 9 Sustainable Water SavingsSustainable Water Savings  Benchmarks to Determine Turf Water SavingsBenchmarks to Determine Turf Water Savings  Average annual historical ET for turf grass is 30-inches.Average annual historical ET for turf grass is 30-inches.  Add system efficiency at 80% & the turf water requirement totalAdd system efficiency at 80% & the turf water requirement total is 24-inches or 15 Gal. annually per sq. ft.is 24-inches or 15 Gal. annually per sq. ft.  Document metered water use & savings after renovation.Document metered water use & savings after renovation.  Our experience with project water savings and theOur experience with project water savings and the various results are documented on the following pages:various results are documented on the following pages:
  10. 10. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 10 Pilot Program 2000Pilot Program 2000  ECCV Water District sponsoredECCV Water District sponsored Greenfield /Liverpool Irrigation SystemGreenfield /Liverpool Irrigation System Evaluations & Pilot Program.Evaluations & Pilot Program.  Two streetscapes across the street fromTwo streetscapes across the street from each other.each other.  The problem symptoms with these newThe problem symptoms with these new systems were runoff, overspray, and highsystems were runoff, overspray, and high water bills.water bills.
  11. 11. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 11 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  Results from the Greenfield /LiverpoolResults from the Greenfield /Liverpool streetscape system evaluation in 1999:streetscape system evaluation in 1999:  High water usage:High water usage:  Greenfield 61.7-inches/38.5 gal. sq. ft.Greenfield 61.7-inches/38.5 gal. sq. ft.  Liverpool 63.0-inches/39.3 gal. sq. ft.Liverpool 63.0-inches/39.3 gal. sq. ft.  Heads installed too low – spray blockedHeads installed too low – spray blocked  High pressure – up to 78 psiHigh pressure – up to 78 psi  Low head drainageLow head drainage  Low pressure in some areas–as low as 15 psiLow pressure in some areas–as low as 15 psi
  12. 12. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 12
  13. 13. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 13 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  During the winter of 1999-2000 theDuring the winter of 1999-2000 the Greenfield/Liverpool irrigation systems wereGreenfield/Liverpool irrigation systems were renovated.renovated.  New spray heads were installed with 4-inch pop-upNew spray heads were installed with 4-inch pop-up height, check valves and pressure control. Newheight, check valves and pressure control. New nozzles were installed to better control the spray.nozzles were installed to better control the spray.  Check valves were installed in rotors.Check valves were installed in rotors.  Rain & freeze sensors were installed on controllers.Rain & freeze sensors were installed on controllers.  Goal was to be at 30-inches annually or lower.Goal was to be at 30-inches annually or lower.
  14. 14. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 14 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  Actual Annual Historical Water Use in Inches/Sq. Ft.Actual Annual Historical Water Use in Inches/Sq. Ft. Before AfterBefore After Site:Site: 19981998 1999 2000 2001 2002 20031999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GreenfieldGreenfield 63.963.9 61.7 77.3* 50.1 42.6 39.561.7 77.3* 50.1 42.6 39.5 LiverpoolLiverpool 49.049.0 63.0 30.0 28.5 22.6 19.663.0 30.0 28.5 22.6 19.6 Under ConstructionUnder Construction  The same contractor was operating both Greenfield andThe same contractor was operating both Greenfield and Liverpool in 1999. Separate contractors were used in 2000.Liverpool in 1999. Separate contractors were used in 2000.  ET in 2000 increased 14 % above 1999 ETET in 2000 increased 14 % above 1999 ET  *Swimming pool overflowed several times during season.*Swimming pool overflowed several times during season.
  15. 15. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 15 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  Actual Water Savings:Actual Water Savings:  Greenfield 2001 usage went down from 61.7 to 50.1-Greenfield 2001 usage went down from 61.7 to 50.1- inches.inches.  Swimming pool overflowed several times in 2000, data wasSwimming pool overflowed several times in 2000, data was unreliable.unreliable.  2001 usage down by 20 % .2001 usage down by 20 % .  Three year savings of 2.7 million gallons or 8 acre feet.Three year savings of 2.7 million gallons or 8 acre feet.  Liverpool 2000 usage went down from 63.0 to 30.0-Liverpool 2000 usage went down from 63.0 to 30.0- inches.inches.  Down 53 % first year.Down 53 % first year.  Four year savings of 4.5 million gallons or 14 acre feet.Four year savings of 4.5 million gallons or 14 acre feet.
