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  1. 1. Learning Objectives: • Gain an overview of the exam. • Begin to understand what youth collective identity means.
  2. 2. Big Questions • How are teenagers and young people in the media portrayed? Find egs online, tv, film, advertising, music videos • Are these portrayals accurate? • How does the intended audience influence the messages sent about youth in the media? • How do young people create their own representations? How are these different to those created and aimed at adults?
  3. 3. Starter Discussion • Who is your favourite young person in the media? (real or fictional) • Why do you like them?
  4. 4. Hebdige (1979) • Studied sub- cultures in 1970s. • Subcultures allow youth to express opposition to society and challenge hegemony. • Style is key aspect of subculture – attempt to resist hegemony. • Representations tend to be limited: Youth as fun or youth as trouble.
  5. 5. Who are you? Fashion: Clothing, hairstyle Music, art Lifestyle/ practices Subculture Opposition/ resistance To dominant culture counterculture Dialect/ slang Place, gender, class, race Who aren’t you?
  6. 6. Subculture • • • • • Bands Writers Magazines Artists Fashion What subculture are you? What social groups are you a part of? • These groups have a ‘collective identity’.
  7. 7. Article on pop tribes: 010/feb/25/emo-pop-tribes-modspunks
  8. 8. Jacques Lacan • Mirror stage – child begins to develop their identity – recognise themselves in a mirror at around 6 months, helps to develop sense of self. Just like the recognition of the mirror, images on screen offer: • Identification • Aspiration • What are potential issues with this?
  9. 9. A Brief History of the Teenager
  10. 10. 1945-60: Birth of the Teen • 1940s – WWII = demand for labour = young people with disposable income • Economic potential is obvious – market of the future • But also the first negative stereotypes • Youth simultaneously represented “a prosperous and liberated future” and “a culture of moral decline” • First sign of adult culture’s dichotomous image of teenagers • Film example: ‘The Wild One’
  11. 11. Generation gap • Hegemony = a dominant social group keeps an oppressed group in their subservient position by making them feel this position is ‘normal’ or desirable. • Adult mainstream exploited the image of the ‘rebel teen’ • Sold to teenagers as aspiration • Sold to adults as a fear
  12. 12. James Dean – an accurate portrayal of youth? • First celebrity to capture the dissonance of youth; • ‘Rebel Without A Cause’ – lots of delinquent behaviour. Conforms to adult fears. • But: Dean’s character isn’t a ‘bad boy’ – confused, sensitive, frustrated… and very handsome. • ‘Live fast, die young’ = the start of adults fetishising youth?
  13. 13. Each pair will be assigned a decade. You need to use the internet to complete your row of this chart: Decade 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Movement (s) Films Event Media
  14. 14. • Select a media representation of youth of your choice. Choose some images and paste. • Research and give examples of the positive and negative audience reactions and interpretations to this media representation. Variety of sources. Remember Lacan and Hedige – What did they say?