Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  2. 2.  Describe the first systems of law enforcement in colonial America.
  3. 3.  The Early American Police Experience ◦ Mirrored the English system The First Police Department ◦ Watch system
  4. 4.  Tell how the patronage system affected policing.
  5. 5.  Form of corruption in which the political party in power hires and promotes police officers, receiving job-related favors in return.
  6. 6.  Professionalism Administrative Reforms Technology Turmoil in the 1960s The Challenges of Anti-Terrorism
  7. 7.  List the four basic responsibilities of the police.
  8. 8.  Enforce laws Provide services Prevent crime Preserve the peace
  9. 9.  List five main types of law enforcement agencies.
  10. 10.  Local police departments Sheriffs’ departments Special police agencies State police Federal law enforcement
  11. 11. There are over 17,500 ◦ Roughly 3,067 sheriff’s departmentslaw enforcement ◦ About 1,481 special policeagencies in the United agencies, limited to policingStates, employing more parks, schools, airports, and other locales than 1 million people. ◦ 49 state police departments (Hawaii being the exception) ◦ 70 federal law enforcement agencies ◦ 12,766 local police departments
  12. 12. Municipal Law Enforcement Agencies: ◦ Most police officers work in small and medium-sized police departments ◦ While New York City has the largest police department (with about 34,000 employees), roughly 55 percent of all local police department have 10 or fewer officers ◦ Municipal police agencies have the broadest authority to apprehend criminal suspects, maintain order, and provide services to the community
  13. 13. Sheriffs and County Law Enforcement: ◦ Every county in the United States (except those in Alaska) has a sheriff ◦ The sheriff is an elected position, and is therefore in many ways also a politician
  14. 14. The Sheriff’s Department is responsible for:◦ Investigating violent crime◦ Investigating drug offenses◦ Maintaining the county jail◦ Serving evictions and court summonses◦ Keeping order in the courthouse◦ Collecting taxes◦ Enforcing orders of the court, such as sequestration of a jury
  15. 15. State Police and Highway Patrols: ◦ The most visible state law enforcement agency is the state police or highway patrol agency ◦ Historically, state police agencies were created to:  Assist local police agencies  Investigate criminal activities that crossed jurisdictional boundaries  Provide law enforcement in rural and other areas that did not have local or county police agencies  Break strikes and control labor movements
  16. 16. Federal law enforcement agencies: ◦ Small percentage of the nation’s law enforcement force in numbers, but have a substantial influence ◦ Authorized to enforce specific laws or attend to specific situations ◦ The most far-reaching reorganization of the federal government since World War II took place in 2002 and 2003, with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security
  17. 17.  Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security.
  18. 18. The Department of Homeland Security:  U.S. Customs and Border Protection (BCP)  U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)  The U.S. Secret Service
  19. 19. The Department of Justice:  The Federal Bureau of Investigation  The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives  The Drug Enforcement Administration  The U.S. Marshals Service The Department of the Treasury
  20. 20.  Identify the duties of the FBI.
  21. 21.  FBI duties: ◦ Has jurisdiction over nearly 200 federal crimes ◦ Provides support to local and state law enforcement agencies ◦ Maintains a database of fingerprint information and offers assistance in finding missing persons and identifying the victims of disasters ◦ National Crime Information Center is accessible to state and local law enforcement
  22. 22.  Analyze the importance of private security today.
  23. 23.  Over $100 billion  The function of spent each year private security is to Over 10,000 U.S. deter crime rather private security firms than stop it 1.1 million people  Security officers only employed in security report crimes, and in each year some cases, make citizens’ arrests.
  24. 24.  Privatizing Law Enforcement ◦ Citizens’ Arrests ◦ The Deterrence Factor Private Security Trends ◦ Lack of Standards ◦ Continued Growth in the Industry