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Media psychology


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Media psychology

  1. 1. Media Psychology
  2. 2. Media influences on Anti social behaviour Public opinion supports claims about the harmful effects of anti- Social behaviour on T.V. ¾ people believe that media violence is the cause of crime and violence in society. BUT most people believe that they are not influenced by the media but other people probably are. The Third Person Effect.
  3. 3. Observational Learning Bandura argues that T.V. can shape the forms that aggressive behaviour takes, it can direct the viewers attention to behaviours that they may not have considered. There is some evidence to suggest bizarre violent events have followed soon after their depiction on T.V. • Video clip of dark knight rising killings •
  4. 4. Banduras BoBo dolls APFCC of Banduras 1986 experiment Evaluation of Observational learning. Elaborate on the following evaluation points. 1) Lack of research support due to ethical issues 2) Inconsistent effects
  5. 5. Debating the effects Complete an APFCC for both Huesmann et al (2003) and Gunter et al (2002). Huesmann‟s study indicated that children do copy aggressive and violent behaviour and this even links to involvement in crime. However, Gunters natural experiment has demonstrated the importance of social context and media influence on violence. A large scale meta analysis supported Huesmann et als study. Anderson and Bushman (2002) reviewed a number of studies using different methods with over 48,000 P‟s and found a significant effect on later aggressive behaviour. This effect was strongest in lab experiments but there was still a substantial effect in field and longitudinal studies.
  6. 6. Influences on Physiological responses Does your heart beat faster after a scary scene in a movie? This is called increased arousal and is part of your stress response. Physiological arousal is used to explain why watching violence may increase the tendency to behave aggressively. Q) What does Zillman‟s transfer theory argue? Q) What is desensitization?
  7. 7. Desensitization This argument assumes that under normal circumstances anxiety about violence inhibits its use. Those who are not used to violence would be more shocked at witnessing an act of violence in the real world. Frequent viewing of violence would make the acts appear more common place and cause viewers to become less anxious and less sensitive about actual violence. Violence is perceived as more „normal‟ and so viewer is more likely to engage in violence themselves. 1. Support comes from the findings that boys who were heavy watchers of violence show lower than average physiological arousal when watching new scenes of violence. 2. It was found that those with no TV in their town scored lower in terms of anxiety towards aggressive acts.
  8. 8. Influences on Cognition Cognitive priming refers to the idea that watching violence leads people to store memories or scripts of violent acts, these scripts are then retrieved and activated in real life situations Murray et al 2007 used fMRI to compare brain areas which were active when a sample of 8 children watched both violent and non violent T.V programmes. In both conditions the visual motor regions were activated, however in the violent condition the brain regions used to regulate emotions were activated and the areas used to store long term memories. Implying the acts seen may be stored as aggressive scripts for later use
  9. 9. A general evaluation Use page 410 (Eye Book) to explain what is meant by the following terms. 1. Inconclusive 2. The nature of the audience 3. Methodological problems with media violence
  10. 10. Anti-social behaviour – Issues and debates Issue – Gender bias Point –– Much research into anti-social behaviour in the media demonstrates gender bias. Evidence – Research has often focused on acts of male on male physical violence within the artificial setting of the laboratory. Samples have often been male students. Explain - This means that the researchers are ignoring female viewers‟ responses to the characters and the situations depicted. Also the gender-bias of the sample is rarely referred to, samples are often simply called „college students‟ or „viewers.‟
  11. 11. Anti-social behaviour- Issues and debates. Debate: Point – Much research into anti-social behaviour in the media is reductionist. Evidence – Often the researchers are merely counting the number of violent acts that occur during the experimental set-up. Elaboration - This means that the researchers are ignoring all of the other factors (cognitive and so on) that may be driving the behaviour.
  12. 12. Past exam questions 1. It has been suggested that people who watch violent Media images may be encouraged to imitate the violence. Discuss. (11 marks) 2. Content analysis has shown that many video games have violent themes. Many of these games are aimed at adolescents. There is a growing concern that such games encourage violent behaviour in the young people who play them a) Explain some of the difficulties of conducting research into the effects of playing video games (5 marks) b) Discuss what psychological research has told us about some of the effects of video gaming on young people. (10 marks)
  13. 13. 3) Researchers asked child P‟s to name their favourite T.V. programmes. 15 years later the P‟s were assessed for anti-social behaviour. 2 measures of anti-social behaviour were obtained for each adult. a) Interview of person who knew P well b) Criminal reports A link was found between watching violence on T.V. and levels of aggression Other than ethical issues explain 2 methodological issues? (4 marks)
  14. 14. Read the sample essay and annotate to show strong areas or any weak areas.
