Public opinion supports
claims about the harmful effects of anti-
Social behaviour on T.V.
¾ people believe that media violence is
the cause of crime and violence in society.
BUT most people believe that they are
not influenced by the media but other
people probably are. The Third Person
Bandura argues that T.V. can shape the
forms that aggressive behaviour takes, it
can direct the viewers attention to
behaviours that they may not have
considered. There is some evidence to
suggest bizarre violent events have followed
soon after their depiction on T.V.
• Video clip of dark knight rising killings
Banduras BoBo dolls
APFCC of Banduras 1986 experiment
Evaluation of Observational learning.
Elaborate on the following evaluation
1) Lack of research support due to ethical
2) Inconsistent effects
Debating the effects
Complete an APFCC for both Huesmann et al (2003)
and Gunter et al (2002).
Huesmann‟s study indicated that children do copy
aggressive and violent behaviour and this even links to
involvement in crime. However, Gunters natural
experiment has demonstrated the importance of
social context and media influence on violence.
A large scale meta analysis supported Huesmann et als
study. Anderson and Bushman (2002) reviewed a
number of studies using different methods with over
48,000 P‟s and found a significant effect on later
aggressive behaviour. This effect was strongest in lab
experiments but there was still a substantial effect
in field and longitudinal studies.
Influences on Physiological
Does your heart beat faster after a scary scene in a
This is called increased arousal and is part of your
Physiological arousal is used to explain why watching
violence may increase the tendency to behave
Q) What does Zillman‟s transfer theory
Q) What is desensitization?
This argument assumes that under normal circumstances
anxiety about violence inhibits its use. Those who are not
used to violence would be more shocked at witnessing an act
of violence in the real world. Frequent viewing of violence
would make the acts appear more common place and cause
viewers to become less anxious and less sensitive about
actual violence. Violence is perceived as more „normal‟ and so
viewer is more likely to engage in violence themselves.
1. Support comes from the findings that boys who were
heavy watchers of violence show lower than average
physiological arousal when watching new scenes of
2. It was found that those with no TV in their town scored
lower in terms of anxiety towards aggressive acts.
Influences on Cognition
Cognitive priming refers to the idea that watching
violence leads people to store memories or scripts of
violent acts, these scripts are then retrieved and
activated in real life situations
Murray et al 2007 used fMRI to compare brain areas
which were active when a sample of 8 children
watched both violent and non violent T.V programmes.
In both conditions the visual motor regions were
activated, however in the violent condition the brain
regions used to regulate emotions were activated and
the areas used to store long term memories. Implying
the acts seen may be stored as aggressive scripts for
A general evaluation
Use page 410 (Eye Book) to explain what
is meant by the following terms.
2. The nature of the audience
3. Methodological problems with media
Anti-social behaviour – Issues and debates
Issue – Gender bias
Point –– Much research into anti-social behaviour in the
media demonstrates gender bias.
Evidence – Research has often focused on acts of male
on male physical violence within the artificial setting of
the laboratory. Samples have often been male students.
Explain - This means that the researchers are ignoring
female viewers‟ responses to the characters and the
situations depicted. Also the gender-bias of the sample
is rarely referred to, samples are often simply called
„college students‟ or „viewers.‟
Anti-social behaviour- Issues and debates.
Point – Much research into anti-social behaviour in the
media is reductionist.
Evidence – Often the researchers are merely counting
the number of violent acts that occur during the
Elaboration - This means that the researchers are
ignoring all of the other factors (cognitive and so on)
that may be driving the behaviour.
