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Kolencik Definition of Instructional Design and Technology


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Kolencik Definition of Instructional Design and Technology

  1. 1. Instructional Design and Technology Delivery of Knowledge and Skills using Appropriate Techniques Processes and Resources M. Kathryn Kolencik EDIT6100 – Dr. Clinton
  2. 2. Historical Timeline – Instructional Media Instructional Media: The physical means of instructional delivery other than the teacher, chalkboard, and textbook. (Reiser, 2001 part I, p. 55) 1905 First school museum in St. Louis 1910 1974 1941 First catalog of instructional films Advent of the Personal Computer WWII training films 2004 Podcasting 1908 1920 1953 1985 Visual Instruction movement Begins Birth of instructional radio Use of television in education World’s first graphing calculator
  3. 3. Instructional Media: Historical Analysis 1910s Visual Instruction 1952 1930s FCC sets aside 242 educational TV channels Audiovisual Movement 1950s Television 1968 “Increased presence of technology in the schools does not necessarily mean an increased use of that technology for instructional purposes.” (Reiser, 2001 part I, p. 60) Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood debuts 1969 Sesame Street Premiere 1980s Personal Computers 1995 Internet Commercialized
  4. 4. Instructional Design: Historical Analysis Individualized, self-paced, self-corrective instruction 1920s Skinner’s programmed 1990s instruction; Bloom’s Taxonomy; major funding to math & science after launch of Sputnik Gagne; learning objectives; criterionreferenced evaluation 1950s 1960s Cognitive Load Theory; EPSS; rapid prototyping 1980s PCs; instructional systems in business and industry 1930s Behavior objectives; formative evaluations 1940s Military training benefits from IDT during WWII 1970s Cognitive psychology merges with instructional design
  5. 5. IDT: Building a Model
  6. 6. IDT: Foundation Ethics • Ethical use of media • Respect for intellectual property • The Digital Divide Content • Knowledge about the subject matter or skill to be taught • Central facts, concepts, theories and procedures Subject Matter Expert (SME)
  7. 7. • • Information processing processing • • Piaget’s constructivism constructivism • • Situated cognition cognition • Social • Social constructivism constructivism • Vygotsky’s • Vygotsky’s constructivism constructivism • Motivation • Motivation Instructional • Instructional Development • • Subject Matter Expert input • • Analyze goals • • Design learning solution • • Develop elements of solution • Implement training • Evaluate Appropriate Technology • How People Learn Learn Design Methods Theory and Research IDT: Three Pillars Support for • Support for Learning Learning • Computer • Computer Software Software • Worldwide web • Worldwide web • Email, social • Email, social networking, networking, usenet, etc. usenet, etc. • Personal • Personal electronic electronic devices devices • Classroom • Classroom technology (e.g. technology (e.g. SmartBoard) SmartBoard)
  8. 8. IDT: Learning Environment Delivery • Face to face/classroom • Online asynchronous • Online synchronous Facilitation • Instructor as guide and coach • Active interaction on the part of the learner Evaluation • Assessment • Further Analysis • Learning Management System
  9. 9. IDT: A Foundational Model The successful IDT Professional works effectively with the SME and end users essentially giving them co-ownership of the design. (Rieber, 1998)
  10. 10. IDT: What it’s all about… • IDT involves design and technology, but it’s all about meeting the instructional needs of people.
  11. 11. IDT: A Personal Perspective • Concerns about IDT Digital Divide: access for all Educator/organizational reluctance to adapt Negative impact of e-Learning on social development; importance of balance in design • Enthusiasm about IDT I am pleased that IT has evolved to IDT; the added emphasis on design matches my interests, goals, and skillset I remain confident this field perfectly merges my two previous professions as engineer and educator; I hope my expectations are realistic.
  12. 12. IDT: A Consolidated Definition • Instructional Design and Technology: A discipline grounded in the delivery of knowledge and skills using appropriate techniques, processes, and resources. The ID process includes several components:  Analysis of learning or performance challenge  Design, development, and implementation of solution  Evaluation and management of resources and performance improvement including feedback to the instructor and learner ID often involves a systematic process employing a variety of instructional technologies and media ID sometimes involves non-instructional solutions The main goal of IDT is meeting the needs of people so they can reach their fullest potential
  13. 13. Trends & Issues: IDT Focus • Focus of the Field The Learning Sciences Performance improvement  What can learners do better as a result of a learning experience? Constructivism  Anchored instruction with relevant, authentic tasks  Deep, conceptual understanding  Raises issues with instructional efficiency Familiarity with various learning paradigms and strategies; blending approaches for best learning and performance outcomes Facilitation of collaboration and reflection Flexibility and adaptability
  14. 14. Trends & Issues: IDT Technology • Tools and Devices Online learning and knowledge management  Mobile devices and applications – shrinking the Digital Divide?  Cloud storage and Knowledge Bases  Social networking and conference back channels Educational “Serious Games” and simulations  Raise issues with instructional efficiency  Must be structured towards learning goals  Incorporate measurable learning outcomes Non-instructional methods  Motivation and feedback  Mentoring and coaching  Communities of practice
  15. 15. References AECT. (2001) What is the history of the field? at Rieber, Lloyd. (1998) The proper way to become an Instructional Technologist. Peter Dean Lecture at Reiser, Robert A. (2001) A history of Instructional Design and Technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, Volume 49, No. 1, pp. 53-64. Reiser, Robert A. (2001) A history of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, Volume 49, No. 2, pp. 57-67. Reiser, Robert A. (2002) What field did you say you were in? Defining and naming our field. In Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Upper Saddle River, NY: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Reiser, Robert A. (2011) A talk sponsored by the Program in Educational Communication and Technology of NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. Retrieved July 27, 2012 from Shepherd, C. (2007). A brief history of Instructional Technology and the ideas affecting it. In M. K. Barbour & M. Orey (Eds.), The Foundations of Instructional Technology. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Whelan, Robert. (2005). Instructional Technology & theory: A look at past, present, & future trends. In Connect: Information Technology at NYU. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from