  15. 15. Media Influences on Social Behaviour
  16. 16. Explanations of media influences on pro-Social behaviour. Much research into the positive effects on TV have been largely neglected to make way for many studies into anti-social influence. Watch the video clip and decide what the message is to young children and babies. (1.15-2.40) Uk-D0j0 Describe and evaluate 1 or more explanations of the pro social effects of the media. (10 Marks)
  17. 17. Think-Pair-Share 1. What is the percentage of parents who say that their under 6 children imitate what they see on TV? 2. Are under 6s more likely to imitate pro social behaviour (e.g. helping) or anti-social behaviour (e.g. aggression)? 3. Give examples of TV programmes which show pro social behaviour & those which show anti-social behaviour 4. The Office for National Statistics (2006) looked at the average daily minutes spent watching TV & DVDs. What do you think the mean mins was? 5. Which research methods do you think psychologists would use to test these behaviours? 6. Stretch & challenge – using your knowledge of psychology, can you think of any explanations for this media influence?
  18. 18. How pro social is TV? Smith et al (2006) Analysed 2000+ entertainment shows randomly selected from 1 week across 18 US TV channels Nearly 75% contained at least 1 pro social act Mean exposure to 3 pro social acts per hour Pro social acts most commonly found in children’s TV Approximately 50% contained anti social acts So children more likely to see pro social acts BUT the anti social acts were more concentrated which increases their impact Use Pg 402 (Nelson Thornes) Pg 412 (eye book) To fill in a APFCC sheet
  19. 19. Explanation 1 – Social Learning Theory
  20. 20. Banduras Social Learning Theory Bandura‟s theory is based on the controversial Bobo doll studies, it was found violent imitation was more likely if violent model received rewards rather than punishment. Bandura suggests that children learn by first observing a behaviour, then imitating it if the expectation of reward is greater that expectation of punishment for that behaviour. Unlike anti-social behaviour learning these acts is likely to be in accordance with established social norms and so these acts are likely to be associated with social reinforcement.
  21. 21. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (modelling) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling) 4 stages to modelling: 1. Attention – is paid to models we identify with e.g. attractive, high status, similar gender etc 2. Retention – we need to memorise the behaviours observed 3. Reproduction – reproduction of the observed behaviour only occurs if the person has the skills 4. Motivation - direct & indirect (vicarious) reinforcement acts as motivation to imitate (can be + or – reinforcement or punishment)
  22. 22. Social learning theory argues that children learn behaviour through 2 mechanisms. 1. Learning via direct experience – Based on Skinners principle of operant conditioning. Rewarded behaviour is likely to be repeated. 2. Vicarious Learning – Learning through observation and imitation of role models Children don‟t just copy anyone but choose powerful individuals as role models.
  23. 23. Social Learning Theory Evaluation 1) Exposure to filmed models has less effect than exposure to real-life models. Pro-social programming does appear to have an effect but this is short-lived and doesn‟t generalise to new settings. 2) Eisenberg 83- prolonged viewing could result in substantial and enduring increases in pro social behaviour. 3) Bandura was forced to extend their theory to acknowledge the importance of cognitive factors to explain how the child responded to watching violence. In order to imitate the violence they must pay attention and store a representation of it in their memory.
