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Presentation final

  1. 1. India's Food Culture 1. Introduction to Indian foods: ● Geographical and Historical Influences ● 2. Beliefs and Practices: ● Religious Influences on Dietary Habits ● Cultural and Economic Influences on Diet ● Typical Indian Foods and Australian Alternatives ● Food Culture within the family unit 3. Comparison to Australian Guidelines: ● Typical Indian meal patterns ● Comparison with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
  2. 2. Intro To India And Its Food Culture Indians account for 5.6% of the total overseas-born population in Australia (ABS, 2011) India's local populations happily absorb aspects of migrants' cuisines, adding to the variety of local dishes produced
  3. 3. Geographical/Migratory Influences On Indian Food Culture India is a country that is diverse not only in climate and geographical features, but also in the resulting local food cultures, with many differences between the cuisines of individual regions Interstate migration promotes an exchange of food cultures, including rituals and recipes
  4. 4. Beliefs And Practices influencing Food Culture Hindus do not eat beef, as cows are sacred animals, adored for the nurturing qualities of their milk and dairy products Muslims will not Eat pork, as pigs Are seen as 'unclean' animals
  5. 5. Beliefs And Practices Influencing Indian Food Culture Diwali – 'The Festival Of Lights' (...and The sharing of sweets!) During Ramadan, Muslims Abstain from food and drink during daylight hours to purify their soul and refocus on god
  6. 6. Typical Foods Eaten In India
  7. 7. Typical Foods Eaten in India While there has been a recent increase in overall per capita income in India, a third of India lives well below the poverty line As a result, a large proportion of the population must rely on cheap staples (e.g. bread, rice) that have a higher energy density than the Lower-kilojoule, nutrient-dense foods (e.g. lean protein)
  8. 8. Type of Food Southern India Northern India Breads & cereals Rice, Pasta (wheat- or rice - based) Breads (from Wheat, Maize) Fruit Abundance of fresh, tropical fruits (e.g. mango, bananas, lychee, etc) Mango, pineapple, figs, apples (mostly dried) Vegetables (incl. legumes) arcca nut, sago plants, yams, tomatoes, lentils, pumpkin, peas, sweet potato, radish, okra, squash Beans, legumes, peas, potato, onion, chick peas, kidney beans, spinach, cabbage, carrot Meats, protein sources Mutton, nuts, fish Chicken, lamb & mutton, fish (in coastal areas), nuts, goat Dairy and Alternatives Buttermilk, yoghurt, ghee Place great emphasis on milk products (butter, paneer, cream) Fats and Oils Ghee, coconut oil, -cream and -milk Ghee, vegetable oils (mustard, sunflower, canola and peanut oil) Beverages Buttermilk, iced water, strong coffee with lots of milk iced water, yoghurt based drink called lassi, tea Characteristic herbs and spices cumin, poppy seeds, muskmelon, curry leaves, tamarind, cassia bark, sesame seeds Cumin, chilli, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper , coriander (Thangham 2003, p. 248-267)
  9. 9. Typical Indian Foods and Australian Alternatives 'Indians account for 5.6% of the total overseas-born population in Australia (ABS, 2011)' 'Most traditional Indian foods are readily available in Australia these days due to globalisation (Palmer, 2010, p.1)' 'Many Indian restaurants in Australia 'westernise' their dishes, Adding unnecessary amounts of Fat and sodium.'
