Chapter 3 classifying abnormality


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Chapter 3 classifying abnormality

  1. 1. Classifying Abnormality: Chapter 3 DIAGNOSIS, ASSESSMENT, AND RESEARCH
  2. 2. The Advantages of Diagnosis <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows clinicians, researchers, and teachers to communicate effectively about their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates research on the causes of disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates decisions about how to treat particular disorders </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Limitations of Diagnosis <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can minimize the unique qualities of individuals’ emotional problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can dehumanize people with oversimplified “labels” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Diagnosis <ul><li>The Advantages And Limitations Of Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Diagnosis can facilitate communication, research, treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: Diagnosis can dehumanize and “label” people </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating Diagnostic Systems <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>The accuracy of a test, measurement, or category system </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-rater reliability - consistency or agreement between multiple judges. </li></ul>Test-retest reliability - consistency or agreement between multiple administrations of the same test
  6. 6. Evaluating Diagnostic Systems <ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>A statistical term for a systematic association between variables . </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul>The consistency of a test, measurement, or category system (many different types)
  7. 7. Evaluating Diagnostic Systems <ul><li>Dimensional system </li></ul><ul><li>A diagnostic system in which individuals are rated for the degree to which they exhibit certain traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical system </li></ul><ul><li>A diagnostic system, like the DSM system, in which individuals are diagnosed according to whether or not they fit certain defined categories. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The History Of Diagnostic Systems For Psychopathology Philippe Pinel Four types of mental abnormality: melancholia mania idiocy dementia Emil Kraepelin: The Founder of Modern Psychiatry Manic Depression & Dementia Praecox
  9. 9. The History Of Diagnostic Systems For Psychopathology <ul><li>The DSM-III revolution and controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved reliability and validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased emphasis on diagnosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining reliability and validity problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural bias </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. table_03_03
  11. 11. Advantages of the Modern DSM System <ul><li>The DSM-III “revolution” resulted in </li></ul><ul><li>Improved reliability (consistency) of the DSM diagnoses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved validity (accuracy) of the DSM diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of the importance of diagnosis and the utility of strong classification systems </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. table_03_01
  13. 13. table_03_05
  14. 14. table_03_02
  15. 15. Limitations of the Modern DSM System <ul><li>The modern DSM approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have sacrificed validity in the pursuit of greater reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May implicitly prioritize biological explanations with its emphasis on observable symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be culturally biased </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. table_03_04
  17. 17. The History Of Diagnostic Systems For Psychopathology <ul><li>Using the DSM-IV-TR </li></ul><ul><li>The Multiaxial System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis I: Symptom disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis II: Personality disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis III: Relevant medical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis V: Level of functioning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. table_03_06
  19. 19. table_03_07
  20. 20. table_03_08
  21. 21. Assessment <ul><li>1) Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Status Exam </li></ul><ul><li>A series of questions designed to assess whether a client has major problems with cognitive functions and orientation to reality </li></ul>Interviews the process of gathering information about a person by talking with him or her
  22. 22. Assessment <ul><li>2) Unstructured Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and Limitations of Interviews </li></ul>
  23. 23. Assessment <ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom and Personality Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Tests designed to measure symptoms or personality traits based on clients’ responses to tructured questions </li></ul><ul><li>Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and Limitations of Symptom and Personality Questionnaires </li></ul>
  24. 24. table_03_09
  25. 25. table_03_10
  26. 26. Assessment <ul><li>Projective Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Tests designed to measure client characteristics based on clients’ responses to and interpretations of ambiguous stimuli </li></ul>Rorschach Test Thematic Apperception Test Draw-A-Person Test Advantages and Limitations of Projective Tests
  27. 27. Assessment <ul><li>Cognitive Tests </li></ul><ul><li> Intelligent Tests </li></ul><ul><li> Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><li> Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Tests </li></ul><ul><li> Wechsler Individual Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><li> Woodcock-Johnson Test </li></ul><ul><li>Neuropschological Tests </li></ul><ul><li> Wechsler Memory Scale </li></ul><ul><li>California Verbal Learning Test </li></ul>
  28. 28. Assessment Brain Dissection/Autopsy Ablation/Lesions Biological Tests: Brain Scanning and Imaging
  29. 29. Assessment Electrical Brain Stimulation Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Biological Tests: Brain Scanning and Imaging
  30. 30. Assessment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Functional MRI (fMRI) Biological Tests: Brain Scanning and Imaging Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  31. 31. Assessment <ul><li>Biological Tests </li></ul><ul><li> Psychophysiological tests </li></ul><ul><li>electromyographs (EMG) </li></ul><ul><li> biofeedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic tests </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Assessment <ul><li>Behavioral Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and limitations of behavioral observation </li></ul>1. Self-monitoring 2. Controlled observational setting 3. Naturalistic observational setting
  33. 33. Diagnosis And Assessment In Perspective <ul><li>Classifying and Understanding: The case of Dave </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Observations of Dave </li></ul><ul><li>The Advantages And Limitations Of The Diagnosis Of Dave </li></ul>
  34. 34. Research Methods In Abnormal Psychology <ul><li>The Goals of Research and Scientific Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Research Design </li></ul>
  35. 35. Research Methods In Abnormal Psychology <ul><li>Statistical and Clinical Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Research Ethics </li></ul>
  36. 36. tableun_03_01