Reading comprehension in service march 2010


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Reading comprehension in service march 2010

  1. 1. Adult Literacy: Reading Comprehension Annette M. Asfaw, Ph.D. March 27, 2010
  2. 2. Reading is: <ul><li>a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires: </li></ul><ul><li>the skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds, are connected to print; </li></ul><ul><li>decoding (word identification) skills, </li></ul><ul><li>fluency, </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary and background knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>active comprehension strategies, and </li></ul><ul><li>a motivation to read. </li></ul><ul><li>[ Partnership for Reading reading_defined.html] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reading Components <ul><li>Research has identified five components of reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All components are necessary for comprehension to occur </li></ul>
  4. 4. Components of Reading Instruction <ul><li>Phonemic awareness training </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency development </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary development </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-strategies instruction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fluency <ul><li>Fluency is required for comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Some level of comprehension is required for fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests that guided repeated oral reading may improve one or more aspects of fluency as well as comprehension (NICHD, 2000, p. 3-28). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Guided Repeated Oral Reading <ul><li>Reading to the teacher or tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Echo reading </li></ul><ul><li>Dyad and choral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Paired or partner reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Tape-assisted reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-generational reading </li></ul>
  7. 7. Considerations in Fluency Instruction <ul><li>Appropriate difficulty level of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Text readability </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’ reading levels </li></ul><ul><li>Length of passage </li></ul><ul><li>Type of text </li></ul><ul><li>Audiotapes </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Silent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency standards </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vocabulary Development <ul><li>Oral vocabulary is the first key </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension cannot occur unless the meanings of most of the words in the text are understood </li></ul><ul><li>Good readers learn new words through reading </li></ul><ul><li>Most adults in literacy programs have neither the vocabulary nor the required conceptual background to understand some words even if they are well defined </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary development is often especially necessary for ESL learners </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Pre-teach unfamiliar words </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure multiple exposures </li></ul><ul><li>Engage learners in using and working with the words in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach word-learning strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using context clues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using a dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage wide reading of level-appropriate materials in various subjects </li></ul>
  10. 10. Choosing Words to Teach <ul><li>Useful words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal words and phrases that mark relationships between ideas and information, like therefore , in contrast , however , consequently , although , despite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idiomatic expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words in the news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject-matter terminology (e.g., GED preparation, work-focused classes, or job training </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Choosing Words to Teach <ul><li>Difficult words: </li></ul><ul><li>Homophones - words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (e.g., aloud and allowed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Homographs - words that look the same but have different meanings (e.g., b ear (animal), bear (support or carry), and bear (tolerate) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Addressing Background Knowledge <ul><li>The knowledge required to read with understanding goes beyond the level of individual words. A reader may know what all the words in a given passage mean (at some level, in some context) but not understand the passage at all. </li></ul>
  13. 13. To Comprehend, One Interacts with the Text <ul><li>Good Readers: </li></ul><ul><li>Are aware of why they are reading a text </li></ul><ul><li>Gain an overview of the text before reading </li></ul><ul><li>Make predictions about the upcoming text </li></ul><ul><li>Read selectively based on their overview </li></ul><ul><li>Associate ideas in text with what they already know </li></ul><ul><li>Note whether their predictions and expectations about text content are being met </li></ul><ul><li>Revise their prior knowledge when compelling new ideas conflicting with prior knowledge are encountered </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out the meanings of unfamiliar vocabulary based on context clues </li></ul><ul><li>Underline and reread and make notes and paraphrase to remember important points </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the text </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate its quality </li></ul><ul><li>Review important points as they conclude reading </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how ideas encountered in the text might be used in the future </li></ul><ul><li>(Pressley, 2001, Active comprehension strategies section, paragraph 1.) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Knowledge of Comprehension Strategies <ul><li>Adult learners may not be aware of strategies to achieve better understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Poor readers probably don’t know what good readers do </li></ul><ul><li>Need to teach adult learners to use comprehension monitoring and repair strategies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comprehension Strategies <ul><li>Comprehension monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAP (Read, Ask questions, Paraphrase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. INSERT <ul><li>= I agree </li></ul><ul><li>X I thought differently </li></ul><ul><li>+ New information </li></ul><ul><li>! Wow </li></ul><ul><li>? I don’t get it </li></ul><ul><li>* I know this is important </li></ul>
  17. 17. Comprehension Strategies <ul><ul><li>Monitoring and repair strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can’t read this word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t know what this word means </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’m confused. I don’t get it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Comprehension Strategies <ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question answering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching to make inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question generating </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary: Comprehension-Strategy Instruction <ul><li>Teach how and when to use several broadly applicable, research-based strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teach strategies explicitly </li></ul><ul><li>Teach strategies one at a time, providing plenty guided practice </li></ul><ul><li>Model the strategies for learners by thinking aloud as you read </li></ul><ul><li>Consider applying the comprehension strategies to listening comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Consider readability level and learners’ background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Because decoding, fluency, and vocabulary are required for comprehension, include instruction/practice in all appropriate components in reading lessons </li></ul>
  20. 20. Resources <ul><li>1. Applying Research in Reading Instruction for Adults: First Steps for Teachers by Susan McShane (You may download the book for free at: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teaching Adults Who Learn Differently: An Extensive Guide for Literacy Teachers and Tutors (L. Skinner, P. Gillespie, & L. Balkam, 2000) </li></ul>