  10. 10. Food Culture within the Family Unit Cooking is considered an art and is passed down through a family's generations from mother to daughter Meal times are when the family comes together, a sacred part of the day which is very rarely missed
  11. 11. A 'Typical' Day's Intake (non-fasting day) Breakfast Northern India: Paratha (wholemeal bread) stuffed with shredded vegetables, herbs and spices, served with a dollop of ghee Southern India: Idli – savoury rice&legume cakes served with ghee, sambar (spicy lentils) and coconut chutney Morning Tea Savoury Chaat (potato/bread/legume based), Fried, served with chutney Bhel Puri (rice flour crisps, deep -fried) with tamarind chutney, yoghurt, onion, nuts, herbs and spices (serves: 2x Grains, 1x Vegetables, 1x Extras) (serves: 1x Grains, 1x Oils) Beverages Tea (black, spiced) with full-cream milk and sugar– served with breakfast; Lassi: thinned yoghurt-drink (with morning or afternoon tea) Coffee – served with breakfast, strong, milky Buttermilk – served with afternoon tea or dinner) (serves: 1x Dairy) (Thangham 2003, p. 248-267)
  12. 12. A Typical Day's Intake (non-fasting day) Afternoon Tea Northern India: Chapati (wholemeal flat bread) with spinach and lentil-dal, with yoghurt-sauce and pickles made from dates, chilli and spices Southern India: Boiled rice with rasam (spicy lentil soup) sambar (spicy lentils) yoghurt and fresh mango pickles Dinner Chapati or plain boiled rice Curried carrot and leafy greens (homegrown) Salaan (meat gravy with seasonal vegetables) Split pea- or lentil- based dal sides of fruit-based chutney and yoghurt raita dessert of carrot halwa Boiled rice small serve of fried fish eggplant curry in coconut milk served with yoghurt sauce, lemon pickle some fresh sliced tomato and cucumber, assortment of sweet and savoury chutneys, often chilli-based dessert of fresh seasonal fruit (1x Grains, 1.5 x Vegetables, 0.5 x Dairy , 0.5 x Fruit) (2x Grains, 2.5 x Vegetables, ½ -1x Fruit, 1x Dairy, 1x Protein, 0.5x oils, 1x Extra) (Paan leaf) (Thangham 2003, p. 248-267)
  13. 13. Indian 'typical' intake vs Australian Guide to Healthy Eating As far as this sample plan is representative of an Indian's 'usual' Intake, Indians follow the Australian Guide to healthy eating more closely than Australians do. Dinner is still enjoyed with the whole family, often to celebrate an occasion of religious significance, and therefore deserves the label 'Gold Standard' A limitation of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating when Considering the adequacy of the Indian diet, is that pulses belong to both the protein and the vegetable food-group, but aren't usually counted twice Grains Vegies FruitDairy Protein (Add. serves: 1.5 x Oils, 2x Extras) Overall servings from 'typical' Intake of Indians: 6 x Grains, 5 x Vegetables, 1-2 x Fruit, 2.5 x Dairy 1 x Protein, 1.5 x Oils, 2 x Extras
  14. 14. References Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Cultural diversity in Australia. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2071.0main+features-902012-2013 Amarnath, T. & Shraddha, S., (2011). Interstate Migration and Changing Food Preferences in India. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 50:5, 410-428. DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2011.604586 Dahl, M. (2004). Indian culture and nutrition, Health Care Food and Nutrition Focus, 21(6) Das, S. (2010, n.d.). Diwali: Festival of Lights [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://hinduism.about.com/od/diwalifestivaloflights/a/diwali.htm Das, S. (2013, n.d.). Karwa Chauth: Fast for the Married Hindu Woman [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://hinduism.about.com/od/festivalsholidays/p/karwachauth.htm Department of Immigration and citizenship (DIAC).(2013). Community information summary. Retrieved August 01, 2013, From www.immi.gov.au/media/publicati-ons/statistics/comm.../india.pdf Encyclopaedia Britannica (2010). Islamic world. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295765/Islamic-world Encyclopaedia Britannica (2010). Sanctity of a Cow. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/141206/sanctity-of-the-cow
  15. 15. References - continued Huda (2011, n.d.). What is Ramadan? [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://islam.about.com/od/ramadan/f/ramadanintro.htm Madhaven, M.C. (1985) Indian Emigrants: Numbers, Characteristics, and Economic Impact. Population and Development Review, 11(3) pp. 457-48. Palmer. S. (2010). Indian cuisine, healthy and delicious. Environmental Nutrition, 33(9) Sarkar, P. (2010, n.d.). Discovering Indian Cuisine: A cuisine-focussed look at the regions of India [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://indianfood.about.com/od/thebasics/a/regionfood.htm Thangham, P.(2003). Moghul India/ Northern India/ Southern India. In S Katz & W. Woys (Eds). Encyclopedia Of Food And Culture. (pp 248-267) New York; Thomson Gale UNICEF. (2011). India Statistics, Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_statistics.html World Health Organisation. (2011). Country profiles 2011: India socioeconomic context. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/profiles/ind.pdf World Health Organisation. (2011). Country profiles 2011: Australia socioeconomic context. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/profiles/aus.pdf

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