Past exam questions
1. It has been suggested that people who watch
violent Media images may be encouraged to imitate
the violence. Discuss. (11 marks)
2. Content analysis has shown that many video games
have violent themes. Many of these games are
aimed at adolescents. There is a growing concern
that such games encourage violent behaviour in
the young people who play them
a) Explain some of the difficulties of conducting
research into the effects of playing video games (5
b) Discuss what psychological research has told us
about some of the effects of video gaming on young
people. (10 marks)
3) Researchers asked child P‟s to name their
favourite T.V. programmes. 15 years later
the P‟s were assessed for anti-social
behaviour. 2 measures of anti-social
behaviour were obtained for each adult.
a) Interview of person who knew P well
b) Criminal reports
A link was found between watching violence
on T.V. and levels of aggression
Other than ethical issues explain 2
methodological issues? (4 marks)
Read the sample essay
and annotate to show
strong areas or any
Explanations of media influences
on pro-Social behaviour.
Much research into the positive effects on
TV have been largely neglected to make
way for many studies into anti-social
Watch the video clip and decide what the message is to
young children and babies. (1.15-2.40)
Describe and evaluate 1 or more explanations of the pro social effects of the media. (10
1. What is the percentage of parents who say that
their under 6 children imitate what they see on TV?
2. Are under 6s more likely to imitate pro social
behaviour (e.g. helping) or anti-social behaviour
3. Give examples of TV programmes which show pro
social behaviour & those which show anti-social
4. The Office for National Statistics (2006) looked at the
average daily minutes spent watching TV & DVDs.
What do you think the mean mins was?
5. Which research methods do you
would use to test these behaviours?
6. Stretch & challenge – using your
knowledge of psychology, can you
think of any explanations for this media
How pro social is TV?
Smith et al (2006)
Analysed 2000+ entertainment shows
randomly selected from 1 week
across 18 US TV channels
Nearly 75% contained at least
1 pro social act
Mean exposure to 3 pro social acts per hour
Pro social acts most commonly found in children’s TV
Approximately 50% contained anti social acts
So children more likely to see pro social acts BUT the anti social
acts were more concentrated which increases their impact
Use Pg 402 (Nelson Thornes)
Pg 412 (eye book)
To fill in a APFCC sheet
Banduras Social Learning Theory
Bandura‟s theory is based on the controversial
Bobo doll studies, it was found violent imitation was
more likely if violent model received rewards
rather than punishment.
Bandura suggests that children learn by first
observing a behaviour, then imitating it if the
expectation of reward is greater that expectation
of punishment for that behaviour. Unlike anti-social
behaviour learning these acts is likely to be in
accordance with established social norms and so
these acts are likely to be associated with social
Explanations of media influences on pro
social behaviour (modelling)
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling)
4 stages to modelling:
1. Attention – is paid to models we identify with e.g. attractive,
high status, similar gender etc
2. Retention – we need to memorise the behaviours observed
3. Reproduction – reproduction of the observed behaviour only
occurs if the person has the skills
4. Motivation - direct & indirect (vicarious) reinforcement acts as
motivation to imitate (can be + or – reinforcement or punishment)
Social learning theory argues that children
learn behaviour through 2 mechanisms.
1. Learning via direct experience – Based on
Skinners principle of operant conditioning.
Rewarded behaviour is likely to be
2. Vicarious Learning – Learning through
observation and imitation of role models
Children don‟t just copy anyone but choose
powerful individuals as role models.
Social Learning Theory Evaluation
1) Exposure to filmed models has less
effect than exposure to real-life models.
Pro-social programming does appear to have
an effect but this is short-lived and doesn‟t
generalise to new settings.
2) Eisenberg 83- prolonged viewing could
result in substantial and enduring increases
in pro social behaviour.
3) Bandura was forced to extend their
theory to acknowledge the importance of
cognitive factors to explain how the child
responded to watching violence. In order to
imitate the violence they must pay attention
and store a representation of it in their
Evidence of modelling pro social
Sprafkin et al (1975) –
6 years olds watched an episode of Lassie
1. Watched puppy rescue scene
2. Watched a scene with no rescue
3. Watched The Brady Bunch
All children then played a game where a
prize could be won
All came across some seemingly distressed pups
Children in gp 1 spent more time comforting
the pups than the other groups – even at
the cost of not winning the prize
Suggests that watching a helpful model can
create a social norm which encourages
pro social behaviour
Explanations of media influences on pro
social behaviour (parental influence)
Children often watch TV with a parent
Some programmes actually suggest this
e.g. Watch with mother
By watching (or discussing afterwards) it
enables any difficult concepts or ambiguous
situations to be clarified.