  24. 24. Evidence of modelling pro social behaviour Sprafkin et al (1975) – 6 years olds watched an episode of Lassie 3 groups: 1. Watched puppy rescue scene 2. Watched a scene with no rescue 3. Watched The Brady Bunch All children then played a game where a prize could be won All came across some seemingly distressed pups Children in gp 1 spent more time comforting the pups than the other groups – even at the cost of not winning the prize Suggests that watching a helpful model can create a social norm which encourages pro social behaviour
  25. 25. Explanation 2 – Parental Influence
  26. 26. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (parental influence) Children often watch TV with a parent Some programmes actually suggest this e.g. Watch with mother By watching (or discussing afterwards) it enables any difficult concepts or ambiguous situations to be clarified. Can also discuss moral content Result – the pro social message can be reinforced – particularly important for young children so that they gain a full understanding Pro social behaviours are more difficult than anti social to understand Why? More dialogue, less action & more challenging to understand
  27. 27. Evidence of parental influence McKenna & Ossoff (1998) – children aged 4-10 asked about moral messages in one episode of Power Rangers Found: Most knew there was a message involved BUT only those 8+ could identify it Under 8s focused on the fighting rather than the message If parents help the child to unpack what they have seen then the pro social effects are maximised & anti social reduced Singer & Singer (1998) – supports how parents can help reinforce pro social messages if they watch with the child & then explain & discuss the moral content
  28. 28. Evidence of parental influence Fogel (2007) – looked at effects on children aged 8-12 who watched pro social sitcoms Sample – Californian children Filled in q about their viewing habits Then assigned to one of two groups Group 1 = watched 30 mins of Hang Time then had 30 min discussion about it with an adult Group 2 – (control) watched same episode but no follow up discussion Those in the experimental condition were more pro social in terms of tolerance & friendship Therefore adult mediation does help children gain the most from pro social TV
  29. 29. Explanation 3- Empathy
  30. 30. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (empathy) Empathy – the ability to put oneself in another person’s shoes & feel the emotion that they are experiencing Starts to develop from 18mths – But egocentric (preoccupation with one's own internal world) at this age - By 3 more genuine empathy Pro social influences from the media = the individual considers they share experiences with the media character & identifies with them & their behaviour
  31. 31. Evidence of empathy Duck (1990) – teenagers chose media figures that they wanted to be like This is based on their own characteristics A 14 year old F with high self-esteem chose Meryl Streep as “she is a person not worried by what others think” In contrast a M with low self-esteem chose a fantasy game character as “he has no feelings” Yancey et al (2002) – children may form an attachment with media characters at a young age & this may continue in adolescence 40% of teenagers named a media figure as a role model Similar to the % for parents/relatives
  32. 32. Some general evaluation points Much of this research looks at positive effects of media which is purposely made to be pro social There are pro social acts in mainstream TV & the effects of this when the purpose is pure entertainment has not been studied. Much research is correlational therefore no cause & effect. Content analysis may also be flawed as it is a simple tally of pro social acts & does not include content or meaning of acts. Ethical Issues
  33. 33. Exam Questions Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation of media influence on pro social behaviour (8) Discuss Psychological research into media influences on pro-social behaviour (10)
  34. 34. The effects of Video Games and Computers Positive and negatives Brain storm your ideas
  35. 35. What effects do computer and video games have on young people’s behaviour? Player has more active role when gaming compared to just watching violent images. Evidence that playing violent games leads to: increased physiological arousal reduced helping behaviours desensitisation to violence, but weak evidence that it increases aggressive behaviour. AQA Psychology A A2 Level © Nelson Thornes 2009 36
  36. 36. Explaining the effects of violent gaming General aggression model: a person‟s reaction to violent games depends on: input variables (e.g. mood, personality) situational variables (e.g. provocation). Exposure to games may affect behaviour by: increasing arousal (physiological) priming aggressive thoughts (cognitive) increasing hostile feelings (affective). 37
  37. 37. Increased Physiological arousal – as with watching violence, playing violent games leads to an increase in physiological arousal as shown by heart beat and blood pressure. Music is an important factor in increasing arousal. Tafalla (2007) found that both men and Women showed increased arousal when music was playing. Reduced Helping Behaviours – Sheese and Graziano (2005) 48 p‟s played either a violent or doctored, non- violent version of the game DOOM in pairs. They were then given the option of co-operating, exploiting each other or withdrawing from the game. They found that those who had played the violent version were more likely to choose to exploit rather than co-operate, they argue that playing violent games may undermine cooperative and pro social behaviours.
