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Prof. Melinda Laituri, Colorado State University | Ethics's Guidelines for Secondary Cities Initiative | SotM Asia 2017

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Prof. Melinda Laituri, Colorado State University | Ethics's Guidelines for Secondary Cities Initiative | SotM Asia 2017

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State of the Map Asia (SotM-Asia) is the annual regional conference of OpenStreetMap (OSM) organized by OSM communities in Asia. First SotM-Asia was organized in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2015, and the second was organized in Manila, Philippines in 2016. This year’s conference, third in the series, was organized in Kathmandu, Nepal on September 23 – 24, 2017 at Park Village Resort, Budhanilkantha, Kathmandu, Nepal.

We brought nearly 200 Open Mapping enthusiasts from Asia and beyond to this year’s SotM-Asia. The event provided an opportunity to share knowledge and experience among mappers; expand their network; and generate ideas to expand map coverage and effective use of OSM data in Asian continent. We chose ‘from creation to use of OSM data’ as the theme of this year’s conference, emphasizing on the effective use of OSM data. We also brought together a government panel from four different countries in this year’s SotM-Asia. We believe this event will deepen the bond and enhance collaboration among OSM communities across Asia.

More information about the conference can be found on: http://stateofthemap.asia.

State of the Map Asia (SotM-Asia) is the annual regional conference of OpenStreetMap (OSM) organized by OSM communities in Asia. First SotM-Asia was organized in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2015, and the second was organized in Manila, Philippines in 2016. This year’s conference, third in the series, was organized in Kathmandu, Nepal on September 23 – 24, 2017 at Park Village Resort, Budhanilkantha, Kathmandu, Nepal.

We brought nearly 200 Open Mapping enthusiasts from Asia and beyond to this year’s SotM-Asia. The event provided an opportunity to share knowledge and experience among mappers; expand their network; and generate ideas to expand map coverage and effective use of OSM data in Asian continent. We chose ‘from creation to use of OSM data’ as the theme of this year’s conference, emphasizing on the effective use of OSM data. We also brought together a government panel from four different countries in this year’s SotM-Asia. We believe this event will deepen the bond and enhance collaboration among OSM communities across Asia.

More information about the conference can be found on: http://stateofthemap.asia.

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Prof. Melinda Laituri, Colorado State University | Ethics's Guidelines for Secondary Cities Initiative | SotM Asia 2017

  1. 1. Dr. Melinda Laituri Secondary Cities Principal Investigator State of the Map, Asia 23 - 24 September 2017 Kathmandu, Nepal Ethics Guidelines for Secondary Cities Initiative
  2. 2. Progress in science and engineering has always been dependent on the collection of data through observation, experimentation, and more recently, computation. A core expectation of the scientific process is the documentation and SHARING of results along with the underlying data and methodology, thereby allowing others to verify data, reproduce results, validate interpretations, and build upon previous work. National Science Board’s Data Policies Task Force, 2012
  3. 3. GIS needs spatially explicit data GIS practitioners need explicit understanding of and support for creating and sharing spatially explicit data GIS students/partners need explicit education in learning how to create and share spatially explicit data ETHICS
  4. 4. Ethical principle for 2C projects: Support the spread of “good practice” in generating, managing, analyzing and communicating spatial information Ethics: Norms for conduct regarding acceptable and unacceptable behaviours
  5. 5. Overview of Ethics • Participation: community and stakeholders – Participatory mapping • Ethics during life cycle of project • Data: Collection, verification and validation – Instruments: Surveys, equipment – Sensitive data – Software defaults • Field ethics – Safety – Consent – Representation
  6. 6. What is participation? The act of taking part and sharing in something.
  7. 7. What is a community? • Communities are composed of individuals who share similarities and differences. • Discuss with the community that you will be collecting data. • Raise awareness by meeting with community groups and organizations.
  8. 8. Who are stakeholders? • Organizations and people who – Can make decisions – Are impacted by the project or activity – Can influence a project or activity • Why involve stakeholders? – Opportunities to contribute – To respond to needs and expectations – Raise awareness with community
  9. 9. What is participatory mapping? • Community-based mapping • For community empowerment and engagement • Take action to resolve problems Who makes the map?
  10. 10. What do our partners need? • Technical skills • Theoretical understanding of spatial problems – Geographic information SCIENCE – Integrated science • Responsibilities of a “spatial citizen” – Ethics – Metadata – Transparency
  11. 11. Ethical duties of participatory mapping • use specialized training for the benefit of the public • are responsible for protecting the welfare of those with whom they work • work with community members under the assumption of trust Source: http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/ethstmnt.htm
  12. 12. Ethical duties of project facilitators • Explain their role, their employer and who funds the project; • Explain and clarify the purpose of the mapping process; • Clarify how the project will take place and determine how decisions will be made; • Help the community determine how any information generated from the process will be used and managed. Source: University of Hawaii, Program on Conflict Resolution Training Files, undated.
  13. 13. Ethical duties of project facilitators • Ensure the widest representation/participation possible; • Work with integrity and be reliable, honest and trustworthy; • Serve the community, putting its needs and desires first. Source: University of Hawaii, Program on Conflict Resolution Training Files, undated.
  14. 14. Responsibilities early in the project • Why is this project needed? • Who will be included in the process and who will be in control? • How can the quality of participation be increased? Questions to ask:
  15. 15. Responsibilities during the project • Help the community reach consensus on goals and develop strategies towards achieving them. • Be transparent and realistic about the process and outcomes. • Enable participation and representation of stakeholder groups. • Give ownership of the process and its outcomes to the community.
  16. 16. Data collection 1: Planning • In the field – Safety first – Know your surroundings – Inform the community – Be aware – Work in teams – Regular check in
  17. 17. Data collection 2: Field equipment • Prepare instruments for field collection – Batteries – Settings – Security
  18. 18. Data collection 3: Field instruments • Prepare instruments for field collection – Survey preparation – Institutional Review Process (IRB) – Informed consent • Disclosure: making information publicly known • Permission: approval to do something • Anonymity of participants in surveys
  19. 19. Data Processing and Analysis: Software • Data base organization – Database schematic – Where did I put it? • Naming conventions – What did I name it? • Thinking digitally – How are values processed in a computer? – DO NOT ACCEPT SOFTWARE DEFAULTS – Projections and datums
  20. 20. Data Analysis • Analytical flowcharts – Documenting the analysis
  21. 21. Valuing : Diversity Awareness of social and cultural differences Transparency Accountability through openness Flexibility Adaptive to changing conditions
  22. 22. Responsibilities after the process • Give ownership of the outcomes to the community • How will access to, use and distribution of the products be controlled? • How will spatial information be maintained/updated? • Will project facilitators be available for consultation after the project is completed? • Will sufficient training be given to community members to ensure continuity and sustainability?
  23. 23. Ethical challenges • Human subjects • Confidentiality – Privacy – Maintenance in shared environment • Future data users understand participant and discipline parameters • Data stewardship: who is responsible?
  24. 24. 24 Implementation: Checklist ____ Statement on purpose of project ____ Explanation of type of maps/data to be produced ____ Description of methods used to collect data and produce maps • Field equipment; Field instruments ____ Statement on expected time frame for project ____ Explanation of rights (e.g. voluntary participation, confidentiality, etc.) ____ Explanation about custodianship of outputs of project ____ Description of any reasonably foreseeable risks • Discussion of sensitive data requirements ____ Explanation of whom to contact for answers to pertinent questions about the project ____ Statement of agreement to participate in the project

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