Can also discuss moral content
Result – the pro social message can be
reinforced – particularly important for young
children so that they gain a full understanding
Pro social behaviours are more difficult than anti
social to understand
More dialogue, less action & more challenging to
Evidence of parental influence
McKenna & Ossoff (1998) – children aged 4-10
asked about moral messages in one episode
of Power Rangers
Most knew there was a message involved
BUT only those 8+ could identify it
Under 8s focused on the fighting rather than the
If parents help the child to unpack what
they have seen then the pro social effects
are maximised & anti social reduced
Singer & Singer (1998) – supports how parents
can help reinforce pro social messages if
they watch with the child & then explain &
discuss the moral content
Evidence of parental influence
Fogel (2007) – looked at effects on children
aged 8-12 who watched pro social sitcoms
Sample – Californian children
Filled in q about their viewing habits
Then assigned to one of two groups
Group 1 = watched 30 mins of Hang Time then
had 30 min discussion about it with an adult
Group 2 – (control) watched same episode but
no follow up discussion
Those in the experimental condition were
more pro social in terms of tolerance &
Therefore adult mediation does help
children gain the most from pro social TV
Explanations of media influences on
pro social behaviour (empathy)
Empathy – the ability to put oneself in another
person’s shoes & feel the emotion that they are
Starts to develop from 18mths – But egocentric
(preoccupation with one's own internal world) at
this age - By 3 more genuine empathy
Pro social influences from the media = the
individual considers they share experiences
with the media character & identifies with them
& their behaviour
Evidence of empathy
Duck (1990) – teenagers chose media figures
that they wanted to be like
This is based on their own characteristics
A 14 year old F with high self-esteem chose Meryl
Streep as “she is a person not worried by what
In contrast a M with low self-esteem chose a
fantasy game character as “he has no feelings”
Yancey et al (2002) – children may form an
attachment with media characters at a young
age & this may continue in adolescence
40% of teenagers named a media
figure as a role model
Similar to the % for parents/relatives
Some general evaluation points
Much of this research looks at positive effects of
media which is purposely made to be pro social
There are pro social acts in mainstream TV & the
effects of this when the purpose is pure
entertainment has not been studied.
Much research is correlational therefore no cause
& effect. Content analysis may also be flawed as
it is a simple tally of pro social acts & does not
include content or meaning of acts.
Outline and evaluate one psychological
explanation of media influence on pro
social behaviour (8)
Discuss Psychological research into media
influences on pro-social behaviour (10)
The effects of Video Games and
Explaining the effects of violent gaming
General aggression model: a person‟s reaction to violent
games depends on:
input variables (e.g. mood, personality)
situational variables (e.g. provocation).
Exposure to games may affect behaviour by:
increasing arousal (physiological)
priming aggressive thoughts (cognitive)
increasing hostile feelings (affective).
Increased Physiological arousal – as with watching
violence, playing violent games leads to an increase in
physiological arousal as shown by heart beat and blood
pressure. Music is an important factor in increasing
arousal. Tafalla (2007) found that both men and Women
showed increased arousal when music was playing.
Reduced Helping Behaviours – Sheese and Graziano
(2005) 48 p‟s played either a violent or doctored, non-
violent version of the game DOOM in pairs. They were
then given the option of co-operating, exploiting each
other or withdrawing from the game. They found that
those who had played the violent version were more likely
to choose to exploit rather than co-operate, they argue
that playing violent games may undermine cooperative
and pro social behaviours.