  38. 38. Increased aggressive behaviour, cognitions and feelings? - In contrast to watching violence research into playing computer games has implied that they probably don’t increase aggressive behaviour in some people (argued by Sherry 2001) Unsworth et al (2007) disputed the view than there is a link between playing computer games and aggressive behaviour in most people. They measured players for aggressive feelings before, during and afterplaying QUAKE 2and found that feelings did not change in most players – only those who were already aggressive before the game began became more angry after playing Schie and Wiegman (1997) studied 346 children and found no relationship between time spent playing games and levels of aggression. However time spent playing was positively correlated with child's intelligence.
  39. 39. Desensitization to violence - Advances in technology have also led to an increased ability to study brain responses to violence.
  40. 40. Fostering aggression (Anderson et al 2007) Longitudinal study at 2 points in a school year Sample size 430. The measurement of media violence = 3 favourite TV shows, 3 favourite videos, 3 favourite movies. For each movie p’s were asked to rate how frequently they watched or played on a 5 point scale and how violent they considered them to be. The effect size for violent video games was remarkably high, accounting for 8.8% of the variance in aggression (well above that accounted for by substance abuse, abusive parents or poverty.)
  41. 41. Create a leaflet for parents on the possible effects of video games including: Benefits: computer gaming can improve certain cognitive skills e.g. attention skills Games with a pro-social theme can promote helping behaviour in children who play them. Some active games allow children to use up more energy than sitting watching tv. Internet communication can nurture friendships and help shy children to communicate. Risks: Some evidence that playing violent video games fosters aggression in the players (or children with an aggressive pre-disposition tend to be adversely influenced so parents should be especially careful in this case) Obesity problems in young people Poor relationships with family and friends if too much time is spent playing games Children can become addicted to the internet or game playing Internet communication can lead to unhealthy communication and social networking sites need to be carefully monitored. What sort of information should be included in a leaflet for parents on the possible effects of video games(10)
  42. 42. Exam Questions • Content analysis has shown that many video games have violent themes. Many of these games are aimed at adolescents. There is a growing concern that such games encourage violent behaviour in the young people who play them. • Explain some of the difficulties of conducting research into the effects of playing video games (5) • Discuss what psychological research has told us about some of the effects of video games on young people.(5+5)
  43. 43. • What sort of information should be included in a leaflet for parents on the possible effects of video games(10)
  44. 44. Persuasion and Attitude change What was being advertised here? What do you think happened as a result of this 1980’s clip?
  45. 45. Giles (2003) In the following year – 1. Levis 501 sales increased by 800% 2. I heard in through the grapevine was re- released and went straight to No.1 3. This sparked a succession of re-released oldies 4. Boxer shorts became increasing popular
  46. 46. What is your favourite advert and why?? What makes it stick in your mind? g Dear Holly, Love DAD x
  47. 47. The Hovland-Yale model Towards the end of World War 2, Hovland was recruited by the US war dept to investigate how propaganda could be used to help the American war effort. After the war the research into persuasive communication continued at Yale university Hence the Hovland-Yale model ….
  48. 48. The H-Y model continued Hovland suggested that they key to understanding when a communication was understanding the characteristics of the person presenting the message (The source), the contents of the message itself and the characteristics of the receiver of the message (The audience)
  49. 49. Make notes on these 3 areas – The source, the message and the audience (Pg417 eye book) Additional research – (Pg 392 bean book)
  50. 50. Sequential process of change. Comprehension Understanding the message Attention Notice the message Reactance Accept or Reject the message Attitude change Everyday we are bombarded with adverts and messages many of which we never notice. React to the message with agreement or dispute it as rubbish!
  51. 51. Evaluation of the Hovland Yale Model Individual differences in Audience effects 1) Rhodes and wood(92) conducted a meta- analysis and found that people of lower intelligence were more prone to persuasion. 2) Rutland (99) researched the development of prejudiced attitudes in children and found that notional prejudice and group favouritism were not apparent in young children but emerged at age 12 and reached a peak at 16.
  52. 52. Outline the Hovland-Yale model of persuasion (5) Include background, characteristics of source, content, receiver. Reference to the 4 stages of the model are credit worthy.
  53. 53. The Elaboration-Likelihood model Petty and Cacioppo (86) thinks the key to a persuasive message is whether or not an individual elaborates on the message. In some situations people are sufficiently motivated to analyse the content of a message but in others the persuasive message is more to do with the context of the message. 2 routes to persuasion Central route - which involves analysis and elaboration Peripheral route – no elaboration/analysis.
