Dr pachauris bio economy presentation aug12 2013


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"Changing climate - Is resource efficiency a way out of crisis?"
All countries must take more action. Otherwise the climate change will continue steadily. As a result, there is a growing risk that different types of crisis and the struggle for increasingly scarce natural resources, such as clean water, will become more common. Could resource efficiency boost growth at country level and, in this way, prevent conflicts? And what would be the role of resource efficiency in the recovery from conflicts? What are the challenges and opportunities of the bioeconomy in the slowing down of climate change?
Very topical morning seminar in Joensuu Eastern Finland pointed out the relationship between resource efficiency, development and conflicts on the one hand and the relationship between climate change and bioeconomy on the other.
Speeches were given by Doctor Rajendra K. Pachauri, Chairman of IPCC and Heidi Hautala, Finland’s Minister for International Development.
The seminar, organised by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, TERI and the Nordic office of TERI, served as an introduction to the Koli Forum that will take place between 17 and 19 September.
More information is also available at

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Dr pachauris bio economy presentation aug12 2013

  1. 1. Director-General, The Energy and Resources Institute Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1 R. K. Pachauri 12 August 2013 Joensuu, Finland Climate Change and Bio-economy – Challenges and Opportunities
  2. 2. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. -Garrett Hardin
  3. 3. In the 1970s, Georgescu-Roegen coined the term bioeconomics for a new approach in economics: "The term is intended to make us bear in mind continuously the biological origin of the economic process and thus spotlight the problem of mankind's existence with a limited store of accessible resources, unevenly located and unequally appropriated"
  4. 4. Sustainable development 4 “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Source : Brundtland Report, 1987, UN
  5. 5. 5 125,000 years ago…  The polar regions were significantly warmer than present for an extended period  … which led to reductions in polar ice volume and sea level rise of 4 to 6 m . Palaeoclimatic information supports the interpretation that the warmth of the last half century is unusual in at least the previous 1,300 years. Warming Of The Climate System Is Unequivocal Source : IPCC
  6. 6. Understanding climate change 6 Causes of change  Global GHG emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial times, with an increase of 70% between 1970 and 2004  CO2 annual emissions grew by about 80% between 1970 and 2004 Most of the observed increase in temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the increase in anthropogenic GHG concentrations Source : IPCC
  7. 7. Global anthropogenic GHG emissions from 1970 to 2004 7Source : IPCC
  8. 8. Some key findings of the SREX Source: IPCC Changes in extreme events:  heavy precipitation  Warm/cold daily temperature extremes  Heat waves  Sea level rise Some scenarios show that a 1-in-20 year hottest day is likely to become a 1-in-2 year event by the end of the 21st century in most regions.
  9. 9. 9 Abrupt And Irreversible Impacts  Partial loss of ice sheets on polar land could imply meters of sea level rise, major changes in coastlines and inundation of low-lying areas  20-30% of species are likely to be at risk of extinction if increases in warming exceed 1.5-2.5°C  Large scale and persistent changes in Meridional Overturning Circulation would have impacts on marine ecosystem productivity, fisheries, ocean CO2 uptake and terrestrial vegetation Source: IPCC Abrupt And Irreversible Impacts
  10. 10. Fatalities are higher in developing countries 10Source : IPCC From 1970-2008, over 95% of natural-disaster-related deaths occurred in developing countries
  11. 11. 11 Adaptation and Mitigation “Neither adaptation nor mitigation alone can avoid all climate change impacts; however, they can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change” - IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Source : IPCC
  12. 12. “There is substantial […] potential for the mitigation of global GHG emissions over the coming decades that could […] reduce emissions below current levels” 12
  13. 13. What is REDD Plus? REDD + is a financial instrument to incentivize conservation and sustainable management of forests and thereby reducing GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Underlying objectives: Compensating the forest owners in developing countries for conserving forests by putting a value on the forest carbon stocks The countries conserving forests forgo the economic gain of harvesting them as well as the benefits from alternative land use and hence need to be compensated for the same Costs involved in conservation and SMF needs to be shared by other countries as the forests provide a range of offsite ecosystem services that benefit all Given the livelihood linkage of forests in many developing countries, forest conservation imposes several direct and indirect costs 13
  14. 14. Co-benefits of mitigation  Common drivers lie behind mitigation policies and policies addressing economic development, poverty, he alth, employment, energ y security, and local environmental protection  Linking policies provide the opportunity for no- regrets policies reducing greenhouse gases mitigation costs Source : IPCC
  15. 15. Development And Mitigation 15  Health co-benefits from reduced air pollution  Increased energy security  More rural employment  Increased agricultural production  Reduced pressure on natural ecosystems Promising policies will capitalize on synergies between climate protection and development priorities to advance both simultaneously.
  16. 16. 16 Rio +20 and climate change mitigation The Future We Want §191 “ […] Significant gap between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of glob annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with having a likely chance of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C or 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.” Heads of State and Government at Rio +20 : • call for the widest possible cooperation by all countries for an effective and appropriate international response, to reduce global GHGs • Recognize the importance of mobilizing funding to support: • nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), • adaptation measures, • technology development and transfer and • capacity building in developing countries. Source : UN
  17. 17. 17 Rio +20 critical issue: Energy The Future We Want §128 “[…] We recognize that improving energy efficiency, increasing the share of renewable energy, cleaner and energy- efficient technologies are important for sustainable development, including in addressing climate change.” Source : UN
  18. 18. Overcoming barriers 18 A significant increase in the deployment of RE by 2030, 2050 and beyond is indicated in the majority of the 164 scenarios reviewed in this SRREN. However:  A transition to higher shares of RE would imply increasing investments in technologies and infrastructure  Policies play a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies.  Policies include regulations, financial incentives, public finance mechanisms and carbon pricing mechanisms. Source : IPCC SRREN ‘Enabling’ policies support RE development and deployment
  19. 19. Systemic Overview of Bio-energy Production
  20. 20. Schematic View of Commercial Bio-energy Routes
  21. 21. Processing of Bio-fuels
  22. 22. Problems Can’t Be Solved At The Level of Awareness That Created Them - Albert Einstein The difficulty, is not in the new ideas, but in escaping from the old ones -John Maynard Keynes