Increased aggressive behaviour, cognitions and feelings? - In
contrast to watching violence research into playing computer
games has implied that they probably don’t increase aggressive
behaviour in some people (argued by Sherry 2001)
Unsworth et al (2007) disputed the view than there is a link
between playing computer games and aggressive behaviour in most
people. They measured players for aggressive feelings before,
during and afterplaying QUAKE 2and found that feelings did not
change in most players – only those who were already aggressive
before the game began became more angry after playing
Schie and Wiegman (1997) studied 346 children and found no
relationship between time spent playing games and levels of
aggression. However time spent playing was positively correlated
with child's intelligence.
Desensitization to violence - Advances in technology have
also led to an increased ability to study brain responses to
Fostering aggression (Anderson et al 2007)
Longitudinal study at 2 points in a school year
Sample size 430. The measurement of media violence =
3 favourite TV shows, 3 favourite videos, 3 favourite
movies. For each movie p’s were asked to rate how
frequently they watched or played on a 5 point scale
and how violent they considered them to be. The effect
size for violent video games was remarkably high,
accounting for 8.8% of the variance in aggression (well
above that accounted for by substance abuse, abusive
parents or poverty.)
Create a leaflet for parents on the possible effects of video games including:
Benefits: computer gaming can improve certain cognitive skills e.g. attention skills
Games with a pro-social theme can promote helping behaviour in children who
Some active games allow children to use up more energy than sitting watching tv.
Internet communication can nurture friendships and help shy children to
Risks: Some evidence that playing violent video games fosters aggression in the
players (or children with an aggressive pre-disposition tend to be adversely
influenced so parents should be especially careful in this case)
Obesity problems in young people
Poor relationships with family and friends if too much time is spent playing games
Children can become addicted to the internet or game playing
Internet communication can lead to unhealthy communication and social
networking sites need to be carefully monitored.
What sort of information should be included in a leaflet for parents on the
possible effects of video games(10)
• Content analysis has shown that many video
games have violent themes. Many of these games
are aimed at adolescents. There is a growing
concern that such games encourage violent
behaviour in the young people who play them.
• Explain some of the difficulties of conducting
research into the effects of playing video games
• Discuss what psychological research has told us
about some of the effects of video games on
• What sort of information should be included
in a leaflet for parents on the possible effects
of video games(10)
Persuasion and Attitude change
What was being advertised here?
What do you think happened as a result of this
In the following year –
1. Levis 501 sales increased by 800%
2. I heard in through the grapevine was re-
released and went straight to No.1
3. This sparked a succession of re-released
4. Boxer shorts became increasing popular
What is your favourite advert and why??
What makes it stick in your mind?
Love DAD x
The Hovland-Yale model
Towards the end of World War 2,
Hovland was recruited by the US war
dept to investigate how propaganda could be
used to help the American war effort.
After the war the research into persuasive
communication continued at Yale university
Hence the Hovland-Yale model ….
The H-Y model continued
Hovland suggested that they key to
understanding when a communication was
understanding the characteristics of the person
presenting the message (The source), the
contents of the message itself and the
characteristics of the receiver of the message
Make notes on these 3 areas –
The source, the message and the audience
(Pg417 eye book)
Additional research – (Pg 392 bean book)
Sequential process of change.
Accept or Reject
Everyday we are
adverts and messages
many of which we
React to the message
with agreement or
dispute it as rubbish!
Evaluation of the Hovland Yale Model
Individual differences in Audience effects
1) Rhodes and wood(92) conducted a meta-
analysis and found that people of lower
intelligence were more prone to
2) Rutland (99) researched the development
of prejudiced attitudes in children and found
that notional prejudice and group favouritism
were not apparent in young children but
emerged at age 12 and reached a peak at 16.
Outline the Hovland-Yale model of
Include background, characteristics of
source, content, receiver.
Reference to the 4 stages of the model are
Petty and Cacioppo (86) thinks the key to a persuasive
message is whether or not an individual elaborates on
the message. In some situations people are sufficiently
motivated to analyse the content of a message but in
others the persuasive message is more to do with the
context of the message.
2 routes to persuasion
Central route - which involves analysis and elaboration
Peripheral route – no elaboration/analysis.
