Alarm Rationalization Workshop - Tips, Tricks and Traps

4,174 views

Published on

Darwin Logerot of ProSys presented an Alarm Rationalization Workshop - Tips, Tricks and Tracks at ISA Automation Week 2012 Contact us at prosys.com or 225-291-9591 x225 if you have any questions.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,174
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
97
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
260
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Alarm Rationalization Workshop - Tips, Tricks and Traps

    1. 1. Alarm Management Tips, Tricks, Traps ISA Automation Week 2012StandardsCertificationEducation & TrainingPublishingConferences & Exhibits
    2. 2. Presentation Agenda • Why Alarm Management? • Objective of Alarm Management • Alarm Management Philosophy • Dynamic Alarming and Rationalization • Exercises • Alarm Metrics • Potential Pitfalls • Q & A – as we go
    3. 3. Why Alarm Management?In the Old Days (pneumatic controls), alarms cost money and hence numbers were limitedWith DCS systems, alarms can be configured with a few keystrokes, cheap and easy, hence many more alarms configured
    4. 4. Why Alarm Management?Each new advance in control systems technology results in increasing sophistication & complexity of systems, more points, more alarmable parameters, and many more alarmsInformation overload, especially during upsets, is the natural result of excess alarm numbers
    5. 5. Why Alarm Management?In a number of industrial incidents, alarm floods were identified as a significant contributing cause to the incident… As found by EEMUA in 1999 and CSBThe connection of alarm floods to incidents has been well known for over 12 years with very little progress made in industry
    6. 6. Why have alarms failed? The fundamental objective of alarms has been overwhelmed by the capabilities of the modern distributed control system design • Easy, “cost free” alarms • Increased operator loads
    7. 7. Why have alarms failed? Acceptance of a single point, static alarm configuration for all possible operating modes Logically inconsistent with the obvious fact that there is no single operating state in a process unit
    8. 8. Objective of Alarm Management The objective of alarm management is to reduce the number of alarms annunciated to the operator NO! Agree? Disagree?
    9. 9. Objective of Alarm Management The objective of alarm management is to reduce the number of alarms annunciated to the operator NO!Although reduction in annunciated alarm count will almost always be a result of a well-conceived and executed AM project, this is NOT the primary objective
    10. 10. So, What is It About? It’s about the QUALITY of the alarms
    11. 11. Objective of Alarm Management The objective of alarm management is to provide operators with a consistent and reliable action event notification interface that supports their efforts to safely and efficiently operate the process
    12. 12. Objective of Alarm Management The objective of alarm management is to provide operators with a consistent and reliable action event notification interface that supports their efforts to safely and efficiently operate the process
    13. 13. What is a Quality Alarm? Alarm• An annunciated abnormal process condition to which the ? operator can and must take corrective action in order to return the process to normal and safe operation
    14. 14. What is a Quality Alarm? Every alarm should: • Be clear and relevant to the operator • Indicate an abnormal Alarm process condition that has consequences of ? inaction and defined response • Be unique
    15. 15. Normal and AbnormalNormal - That which is both planned and expected • Startup/shutdown • Mode switching • Equipment swapping • Other planned operating proceduresAbnormal - That which is unplanned or unexpected • Emergency shutdown • Equipment failures • Upstream problems • Downstream problems • Other unplanned process transitions
    16. 16. What is a Quality Alarm? A quality alarm that is relevant during plant operation at max rates Alarm may NOT be a quality alarm during other ? conditions
    17. 17. How to Achieve Quality Alarms?To Achieve Consistency • Review all alarms - Rationalization • What is alarmed? • Alarm Priorities, Trip Points, Digital Alarm StatesTo Achieve Reliability • Add Dynamic Behavior
    18. 18. Reliability | Dynamic Behavior Plant operation is not static Alarm configuration shouldn’t be either
    19. 19. Reliability | Dynamic BehaviorWith Dynamic Configuration, all Forgotten modes of operationmodes of operation are handled. • Dynamic alarming optimally • Most alarm system configurations configures alarms for each process operating state. are optimized for a single process state. (Run) • Critical modes of operation are optimized. • Critical modes of operation are • Changes of state are managed. compromised. (S/D and Startup) • Operator is only given the • Alarm floods are generated on a information he requires depending change of state. on the operational state. • Operator’s time is monopolized by useless alarms during the most critical operational situations.
    20. 20. Reliability | Dynamic Behavior Dynamic Alarm Management • Uses key process parameters to determine operating state for a section of the plant (system) • Alarm configuration is customized for the detected operating state • Alarm floods minimized
    21. 21. Reliability | Dynamic Behavior
    22. 22. Reliability | Dynamic BehaviorCase transition management• Case logic includes indeterminacy rules and deadbands to prevent chattering (rapid switches between cases)• Should not have a large quantity of alarms activated simultaneously when entering run case – enable alarms intelligently
