Workplace policies to drive change

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  • From perspective of researchResearch varied in terms of sources and designs of studiesResearch uneven in terms of what is known and not known And in fact some areas.- what is going on on the plant floor, in the cubicles, on virtual teams you – as practitioners really know the best and are far ahead of what research can tell you. But some of what you are doing could benefit from systematic research, but some may not. Not needed
  • Workplace policies to drive change

    1. 1. WORKPLACE POLICIES TO DRIVE CHANGE KATHLEEN CHRISTENSEN Sister Republics: Building Bridges Committing to a Stronger Economy with Women’s Leadership April 23, 2013
    2. 2. Three Questions  WHAT DO WE KNOW?  WHAT DON’T WE KNOW?  WHAT MIGHT BE UNKNOWABLE – AND DOES IT MATTER?
    3. 3. Trends in Availability: Overall, by Firm Size Trends in Use: by Industry, Education, Occupation Work Force Needs Differential Effects of Flexibility Workforce Segments Business Outcomes What Do We Know?
    4. 4. Day-to-Day Scheduling When, Where, How to Work Short Term, Episodic, & Extended Time Off Career Flexibility •Flexibility in scheduling of hours •Flexibility in the amount of hours worked •Flexibility in place of work •Essential: control and predictability over schedules. •Source: Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown Law Center •STO : Time taken off in short increments for ordinary life needs •EPTO: Time off for recurring, predictable needs •EXTO: Time taken off in long increments (by weeks) for any life need, whether predictable or unpredictable •Career Exits •Career Maintenance •Career Re-entry Careers cannot be straight line trajectories. Need built in opportunities for plateauing and leaves Defining Workplace Flexibility
    5. 5. Availability: Day-to-Day Scheduling Flexibility:2005- 2012
    6. 6. Trends
    7. 7. Availability: Reduced Hours and Time- Off Flexibility:2005- 2012
    8. 8. Caregiving Leaves: 2005-2012
    9. 9. Availability: Percent of Firms Offering Either “Some” Employees or “All or Most” Employees Day-to-Day Scheduling Flexibility „ Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    10. 10. Availability: Percent of Firms Offering Either “Some” Employees or “All or Most” Employees Work-At-Home Flexibility Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    11. 11. Availability: Percent of Firms Offering Either “Some” Employees or “All or Most” Employees Reduced Hours or Time-Off Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    12. 12. Availability: Percent of Firms Offering Most or All Employees Selected Workplace Flexibility Benefits, by Firm Size Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    13. 13. Utilization of Flexible Time by Sex, Race, Ethnicity and Work Status Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    14. 14. Utilization: Percent of Workers with Flexible Hours By Industry Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    15. 15. Utilization of Flexible Hours by Occupation and Education Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    16. 16. Millennials Older Workers Working Parents Low-Wage Workers Faith-Based Communities Disabilities Members of the Military and Spouses Who Wants and Needs Flexibility?
    17. 17. Millennials  Flexibility : one of top three valued dimensions of career success  Along with job security and earning the highest pay possible  Trumping health care and 401k benefits, intellectually interesting work, making a difference in society Source: Allstate and National Journal Heartland Monitor Poll 2010
    18. 18. Older Workers: Only Workforce Segment Growing Increases to 2018 by those working 55-64 and >65 Source: Toossi, M. (November, 2009). Labor force projections to 2018: older workers staying more active. Monthly Labor Review. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office
    19. 19. Working Parents: 3 Jobs – 2 adults Ratio 1½Jobs: 1Adult
    20. 20. Working Parents • Multitasking • Time Famine • Less time for sleep and self • Disruption of family rituals • Intensive parenting
    21. 21. Multitasking Throughout the Day Source: Shira Offer and Barbara Schneider. “Multitasking Among Working Families: A Strategy for Dealing with the Time Squeeze.” Workplace Flexibility. Ed. Kathleen Christensen and Barbara Schneider, eds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.
    22. 22. Pervasive Sense of “Too Little” Time by Dual- Earner Couples Working Full Time,* 2000 *35+ hours **N = 177 ***N = 175 Source: Suzanne M. Bianchi and Vanessa R. Wight. “The Long Reach of the Job: Employment and Time for Family Life.” Workplace Flexibility. Ed. Kathleen Christensen and Barbara Schneider, eds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.
    23. 23. Frequency of sleep problems affecting job performance in last month Source: 2002, 2008 NSCW; statistically significant differences between sample years are denoted as * (p<.05), ** (p<.01), *** (p<.001), n.s. (not statistically significant) } n.s. 28% of the American Workforce Have Sleep Problems at Least Sometimes