  54. 54. Central Route Peripheral Route
  55. 55. The Central Route In this route it is the message that is most important. For communication to be effective it must be convincing. If an individual finds a message interesting or personally involving and they understand the argument being used it is likely they will process the message through the central route. Attitudes formed as a result of the central route would be stronger and more resistant to change.
  56. 56. The Peripheral Route Individuals are more likely to be influenced by context cues (mood, image etc). Attitudes acquired via the peripheral route are more susceptible to change. Communications that are considered not personally relevant or less important are processed using this route.
  57. 57. Would you be likely to process the following adverts down the Central route or the peripheral route 1. A car advert showing a car driving around on a beach at sunset with relaxing music playing 2. A factual advert for student finance 3. The Garnier advert for shampoo with lady showering under waterfall 4. An advert for V Fest.
  58. 58. The need for cognition „‟somebody with a need for cognition likes to get to grips with arguments and would agree with the statement- I like to solve problems and puzzles‟ Somebody with the need for cognition (NC) is more likely to use the central processing route. This is supported by Vidine et al (90) Complete an APFCC – Pg 393 bean book
  59. 59. Systematic Vs Heuristic processing Shelly Chaiken (80) • Support for the ELM – as this model agrees that there are 2 types of processing which loosely correspond to the central and peripheral routes. • Heuristic processing is making shortcuts and simplifying things to make up our mind but context (where and how something is said) is more important than the message. • Systematic processing is used when we consider the arguments carefully and is normally used when making more important decisions.
  60. 60. Concluding our persuasion models Use Page 395 (Bean) to write a concluding paragraph to an essay about the H-Y model and the EL model. Include attitudes shared by many (Collective Attitudes) and Discursive Attitudes.
  61. 61. The influence of attitudes on decision making. In groups make a presentation on Cognitive Consistency or Cognitive dissonance or Self-Perception Theory. Ready for next lesson
  62. 62. Exam Questions Outline the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. How might a mobile phone company use knowledge of this to market a new phone (10 Marks)
  63. 63. Making a film „‟Students are producing a film to encourage school leavers to apply for a science instead of an arts course use your knowledge of persuasion and attitude change to identify some factors that they might take into account‟‟. Include: source, content, medium it is transmitted, target audience. May identify: factors such as Age, gender, status or describe sequence of attitude change (attention, comprehension, reactance and acceptance)
  64. 64. Explanations for the persuasiveness of TV advertising. Psychological ideas such as the HYM and the ELM have found a home in the attempts to change peoples unhealthy behaviours (smoking, driving too fast etc) or consumer behaviours (What we buy).
  65. 65. Hard and Soft Selling A recent shift away from hard selling (lots of facts about a product) to a more soft sell approach (more focus on the consumers than the product. The products may suggest a lifestyle towards which the viewer might aspire to. „‟Buy this car to feel young and sexy.‟‟ Jhally (90) suggests advertising is less about what people are thinking and more about what they are dreaming.
  66. 66. Research has suggested that hard and soft selling appeal to different people. Use page 422 to make notes on how!
  67. 67. Celebrity endorsement
  68. 68. We often buy products on the advice of a friend, advertisers make use of ‘ready made friendships’ or ‘Parasocial relationships’ that exist between viewers and well know celebrities (Giles 02) These provide the trustworthy and reliable endorsement of a product that make us more willing to ‘give it a go’. Walker (92)investigated the qualities that were associated with different products using different celebrity endorsements and found that the same products were rated differently when endorsed by different celebrities.
  69. 69. Giles (2003) • Make notes on Giles explanation of the more th>n, ‘Where's Lucky’ Campaign. How does this link to the ELM? • Pg 423 Eye book
  70. 70. Evaluation of the effectiveness of T.V. Does Celebrity endorsement work? In a study of the persuasiveness of over 5000 T.V. commercials, Hume (92) concluded that celebrity endorsement did not enhance the persuasive communication of the advert. The impact of advertising? T.V. and cinema advertising have been very successful because they normally have a captive audience (Giles 03), however Comstock and Scharrer (99) found 80% of viewers were likely to leave the room when the adverts came on and some viewers can fast forward the adverts during a programme. Bushman (98) found that both violent and humorous programmes were associated with low levels of recall for advertised material presumably because the emotional response to the T.V. Blunts the degree of attention that viewers pay.