The Central Route
In this route it is the message that is most
important. For communication to be effective it
must be convincing. If an individual finds a
message interesting or personally involving and
they understand the argument being used it is
likely they will process the message through the
Attitudes formed as a result of the central
route would be stronger and more resistant to
The Peripheral Route
Individuals are more likely to be
influenced by context cues (mood, image
etc). Attitudes acquired via the
peripheral route are more susceptible to
change. Communications that are
considered not personally relevant or less
important are processed using this route.
Would you be likely to process the
following adverts down the Central
route or the peripheral route
1. A car advert showing a car driving around on
a beach at sunset with relaxing music playing
2. A factual advert for student finance
3. The Garnier advert for shampoo with lady
showering under waterfall
4. An advert for V Fest.
The need for cognition
„‟somebody with a need for cognition likes to get to grips
with arguments and would agree with the statement- I
like to solve problems and puzzles‟
Somebody with the need for cognition
(NC) is more likely to use the central
This is supported by Vidine et al (90)
Complete an APFCC – Pg 393 bean book
Systematic Vs Heuristic processing
Shelly Chaiken (80)
• Support for the ELM – as this model
agrees that there are 2 types of
processing which loosely correspond to the
central and peripheral routes.
• Heuristic processing is making shortcuts
and simplifying things to make up our mind
but context (where and how something is
said) is more important than the message.
• Systematic processing is used when we
consider the arguments carefully and is
normally used when making more important
Concluding our persuasion models
Use Page 395 (Bean) to write a
concluding paragraph to an essay about
the H-Y model and the EL model.
Include attitudes shared by many
(Collective Attitudes) and Discursive
The influence of attitudes on
In groups make a presentation on
Cognitive Consistency or
Cognitive dissonance or
Ready for next lesson
Outline the elaboration likelihood model
of persuasion. How might a mobile phone
company use knowledge of this to market
a new phone (10 Marks)
Making a film
„‟Students are producing a film to encourage school
leavers to apply for a science instead of an arts
course use your knowledge of persuasion and
attitude change to identify some factors that they
might take into account‟‟.
Include: source, content, medium it is transmitted,
May identify: factors such as Age, gender, status
or describe sequence of attitude change (attention,
comprehension, reactance and acceptance)
Explanations for the
persuasiveness of TV advertising.
Psychological ideas such as the HYM and
the ELM have found a home in the
attempts to change peoples unhealthy
behaviours (smoking, driving too fast etc)
or consumer behaviours (What we buy).
Hard and Soft Selling
A recent shift away from hard selling (lots of
facts about a product) to a more soft sell
approach (more focus on the consumers than the
product. The products may suggest a lifestyle
towards which the viewer might aspire to.
„‟Buy this car to feel young and sexy.‟‟
Jhally (90) suggests advertising is less about
what people are thinking and more about what
they are dreaming.
Research has suggested that hard and
soft selling appeal to different people.
Use page 422 to make notes on how!
We often buy products on the advice of a friend,
advertisers make use of ‘ready made friendships’ or
‘Parasocial relationships’ that exist between
viewers and well know celebrities (Giles 02)
These provide the trustworthy and reliable
endorsement of a product that make us more
willing to ‘give it a go’.
Walker (92)investigated the qualities that were
associated with different products using different
celebrity endorsements and found that the same
products were rated differently when endorsed by
• Make notes on Giles explanation of the
more th>n, ‘Where's Lucky’ Campaign.
How does this link to the ELM?
• Pg 423 Eye book
Evaluation of the effectiveness of T.V.
Does Celebrity endorsement work?
In a study of the persuasiveness of over 5000 T.V. commercials,
Hume (92) concluded that celebrity endorsement did not
enhance the persuasive communication of the advert.
The impact of advertising?
T.V. and cinema advertising have been very successful because
they normally have a captive audience (Giles 03), however
Comstock and Scharrer (99) found 80% of viewers were likely to
leave the room when the adverts came on and some viewers can
fast forward the adverts during a programme.
