ESL PEDAGOGY PROJECT 2011MRS A. SHORT & MRS R. RICHARDSON LIVERPOOL PUBLIC SCHOOL ACTION INQUIRY 2011
School Context• There are an increasing number of refugee students – 87 students in 2011.• The Primary Intensive English program provides targeted intensive support for Refugee students enabling them to develop language and Literacy skills and participate effectively in the mainstream classroom. Class: 5R1st Phase students 5 refugee students
Rationale• We perceived that students were confident users of “every day” language but to achieve stage 3 curriculum outcomes students needed to develop their “academic” language in Key Learning Areas.• We needed to design high challenge teaching and learning activities that would scaffold ESL learners and provide high support.
Rationale• Many of the students in our class were “quietly” disengaged and disconnected from their learning. They had limited understanding of the “essential” knowledge of units of work in the classroom.• Although tasks were modelled, there was no transferral of knowledge in writing or talk.• We wanted to create a quality learning environment which was focussed on developing intellectual quality.
Action Inquiry Focus• How do refugee and ESL students access the academic language required to achieve stage 3 outcomes?
Key Pedagogical Focus Designed in scaffolding Learning experiences were designed and sequenced to build on students‟ knowledge of the language and concepts of Electricity and Antarctica, so that students could transform and demonstrate their learning. Varied participant structure Working with different and varied participant structure Independent work, group work, jigsaw groups, small groups, whole class Message AbundancyDVDS, word walls, photos, excursions, blogging, You tube, Internet access, Travel agent brochures, Matrix, News report ESL based teaching sequence Controlled, guided and independent activities
Initial AssessmentA number of assessments were carried out throughout the programs, including: ESL band levels for Oral and Writing. ESL Scales indicators in a form of a checklist was used to update their band levels. Pre and post writing assessments Teacher observations of whole class, pairs and group work
Assessment throughout projectVideo clips of student presentations and class participation.Work samplesElectricity experimentsLearning goals are explicitly shared with students and students weretaught how to recognise the standards they are aiming for. (Matrixcriteria)Peer and self-assessmentTeacher and student reflectionStudent feedbackStudent blogs
Cycle 1 – COGS unit on Electricity Rich task• Students demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of energy by designing, creating and explaining a product that uses transformation of energy.
Designing Rich Task•Design and make a product using electrical circuit eitherpowered by battery or solar power.•Product will need to serve a purpose and meet personalneed.• Students needed to explain how the product worked andthey also needed to persuade the audience to buy theproduct.
Targeted LanguageElectricity conductors circuits insulators motorsEnergy produce closed transport store windWires cells open filament generated solarBulb complete parallel simple hydro nuclear
Electricity Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding / Strategies Introduction to the COGS unit „Electricity‟ • Small groups by filling in a KWHL chart. (What do we • Progressive brainstorming activity and know and understand about electricity? reporting back. what do we want to find out? How might we get this information?) • Collect charts Appoint a reporter, then have groups report • Sharing information with each other. back to compare information. (Rotate these charts and students add infor.) Front LoadingTeacher explains that each of the images either • Use video of brainstorming session anduse, produce, transport or store electricity. ( 12 reporting back.pictures)Students observe a variety of pictures on a • Collect work samples.power point based on different forms of energy.Names of images are displayed. ( 12 pictures)In small groups, they classify these pictures into • Matrixthe correct headings and justify their choice in a • Take photos of their work.full sentence. E.g. A cable is used to transportelectricity.(Use, produce, transport and store).
Electricity Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding/ AssessmentExcursion to the „Powerhouse Museum. • Building the fieldStudents will be asked to report back to the WC • Developing metalanguageon what they learnt about electricity. • Photos of different forms of electricityEach leader has a digital camera where they • Bloggingtake photos of their learning and fill in recordingsheet.Teacher modelling of collage. • Internet visual support.Students make a collage using digital images • partner workfrom their excursion. • work sampleStudents report what they had learnt about • videoingelectricity. • blogsStudents blog their learning from thePowerhouse.Supply small student groups with a battery, two • hands on activity – taking apart andpieces of wire and a torch globe. Ask students to rebuilding a torchexplore ways of making the torch globe glow. • teacher supplying technical language to labelAsk students to draw and label a diagram of their a torch diagramobservations. • videoing some children orally explaining theIntroduce the language to explanations. Provide process of how a torch and circuit works.sentence starters to demonstrate cause and • models of explanation, joint construction,effect. language features, grammar, technicalAsk students to write an explanation (using text language,and drawings) of how a torch works. • cause, effect. • work samples of Explanations on torches.
Electricity Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding / StrategiesExploring Electrical EnergyAs a whole class brainstormed ideas about • Showed inventions on the internet on Youcreating a product that served a purpose in their tube Ellen Show.life.Students thought of „everyday‟ problems such • Advertisements of products.as, their brother keeps going into their room.Students had to come up with a product that • Student observationswould help solve this problem, BUT it had toinclude an electrical circuit. Eg Alarm on their • Video tapingdoor.Introducing design taskModel problem and design. Procedure structure • Student Criteria Checklist(Head torch on a head band.)Students mark teachers design using criteria. • Student observationsBrainstorm problems that arise in the classroomand how they can be resolved using electrical • Photographs of their final productsenergy as part of design solution.Students sketch initial ideas for their productand annotate their sketch to explain how theproduct works.Have students consider the circuit required tooperate the product.Criteria to be used to judge the success of theirsolution
Electricity Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding / StrategiesPresentation Day – Students display their • Video - taping presentations duringsketches and models to the class and talk Assembly. (Science Show)about them.