    24. 24. Differential Effects of Flexibility  Low Wage Workers (Corporate Voices and WFD)  MBA’s in Challenging Careers(Bain & Company)  Women and Earnings (Harvard & Beyond Study 1969-1992 classes)  On Health and Well Being (Harvard School of Public Health and Wake Forest Medical School)
    25. 25. Average Stress and Burnout Index for Low Wage Employees by Their Perceived Flexibility Source: WFD Consulting. Workplace Flexibility for Lower Wage Workers. Corporate Voices for Working Families. October 2006.
    26. 26. Average Engagement Index for Low Wage Employees by Their Perceived Flexibility Source: WFD Consulting. Workplace Flexibility for Lower Wage Workers. Corporate Voices for Working Families. October 2006.
    27. 27. Percent of Low Wage Employees Who Predict They Will Leave Within Two Years by Their Perceived Flexibility Source: WFD Consulting. Workplace Flexibility for Lower Wage Workers. Corporate Voices for Working Families. October 2006.
    28. 28. Dimensions of Flexibility by Family Income Source: WFD Consulting. Workplace Flexibility for Lower Wage Workers. Corporate Voices for Working Families. October 2006 and Shelly MacDermid, Purdue University 2006 2002 NCSW Dataset
    29. 29. MBAs in Challenging Careers >5  Unpredictable workflow  Fast paced work under tight deadlines  Inordinate scope of responsibility that exceeds more than 1 job  Work-related events outside regular work hours  Expected to be available to clients or customers 24/7  Responsibility for profit and loss  Responsibility for mentoring and recruiting  Large amount of travel  Large numbers of direct reports  Physical presence at workplace at least 10 hours a day
    30. 30. As Women Age, They Tend to Opt Out at Higher Rate Source: J Coffman, R Hagey. Flexible work models: How to Bring sustainability To a 24/7 world. Bain & Company
    31. 31. Customer Loyalty Tool – Net Promoter Score (NPS) and Flexibility NPS How likely are you to recommend your organization to a friend or colleague? Results:  Responses to NPS question showed that employees in companies who have used workplace flexibility tend to be strong promoters of the company and are more satisfied with their jobs.  Employees who use flex, regardless of type, rate it positively: 4.2 out of 5  Viable flex jobs – those that fit firm culture and employee- could increase retention in men by 25% and in women by 40%
    32. 32. Gap: Interest High – Use Low Source: J Coffman, R Hagey. Flexible work models: How to Bring sustainability To a 24/7 world. Bain & Company
    33. 33. Earnings Penalties of Job Interruptions: Harvard & Beyond  Highest MBAs, Lowest MD’s  In between Ph.D.s and J.D.s  Technology industries penalize women less than other industries-  Newer and work organizations better understand changing workforce  Needs  Women have responded to costs by gravitating to certain specialities or professions – voting with their feet.
    34. 34. On Health and Well Being  Access leads to better health behaviors (exercise, cooking) (Wake Forest)  Use leads to better sleep (Harvard School of Public Health)  Use leads to more regular family rituals (UCLA)  Less stress reactivity (Pennsylvania State University)
    35. 35. Ingredients for Successful Flex  Organizationally house it so has leverage - within health and well being?  Provide range of options that fit culture, job, and employee  Ensure supervisor support – training/coaching  Leveled playing field in terms of process – right to ask, manager initiated  Drive flexibility into line operation as a strategic business tool and just the way work is done – not as a perk or benefit  Find the right language – e.g., ‘smart work’  Work to remove implicit stigma or penalty
    36. 36. Is the business case enough? How could it be strengthened? How to minimize stigma/penalty? The relative costs and benefits of pursuing alternate organizational paths for flexibility What Don‟t We Know
    37. 37.  Shortens cycle times (same work, less time)  Increases productivity  Improves employee engagement & commitment  Lowers turnover and absenteeism (and reduces related costs)  Enables many workers to stay employed who otherwise might not  Helps win war for talent-Economist/SHRM Is the Business Case Enough?
    38. 38. Average Absence Rates With and Without Flexible Work Scheduling Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    39. 39. Customer Retention Rates at First Tennessee Bank and Across the Banking Industry Source: Work Life Balance and the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisors. March 2010.
    40. 40. Other Controlled Experiments  Telecommuting, Nicholas Bloom, Stanford  Multiple matched interventions, Boston College Center on Aging and Work
    41. 41. How to Minimize Stigma?  Eliminate work-family requests or framing? (University of Minnesota)
    42. 42. Many Paths to Flexibility: Best?
    43. 43. What will make workplace flexibility the standard? Policy? Pressure from outside – Campaign? Enlightened Self Interest Changing Ways Work is Done – Global, Virtual What is Unknowable?

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