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  1. 1. By Miguel Angel Carranza, MsE.
  2. 2. Quotes on Evaluation <ul><li>“ It can not be denied that a great deal of language testing is of very poor quality...they (the tests) often fail to measure accurately whatever it is they are intended to measure” (Hughes, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many beginning teachers believe that their most important or only responsibility is to select </li></ul><ul><li>effective instructional procedures” (Sax, 2002). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of a Good Test <ul><li>1. Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>The truthfulness or accuracy within the score of a test or interpretation of an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>How should a reading or listening test be designed? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the TOEFL evaluate? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reliability (consistency) : The extent to which individual differences are measured consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>Does a clasroom, its conditions or the environment affect students` results? E.g: a marching band… health or personal problems:a fever. Taking the listening part at a noisy place? With poor equipement? </li></ul><ul><li>Being drunk or sober? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. Practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Financial limitations, time constraints, ease of administation, and scoring and interpreation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of tests <ul><li>A) Placement test </li></ul><ul><li>B) Diagnostic test </li></ul><ul><li>C) Progress or achievement test* </li></ul><ul><li>D) Proficiency test </li></ul><ul><li>__ designed to measure how much a student has learned at a given moment in a course. </li></ul><ul><li>__ designed to get a general picture of a student’s knowledge and ability. </li></ul><ul><li>__ designed to measure a student’s strengths and weaknesses in order to better things </li></ul><ul><li>__ designed to fit new students in a course according to their level of language competence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. But , why do we evaluate? <ul><li>to measure students` learning </li></ul><ul><li>to measure teaching effectiveness and to improve it! </li></ul><ul><li>To provide feedack to students, to teachers, and parents! </li></ul><ul><li>To diagnose students´ weaknesses and strengths </li></ul><ul><li>to identify which students are in need of remedial or advance work. </li></ul><ul><li>To teach without evaluation is a contradiction in terms” (Sax, 1997). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Terms in evaluation <ul><li>A test: is a task or series of tasks used to obtain </li></ul><ul><li>systematic observations, usually paper and </li></ul><ul><li>pencil procedure, about sts´s performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement: is the process that assigns </li></ul><ul><li>numbers to attributes or characteristics of </li></ul><ul><li>persons, objects, or events according to explicit </li></ul><ul><li>formulations or rules. More quantitative </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assessment vrs Evaluation <ul><li>Assessment: the process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information to aid in decision making. More qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: the process of determining the value or worth of a program, course, or other initiative, toward the ultimate goal of making decisions about adopting, rejecting, or revising the innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is the more inclusive term , often making use of assessment data in addition to many other data sources. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Discrete point testing vrs integrative testing <ul><li>Discrete point testing refers to measuring one element at a time, item by item: a series of items, each testing particular grammatical structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative requires the candidate to combine many language elements in the completion of a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete point testing will be indirect and </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative will be direct. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Direct and indirect test items <ul><li>It is direct if it asks candidates to perform the communicative skill which is being tested </li></ul><ul><li>( through a composition, oral interview) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect items: measure a students´ knowledge and ability by getting at what lies beneath their receptive and productive skills ( controlled items: multiple choice type for example). </li></ul>