Introduction WR 12011


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Introduction WR 12011

  1. 1. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY </li></ul>(Why Study Geography?)
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ To write about the earth” </li></ul><ul><li>The study of place and space </li></ul><ul><li>Studies the location and distribution of features on the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Studies human activity , the natural environment , and the relationship between the two </li></ul><ul><li>Answers where? and why? </li></ul>What is Geography?
  3. 3. Geography Matters <ul><li>Humans modify the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Places are interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>This interdependence crosses scales </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Humans as Modifiers of the Earth <ul><li>Physical features </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Individual action </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Features Includes natural and built environments
  6. 6. Cultural Attitudes Reflect many aspects of a society’s relationship to their environment (gender, class, religion). These attitudes change over time and can be contradictory.
  7. 7. Individual actions and choices
  8. 8. Places are interdependent <ul><li>What is a “place”? </li></ul><ul><li>location+meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Places are nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Places combine with other places to become ‘regions’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Place+Location = Meaning
  10. 10. Place interdependence crosses scales
  11. 11. Glocalization
  12. 12. “ Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things.” <ul><li>Whether discussing landscapes or regions, ordinary or symbolic places, bodies or states, globalization touches every aspect of our lives. Geographers track the networks and webs of political, social and economic globalization. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Friction of Distance and Connectivity <ul><li>More than just absolute distance </li></ul><ul><li>Erasure of distance by technology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Individual Activity Space (where and when we interact) <ul><li>These are effected by: </li></ul><ul><li>Territoriality Mental Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Activity space Stage in Life </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility Opportunities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interaction Creates Diffusion
  16. 16. Section Summary <ul><li>We live in places. </li></ul><ul><li>Those places (and the people in them) are related in minor and major ways to every other spot on the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers study how those relationships formed and what they might mean for the future. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Tools of Geography <ul><li>Our brains and senses </li></ul><ul><li>The library </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Region’ </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul>
  18. 18. Taxonomy: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Biologists Geologists Three major groups, subsidiary groups, geological time Historians Eras, ages, periods Geographers Geographic realms and/or regions based on sets of spatial criteria Classification Systems
  19. 19. World Geographic Realms <ul><li>Realms are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– based on spatial criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– the largest geographic units into which the world can be divided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– based on both physical (natural) and human (cultural) features </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Where geographic realms meet, transition zones , not sharp boundaries, mark their contact </li></ul><ul><li>These zones are areas of spatial change where peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join </li></ul><ul><li>Zones are marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish neighboring realms e.g. </li></ul>Transition Zones
  21. 21. Geographical Classification The World Realms Regions
  22. 22. <ul><li>Areas of the earth’s surface marked by certain properties </li></ul><ul><li>Based on criteria we establish </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human (cultural) properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical (natural) characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regions are smaller and more detailed than realms </li></ul>Regions
  23. 23. Geographers study different kinds of regions to see the patterns and processes of Globalization <ul><li>Functional regions </li></ul><ul><li>Formal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular regions </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>A region based on its dynamic internal structure </li></ul>Functional Regions Example: Los Angeles Metropolitan Area <ul><li>A spatial system focused on a central core </li></ul><ul><li>A region formed by a set of places and their functional integration </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a nodal region </li></ul>
  25. 25. Other Examples of Functional Regions
  26. 26. <ul><li>Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Also called uniform regions or homogeneous regions </li></ul>Formal Regions Examples : - Corn Belt - Megalopolis
  27. 27. Formal culture regions
  28. 28. Formal Culture Regions
  29. 29. <ul><li>Formal culture regions </li></ul>
  30. 30. Vernacular regions
  31. 31. Another Vernacular region
  32. 32. Maps are a Tool <ul><li>Maps are representations of reality, NOT reality </li></ul><ul><li>All maps have an author, patron, and audience </li></ul><ul><li>All maps have bias, omissions, and distortions </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Some obvious… </li></ul><ul><li>Some are </li></ul>
  34. 34. Some less obvious…
  35. 35. <ul><li>Some hidden behind regular use </li></ul>
  36. 36. The most common maps: projections
  37. 37. <ul><li>World projections are not free from propaganda </li></ul>
  38. 38. Other kinds of maps: Thematic
  39. 39. GIS <ul><li>Insert ANY mapquest map here…. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Section Summary <ul><li>We are our best tool for understanding our world </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers look for patterns in our environment and then try and map them </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis that we do and the maps that we make are necessarily partial. They are representations of the real world they are NOT reality. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The 4 Traditions of Geography <ul><li>Earth Science Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Culture-environment Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Locational Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Area Analysis Tradition </li></ul>