  16. 16. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 16 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  Renovation Costs and SavingsRenovation Costs and Savings TotalTotal Site:Site: Area Renovation CostArea Renovation Cost PaybackPayback Water SavingsWater Savings Greenfield 82,740 $ 11,100.00Greenfield 82,740 $ 11,100.00 4.7 years4.7 years $ 7,155.00-3 year$ 7,155.00-3 year Liverpool 47,880 $ 7,492.00Liverpool 47,880 $ 7,492.00 2.9 years2.9 years $11,379.00-4 year$11,379.00-4 year  Water Savings:Water Savings: 20002000 20012001 2002 20032002 2003  Greenfield $ 0Greenfield $ 0 $ 1,463.00 $ 2,421.00 $ 3,272.00$ 1,463.00 $ 2,421.00 $ 3,272.00  LiverpoolLiverpool $ 2,214.00 $ 2,521.00 $ 2,952.00 $ 3,691.00$ 2,214.00 $ 2,521.00 $ 2,952.00 $ 3,691.00 What Happened?What Happened?  Both sites were identical and in the same area.Both sites were identical and in the same area.  The big difference was in the way the systems were operated.The big difference was in the way the systems were operated.  Separate contractors were maintaining Greenfield and Liverpool andSeparate contractors were maintaining Greenfield and Liverpool and both were given instructions on how to operate the system.both were given instructions on how to operate the system.
  17. 17. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 17 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  How the results could have been improvedHow the results could have been improved  Installation of flow sensor & central control.Installation of flow sensor & central control.  Installation of ET controllers.Installation of ET controllers.
  18. 18. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 18 Pilot Program (cont.)Pilot Program (cont.)  Conservation Pays for itselfConservation Pays for itself  The Pilot Program clearly showed thatThe Pilot Program clearly showed that water conservation guidelines, coupledwater conservation guidelines, coupled with proper renovation of existing irrigationwith proper renovation of existing irrigation systems can save water, and much moresystems can save water, and much more can be savedcan be saved if the irrigation system isif the irrigation system is operated and maintained properlyoperated and maintained properly..
  19. 19. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 19 The MeadowsThe Meadows  The Meadows, Castle RockThe Meadows, Castle Rock  In 1994, we performed an irrigation system evaluationIn 1994, we performed an irrigation system evaluation for The Meadows Metropolitan District 37-acrefor The Meadows Metropolitan District 37-acre streetscape. Water use was 47-inches Sq. Ft.streetscape. Water use was 47-inches Sq. Ft.  In 1997 the irrigation system was renovated withIn 1997 the irrigation system was renovated with conservation design and equipment. The Town ofconservation design and equipment. The Town of Castle Rock agreed to loan the money to theCastle Rock agreed to loan the money to the Metropolitan District and also agreed to pay futureMetropolitan District and also agreed to pay future water costs if we saved 30 percent on water use.water costs if we saved 30 percent on water use.
  20. 20. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 20 The Meadows (cont.)The Meadows (cont.)  YearYear Gallons Inches/SQ. FT.Gallons Inches/SQ. FT. $ COST/VALUE SAVINGS$ COST/VALUE SAVINGS  19961996 44,500,00044,500,000 4747 $89,890.00$89,890.00  19971997 19,051,00019,051,000 1919 $38,483.00$38,483.00 57%57%  Annual SavingsAnnual Savings: 25,449,000 gallons, 78 acre feet, 28-INCHES, $51,407.00: 25,449,000 gallons, 78 acre feet, 28-INCHES, $51,407.00  The City of Castle Rock, Colorado now pays the water costs and KeesenThe City of Castle Rock, Colorado now pays the water costs and Keesen Water Management, Inc. has received a Water Conservation award from theWater Management, Inc. has received a Water Conservation award from the Associated Landscape Contractors of Colorado.Associated Landscape Contractors of Colorado.
  21. 21. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 21 VILLAGE at FOUR LAKESVILLAGE at FOUR LAKES 2000 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 IRRIGATION USE m/GAL: 11,646 11,905 5,528 3,994 5,250 6,941 5,665 7,610 AREA SQ FT: 500,000 Acres: 11.48 ANNUAL INCHES/SQ.FT. 37.4 38.2 17.7 12.8 16.8 22.3 18.2 24.4 ANNUAL GAL/SQ.FT. 23.3 23.8 11.1 8.0 10.5 13.9 11.3 15.2 ANNUAL ET INCHES: 37.8 38.3 37.2
  22. 22. Copyright 2009 by Keesen Water Management, Inc. 22 SummarySummary  Conservation works when irrigation systems areConservation works when irrigation systems are properly designed and installed, but greaterproperly designed and installed, but greater savings can be obtained when experts operate &savings can be obtained when experts operate & audit the irrigation system.audit the irrigation system.  Key elements for landscape water conservation.Key elements for landscape water conservation.  Efficient Irrigation Design & conservation equipment.Efficient Irrigation Design & conservation equipment.  Construction Quality ControlConstruction Quality Control  System OperationSystem Operation  Regular Maintenance.Regular Maintenance.

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