    23. 23. Reliability | Dynamic Behavior Without Dynamic Alarming • Each alarm is stand alone and does not have knowledge of current plant status • Normal and abnormal conditions alarmed PC022 PVLO AC013 PVHI Heater S/D TI213 PVLO LI010 PVHI
    24. 24. Reliability | Dynamic Behavior With Dynamic Alarming • Change of process state is managed • Only abnormal conditions alarmed PC022 PVLO AC013 PVHI Heater S/D TI213 PVLO LI010 PVHI
    25. 25. Reliability | Dynamic BehaviorNumberof TotalAlarms
    26. 26. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Practical steps for implementation •Assemble Rationalization Team • Operations • Process Engineering • Controls Engineering • Facilitating Engineer
    27. 27. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Practical steps for implementation •Develop Alarm Philosophy • Start with enterprise or site alarm management standard • Alarm definition / criteria • Design principles • Rationalization procedures • Metrics / performance monitoring
    28. 28. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Practical steps for implementation •Develop Alarm Philosophy • Develop specific plan based on alarm type – critical variables, SIS, digital types, etc. • Finalize priority setting guideline • Bad PV alarm guidelines • MOC / continuing improvements • Repeat and escalating alarms
    29. 29. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Setting Priorities • Usually based on • Available response time • Severity of the potential event • Develop guidelines at start of the project • EEMUA and ISA provide guidance
    30. 30. Consistency | Alarm RationalizationPractical steps for implementation • Collect required information • Dump control system database • Acquire recent S/D or abnormal event alarm journals and process data • Current P&IDs and PFDs • Operating procedures / troubleshooting guides • Have process schematics & operator groups available
    31. 31. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Practical steps for implementation •Break process units into systems • A system is a set of process alarms whose process state can be determined by a set of common logic • Systems too small - cause unnecessary overhead • Systems too large - cause lack of flexibility, agility, and configurability
    32. 32. Consistency | Alarm RationalizationPractical steps for implementation • Determine the detectable operating states • Review process knowledge and operating procedures to determine all modes of operation • Decide which process readings best indicate each process state • Build a logic structure for each of the process states
    33. 33. Consistency | Alarm RationalizationPractical steps for implementation • Build management lists • Review every point included in a system • Which alarm (PV Hi/Lo, All, Bad PV, Dev Hi/Lo) • Determine alarm priority • When needed? (Which state, delay desired) • Document causes, consequences, actions for each alarm
    34. 34. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Practical steps for implementation • Causes, Consequences, Actions (CCA) • For each alarmed parameter, document CCAs as an aid for the operator • Make available from the operator station • If no consequences, or no operator actions, an alarm is not needed
    35. 35. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Master Alarms Database • Rationalize alarm and control system settings • Review trip points, priorities, deadbands • Propose Revisions • Capture causes, consequences, and actions
    36. 36. Time for Group Exercises
    37. 37. Consistency | Alarm Rationalization Rationalization Methodologies •Bad Actor Management- focus is to reduce rates not evaluate or enable legit alarms •Static Rationalization – centers on a single state of the process – the run state •Dynamic Rationalization – adds the question “when” into the discussion for each point. Considers all process states.
    38. 38. Comparison of Methodologies ISA 18.2 Dynamic Static Bad Actor Point Summary Metrics Rationalization Rationalization Management Number of Areas 2 2 2 Points 3641 3327 2552 3rd Qtr 2010 Avg Alarm Rate per 1 0.67 0.83 2 10 min. 4th Qtr 2010 Avg Alarm Rate per 1 0.67 1 4.3 10 min. 3rd Qtr 2010 Peak Alarm Rate per <=10 6.5 211 67 10 min. 4th Qtr 2010 Peak Alarm Rate per <=10 7 117 159 10 min. Blocks in Yellow do not meet ISA 18.2 performance metrics
    39. 39. Alarm Rationalization • Study of 37 consoles / 90 months of data overall • Static Rationalization – “peak alarm rate is not closely correlated with the degree of rationalization” Zapata and Andow – HUG 2008 – Highlights from the ASM Consortium
    40. 40. Alarm Performance Metrics Typical measures of alarm performance • Average alarm rate • Peak alarm rate • Time in flood (>10 /10 min) • Number of chattering alarms • Number of stale alarms • Annunciated priority distribution
    41. 41. Alarm Performance Metrics Best not go overboard with alarm metricsFocus on providing a reliable and consistent interface for the operator Effective alarm management is not a numbers game!
    42. 42. Alarm Performance Metrics What is the solution to pure numbers? Zero configured alarms
    43. 43. Alarm Performance Metrics • Numbers can indicate a problem • Numbers cannot indicate that there is not a problem Metrics do not replace Alarm System Design
    44. 44. Potential Pitfalls • Over-reliance on metrics • “Let’s just handle the bad actors” • Just minimize configured alarms • “Check the Box” mentality
    45. 45. Potential Pitfalls • Ignoring dynamic behavior • Ignoring case transition management • Inappropriate point descriptions • Allowing Operator changes to alarms
    46. 46. Summary Effective AM will aid operators in safely and efficiently running the plant Quality alarms Detailed rationalization Incorporate dynamics AM is not a numbers game Avoid the pitfalls
    47. 47. Questions?StandardsCertificationEducation & TrainingPublishingConferences & Exhibits

    ×