Blogging - Now that your product is made, how do you feel about the design? What are some positive points? What would you change? Miss Giggles (Ivona) says: The product that I made was a house with a fan and light. I liked making the house and I learnt a lot about electricity like you can only put a black wire on the negative side and a blue, white and red on the positive. The positive side of the house was making it with my uncle and I wouldn’t change anything. pretty princess(Andjela) says: I am proud of what I made and I am so excited about presenting it to the class. The first time I tried it, it didn’t work. Second time it worked. I need to change a little more staff and I need to make it more entertaining. Aishwarya says: I really enjoyed making my latest invention and I am very impressed with it. My invention is a lamp and I wont make any differences in it because I love it all. Some of the positive points about my lamp are, when I first tried to make the straws stay still sticking to the clay ,they didnt and I was really disappointed, the next time I tried it they did and I was very happy that they did.made a product thats called THE SECRET NIGHT LIGHT STAND its similiar to a lamp but the difference is that the torch isbalanced by two thick straws that are balanced by some sticky clay, another difference is that the torch is in a case thatis made out of tissue paper roll. I made this because my parents expect me to finish my studies before bedtime butsometimes I dont finish all of it, so at night (maybe at 3o clock)I wake up to do my studies and notice that I cant turnthe lights on because my parents will know that I am not sleeping, I also noticed that theres not enough light for me toread books, so I made this product so I can get some light to do studies and to read books. Noora says: I made a rainbow colours that when you spin it the colours will change into one colour which is blue and I put lights around it .
Building Vocabulary Exploring, investigating and experimenting with different components used in Electricity.Increasing children‟s field knowledge and metalanguage.
Experimenting with Circuits Investigating and exploring how an electrical circuit works. Trial and error• For students to become motivated and engaged in electricity, lots of oral interaction, scaffolding and hands on activities were incorporated.
Cycle 2 - AntarcticaDirection: 5RChange of ESL teacher: Mrs P. VellaContinued focus on Phase 2, Stage 3 ESLstudents.
Cycle 2 – COGS unit Antarctica Rich Task Stage 3 COGS unit was based on Antarctica. Students demonstrate their knowledge and understanding by creating and filming a news documentary on Antarctica.
Target language Ozone pollution biology geology Glaciology meterology oceanography global warming human impactsSea ice Aurora Katabatic winds blizzard ice shelvesGlacier iceberg whiteout icesheet Adelie penguins Emperor penguins Southern elephant seal Leopard seal Weddell seal humpback whale blue whale Orca krill algae albatross
Antarctica Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding / StrategiesExcursion to Maritime Museum where children • Building the fieldsaw Scott‟s Last Expedition (to Antarctica) • Developing metalanguagedisplay and watched a documentary about • Visual supportAntarctica on IMAX.Introduction to the COGS unit „Antarctica‟ by • Small groupsfilling in a KWL chart. (What do we know and • Progressive brainstorming activity andunderstand about Antarctica? what do we want to reporting back.find out? How might we get this information?) • Sharing information with each other.Appoint a reporter, then have groups report backto compare information. (Rotate these charts andstudents add infor.)Location of Antarctica on world map, show travel • Small groupsagent brochures of Antarctica and view it on • Developing metalanguageUtube. Guided Reading on Captain Scott, front • Building on their comprehension skills andloading activity and synonym cloze. reading strategies. • Skimming and scanning • Visual support • Authentic textsPhysical features of Antarctica: Weather and • Visual supportLandscape reading, Matching vocabulary to • partner workpictures and vocabulary to meanings. • work samples • Peer sharing
Antarctica Program Teaching and Learning Experience Scaffolding / StrategiesJigsaw Comprehension Readings on : • Small group workTourism, Scientific Research and Human • Skimming and scanningImpact. Students will be required to write the • Reading strategiespositive effects, the problems caused and how • Sharing informationthe problems were overcome with their basegroup.Guided reading: Books on Antarctic Animals • Group workAnimals in Antarctica • Sharing information with peersInformation gap activities • Communicative activitiesMatrix –ComprehensionDescription of the animal that they have toguess what it is by looking at an AntarcticAnimal flowchartPresentation: News report • Small groups • Developing power point based on their knowledge of Antarctica • News report criteria
Building the field: Excursion toPowerhouse Museum and Imax
Findings: Cycle 1 & 2 Learning was enhanced by use of hands on activities, experiments, excursions, authentic texts, Youtube, videos and photos (message abundancy) Sequencing of tasks which embedded talk, enabled all students to experience success. Students had everything they needed to achieve – criteria, language, concepts and skills – All carefully scaffolded. Rich tasks engaged all students. Students confidently used technical and metalanguage, developing academic language. All students were engaged in substantive communication with opportunities to work in pairs and small groups. More opportunities for contingent scaffolding and for students to articulate their ideas.
Impact of program for refugee / ESL students• All students participation in mainstream classroom• Development of academic language• Confident to have a go and take risks• Confident in the classroom, not just in a withdrawal group• Scaffolded up for success!
Reflection• Importance of backward mapping from rich task• Identifying essential knowledge, skills• Quality rather than quantity• Planned opportunities for talk• Use of academic language
Personal reflections• Team teaching with a focus on moving students from playground language to academic language has been inspiring for both teachers.• Both have developed a deeper understanding of ESL pedagogy and its impact in the classroom.• The importance of ESL support in the mainstream classroom.• We know more about our ESL students – their strengths, therefore allowing us to determine where to proceed next with their learning.
Implications: So where to now?• More co-operative planning of programs with ESL teachers.• More opportunities to team teach with ESL staff and use their expertise.• A greater emphasis on developing oral language including academic language.• More explicit teaching of rich tasks in the classroom.• Mentoring other grade teachers in Rich Tasks and ESL based activities to build oral language.