Bushman (98) found that both violent and humorous
programmes were associated with low levels of recall for
advertised material presumably because the emotional response
to the T.V. Blunts the degree of attention that viewers pay.
Pg 399 (Bean Book)
Summarise the 4 key principles in T.V.
Advertising and Children
• What happens to adverts During November
• Complete an APFCC for Robinson and Rossiter
Young (90) coined the term „Advertising
Literacy‟ referring to an individuals
understanding that advertising has a
source that is separate to from other T.V
programmes and also has persuasive
In a meta-analysis Martin (97) found
evidence of a strong positive correlation
between and comprehension of persuasive
Pester power… Please please please
please please please please please …..
It is understood that repeated presentation of adverts
on T.V. lead children to make demands on parents for
toys they may not easily afford.
Pine and Nash (01) found a direct positive correlation
between the amount of commercial T.V. watched and
the number of toys on their list.
However their was no link between the specific toys
advertised and those on the list, pointing to a
more materialistic culture in those
children watching lots of adverts.
In Sweden where adverts for under 12‟s
are banned their were significantly fewer
items on the list.
Evaluation of advertising to
Make notes on:-
Difficulties in establishing the role of
T.V. in behaviour.
Pg 425 (eye)
Discuss one or more explanations for the
effectiveness. of TV in Persuasion (15
How would you make a TV commercial for
a perfume for a young career woman
effective (10 marks)
Research either Social Explanations of attraction
to celebrity or Evolutionary explanations of the
attraction to celebrity.
Social Explanations Evolutionary Explanations
Include : Para-social relationships, The
Absorption-Addiction model and body
Include: Preferences for creative
individuals, Celebrity Gossip
Parasocial relationships –
„‟One person is unaware of the existence of the
3 levels of parasocial r‟ships (Giles and Maltby 06)
1. Entertainment social – Person is attracted to
celeb because of the entertainment they provide.
2. Intense personal level- Small number of fans
become intensely engaged with chosen celeb
3. Borderline Pathological – Smaller number engage in
behaviour that is obsessional and pathological e.g.
following celeb home and writing to them. At this
stage it becomes stalking.
Although the frequency of these 3 types of
worship isn't stated previous research by
Maltby (04) suggests that in a sample of 372
people ages 18-47 less than 2% are
considered borderline pathological, 5%
Intence-Personal and 15% Entertainment
social. These categories relate to personality
types proposed by Eysenck (91)
Psychoticism, neuroticism and extroversion.
Research suggests 2 contrasting views of
One suggests fandom as pathological in nature
and representing fans apparent confusion
between celebs fictional lives and real lives.
McCutcheon supports this view with an analysis of
a large set of questions about worshipping
behaviours. They found evidence of a hierarchy
of worship with over-identification with celebrity
and obsessing about details of their life at the
top. Maltby supports this finding with a negative
correlation between celebrity worship and
Psychological well being.
If the individual is participating in a social
network of fans this behaviour may be
beneficial, Maltby suggested that sharing
info with friends may promote productive
social r‟ships and provide a buffer against
John Lennon/Mark David Chapman:
Chapman gunned down the Beatle in
front of his apartment building in one
of the saddest days in music history.
Gwyneth Paltrow/Dante Soiu: Soiu, a 46-year-old pizza
delivery man, sent Paltrow up to five letters a day
sometimes, some including pornographic content. She
was so freaked out that she told the court during trial that
she felt sexually assaulted. Now, he's on lockdown at a
Mcivor (08) carried out a survey of 324
psychiatrists attached to a large mental
health institution in London and found that
21% had been stalked and 1/3 of these had
received physical threats.
Although normally regarded as a nuisance
Mullens study found that of 145 stalkers
63% had made threats and 36% were
Make a poster about Cyber Stalking.
Include: facts, studies and Evaluation.
Check to make sure you have
completed all essays to a high
standard. (at least your target