  71. 71. Pg 399 (Bean Book) Summarise the 4 key principles in T.V. Persuasion.
  72. 72. Advertising and Children • What happens to adverts During November and December? • Complete an APFCC for Robinson and Rossiter (74)
  73. 73. Young (90) coined the term „Advertising Literacy‟ referring to an individuals understanding that advertising has a source that is separate to from other T.V programmes and also has persuasive intent. In a meta-analysis Martin (97) found evidence of a strong positive correlation between and comprehension of persuasive intent.
  74. 74. Pester power… Please please please please please please please please ….. It is understood that repeated presentation of adverts on T.V. lead children to make demands on parents for toys they may not easily afford. Pine and Nash (01) found a direct positive correlation between the amount of commercial T.V. watched and the number of toys on their list. However their was no link between the specific toys advertised and those on the list, pointing to a more materialistic culture in those children watching lots of adverts. In Sweden where adverts for under 12‟s are banned their were significantly fewer items on the list.
  75. 75. Evaluation of advertising to children Make notes on:- Difficulties in establishing the role of T.V. in behaviour. Pg 425 (eye)
  76. 76. Exam Questions Discuss one or more explanations for the effectiveness. of TV in Persuasion (15 Marks) How would you make a TV commercial for a perfume for a young career woman effective (10 marks)
  77. 77. The Psychology of Celebrity
  78. 78. Presentation time!!! Research either Social Explanations of attraction to celebrity or Evolutionary explanations of the attraction to celebrity. Social Explanations Evolutionary Explanations Include : Para-social relationships, The Absorption-Addiction model and body image. Include: Preferences for creative individuals, Celebrity Gossip
  79. 79. Celebrity Worship and stalking!! Parasocial relationships – „‟One person is unaware of the existence of the other‟‟ 3 levels of parasocial r‟ships (Giles and Maltby 06) 1. Entertainment social – Person is attracted to celeb because of the entertainment they provide. 2. Intense personal level- Small number of fans become intensely engaged with chosen celeb 3. Borderline Pathological – Smaller number engage in behaviour that is obsessional and pathological e.g. following celeb home and writing to them. At this stage it becomes stalking.
  80. 80. Celeb Worship APFCC- Maltby 01. Although the frequency of these 3 types of worship isn't stated previous research by Maltby (04) suggests that in a sample of 372 people ages 18-47 less than 2% are considered borderline pathological, 5% Intence-Personal and 15% Entertainment social. These categories relate to personality types proposed by Eysenck (91) Psychoticism, neuroticism and extroversion.
  81. 81. Evaluation Research suggests 2 contrasting views of celebrity worship. One suggests fandom as pathological in nature and representing fans apparent confusion between celebs fictional lives and real lives. McCutcheon supports this view with an analysis of a large set of questions about worshipping behaviours. They found evidence of a hierarchy of worship with over-identification with celebrity and obsessing about details of their life at the top. Maltby supports this finding with a negative correlation between celebrity worship and Psychological well being.
  82. 82. Alternatively: If the individual is participating in a social network of fans this behaviour may be beneficial, Maltby suggested that sharing info with friends may promote productive social r‟ships and provide a buffer against everyday stressors.
  83. 83. John Lennon/Mark David Chapman: Chapman gunned down the Beatle in front of his apartment building in one of the saddest days in music history. Gwyneth Paltrow/Dante Soiu: Soiu, a 46-year-old pizza delivery man, sent Paltrow up to five letters a day sometimes, some including pornographic content. She was so freaked out that she told the court during trial that she felt sexually assaulted. Now, he's on lockdown at a psych ward
  84. 84. Stalking Mcivor (08) carried out a survey of 324 psychiatrists attached to a large mental health institution in London and found that 21% had been stalked and 1/3 of these had received physical threats. Although normally regarded as a nuisance Mullens study found that of 145 stalkers 63% had made threats and 36% were assaultive.
  85. 85. Cyber stalking Make a poster about Cyber Stalking. Include: facts, studies and Evaluation.
  86. 86. Check to make sure you have completed all essays to a high standard. (at least your target grade)
  87. 87. End of Topic Test