Describe the first systems of law enforcement in colonial America.
The Early American Police Experience ◦ Mirrored the English system The First Police Department ◦ Watch system
Tell how the patronage system affected policing.
Form of corruption in which the political party in power hires and promotes police officers, receiving job-related favors in return.
Professionalism Administrative Reforms Technology Turmoil in the 1960s The Challenges of Anti-Terrorism
List the four basic responsibilities of the police.
Enforce laws Provide services Prevent crime Preserve the peace
List five main types of law enforcement agencies.
Local police departments Sheriffs’ departments Special police agencies State police Federal law enforcement
There are over 17,500 ◦ Roughly 3,067 sheriff’s departmentslaw enforcement ◦ About 1,481 special policeagencies in the United agencies, limited to policingStates, employing more parks, schools, airports, and other locales than 1 million people. ◦ 49 state police departments (Hawaii being the exception) ◦ 70 federal law enforcement agencies ◦ 12,766 local police departments
Municipal Law Enforcement Agencies: ◦ Most police officers work in small and medium-sized police departments ◦ While New York City has the largest police department (with about 34,000 employees), roughly 55 percent of all local police department have 10 or fewer officers ◦ Municipal police agencies have the broadest authority to apprehend criminal suspects, maintain order, and provide services to the community
Sheriffs and County Law Enforcement: ◦ Every county in the United States (except those in Alaska) has a sheriff ◦ The sheriff is an elected position, and is therefore in many ways also a politician
The Sheriff’s Department is responsible for:◦ Investigating violent crime◦ Investigating drug offenses◦ Maintaining the county jail◦ Serving evictions and court summonses◦ Keeping order in the courthouse◦ Collecting taxes◦ Enforcing orders of the court, such as sequestration of a jury
State Police and Highway Patrols: ◦ The most visible state law enforcement agency is the state police or highway patrol agency ◦ Historically, state police agencies were created to: Assist local police agencies Investigate criminal activities that crossed jurisdictional boundaries Provide law enforcement in rural and other areas that did not have local or county police agencies Break strikes and control labor movements
Federal law enforcement agencies: ◦ Small percentage of the nation’s law enforcement force in numbers, but have a substantial influence ◦ Authorized to enforce specific laws or attend to specific situations ◦ The most far-reaching reorganization of the federal government since World War II took place in 2002 and 2003, with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security
Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security.
The Department of Homeland Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (BCP) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) The U.S. Secret Service
The Department of Justice: The Federal Bureau of Investigation The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives The Drug Enforcement Administration The U.S. Marshals Service The Department of the Treasury
FBI duties: ◦ Has jurisdiction over nearly 200 federal crimes ◦ Provides support to local and state law enforcement agencies ◦ Maintains a database of fingerprint information and offers assistance in finding missing persons and identifying the victims of disasters ◦ National Crime Information Center is accessible to state and local law enforcement
Analyze the importance of private security today.
Over $100 billion The function of spent each year private security is to Over 10,000 U.S. deter crime rather private security firms than stop it 1.1 million people Security officers only employed in security report crimes, and in each year some cases, make citizens’ arrests.
Privatizing Law Enforcement ◦ Citizens’ Arrests ◦ The Deterrence Factor Private Security Trends ◦ Lack of Standards ◦ Continued Growth in the Industry