2012 TESOL Seminar 2: Building a 4x4 toolkit for academic literacy

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This workshop presents a framework for teachers at all levels for selecting and assessing the language needed for successful academic writing.

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2012 TESOL Seminar 2: Building a 4x4 toolkit for academic literacy

  1. 1. DET TESOL Network day 2012 Building a 4x4 toolkitfor academic literacy Dr Sally HumphreyAustralian Catholic University
  2. 2. Overview of the day• The Semantic wave• A 4x4 language toolkit–from whole text to word• Putting the toolkit to work in the classroom
  3. 3. Riding the semantic wave to high stakes reading and writing3 Martin, Maton & Matruglio (2010)
  4. 4. What’s at stake?Information in High-stakes High-stakes reading writing Time
  5. 5. Teachers need to explore how the semantic wave worksin their discipline, including: How to unpack abstract and technical meanings How to repack these meanings to relate concepts to old and new knowledge5
  6. 6. Dumped on the beach! Time
  7. 7. The Mode Continuum (Hertzberg 2012 following Hammond 1990)
  8. 8. Everyday contexts Academic contextsPurpose • familiar everyday spoken • institutionalized socially valued(genre) genres and valuable written genresSubject • common sense • uncommon sense technicality understanding personal often bounded by academicmatter issues disconnected from and workplace disciplines(field) society at large • focus on issues of collectiveReader • personal (evaluative) • impersonal (objective) • strong solidarity • decrease in solidarityrelationship • equal status relationships • unequal status relationships(tenor) • familiar roles – emoter • expert roles – interpreter & adjudicatorChannel • spoken dialogue (concrete) • written monologue (abstract) • spontaneous • planned, rehearsed(mode)8 Table 1: Summary of contextual dimensions of everyday and educational contexts (adapted from Martin & Rothery 1990, Jones et al. 1989, Coffin 2000, Veel 2006)
  9. 9. Naplan Practice Writing Prompt 2011
  10. 10. Deconstructing the Naplan Writing promptThe challenge:How do we demonstrate ‘high stakes’ knowledge andlanguage use with prompts which entice/trap studentsinto shallow water!!!
  11. 11. andrhetoricOnce upon a time in a land far faraway, Greek and Roman philosophersidentified three arts of discourse –the Trivium grammar rhetoric logic
  12. 12. The trivium Grammar: the mechanics of a language Logic: the mechanics of thought and analysis Rhetoric: the use of language to instruct and persuade
  13. 13. grammar, rhetoric and education For over 2000 years, teachers used their knowledge of grammar and rhetoric to train knowledge builders, politicians and active citizens to communicate effectivelyFrontspiece of 1720 edition of the‘Institutio Oratoria, Quintilan teaching rhetorics
  14. 14. The decline of rhetoricAnd then along came the The New Curriculum (15th century)– rhetoric reduced to style, delivery and memory• 19th century Expansion of mass education – focus on correctness rather than overall meaning and organization of the text.• Mass distribution of prescriptive grammar books, based on Latin syntax
  15. 15. The decline of grammar• Without rhetoric, grammar studied without context – set of drilled rules• Backlash – ‘whole language’ movement• 1970’s – grammar removed from curriculum• Process writing – grammar ‘at point of need’
  16. 16. The result?Decline in teachers’ knowledge of grammar
  17. 17. The result? Persisting gap between achievement inschooling and socio-economic/language background
  18. 18. The ‟80‟s – in our own backyardA teacher- ledrevival – „languageas social power‟Functional grammar– Halliday –Genre approach -MartinMeaning systems
  19. 19. Language relates to context Broader cultural context Immediate Context of text Language 19
  20. 20. The context – language hook -upcontext Language – resources for.. field Expressing and connecting ideas tenor Interacting with audiences mode Creating cohesive texts
  21. 21. The ‟90‟sGrammar goesmainstream..again.. development of NSW syllabus From functional to „functionalised
  22. 22. K-6 English syllabusBut no explicit hook-up between context and language systems No explicit hook-upbetween grammatical structure andgrammatical function
  23. 23. curriculum…. A new spacefor grammar and rhetoricto reunite• The Australian curriculum for English• Knowledge about the English Language (“Grammar”)• Informed appreciation of literature („Literatures”)• Growing repertoires of English Usage (“Literacies”)
  24. 24. TheAustralian Curriculum: English
  25. 25. The challenge How to work with grammar to do important work on texts in ways that develop both literacy and ‘an informed appreciation of literature’? How to avoid returning to the decontextualised study of grammar as a ‘reductive’ task?
  26. 26. Resources for developing a rhetorical grammar: A functional perspective
  27. 27. Dimensions of language 4 x systems of 4 x levels of text meaning Whole text Genre/ Text types ---------------------- Field ----paragraph----- Expressing Connecting ---------------------- ideas ideas Mode ----------------------Tenor ---------------------- Interacting Creating with cohesive ---sentence/clause----- texts others ---------------------- Word/ expression
  28. 28. A 4x4 perspective on academic registerA register whole text paragraph Sentence/ Wordperspective (Grammar)Expressing ideas Tools for constructing technical, specialised(field) and formal knowledge of discipline areaconnecting ideas(field) Tools for constructing technical, specialised and formal knowledge of discipline areaInteracting with Tools for convincing audiences in distanced,others (tenor) impersonal and objectified waysCreating Tools for organising clearly signposted,cohesive texts(mode) cohesive and abstract texts
  29. 29. The 4x4: a warehouse of tools for developing understandings of academic language Whole text Paragraph Sentence Word (grammar) (lexis)Expressing &ideas (field)Connecting ideas(fieldInteracting withothers (tenor)Creating cohesivetexts (mode) Adapted from Humphrey, Martin, Dreyfus and Mahboob (2010)
  30. 30. a 4x4 perspective to represent resources of specialised learning domain
  31. 31. Register Perspective: FieldLanguage Whole text Paragraph Sentence level Word level to.. level (Grammar) • Noun groups with • Technical &express Ideas Ideas classifiers and generalisedideas unfold as grouped as embedded clauses terms for stages to phases to describe & discipline(field) achieve according classify knowledge the to subject • Verb groups • Auxiliary verb purpose demands represent processes forms to of text (eg. Point, relevant to text type express tense Elaboration, (ie. relating, action, appropriate to Evidence, saying) purpose Link) • Well-formed adverbials to specify circumstances
  32. 32. Register Perspective: FieldLanguag Whole text Paragraph Sentence level Word level e to.. level (Grammar)connect Analytical phases of • Ideas in groups • Relating andideas framework verbal text and and clauses reportinglogically used to image linked combine through terms to(field) relate in logical expanding define, multiple relationships and/or projecting classify, ideas (eg. time, to form well show logically cause, structured simple cause/effect, across text consequence, and complex quote and (eg. as elaboration, sentences report reasons, comparison) causes, features, parts)
  33. 33. Register Perspective: TenorLanguage Whole text Paragraph Sentence level Word level to level (grammar) (vocabulary) Objective evaluative Expert Claims Modality used tointeract vocabulary role taken supported, express objectivewith (relevance, to engage justified and opinions andothers and recommendations validity and reinforced significance) convince(tenor) Expert Quoting and audience Grading sources reporting of adjusts force/ acknowledge sources through focus of core d and verb groups, vocabulary rebutted phrases and nouns
  34. 34. Register Perspective: ModeLanguage Whole Paragraph Sentence level Word to text level (grammar) level Paragraphs Sentence openers Abstract organised as focus attention on nouns waves from topic and flow of package Text information organisation denser, and track made clear ‘packed’ tocreate Nominalisation recasts ideascohesiv concrete processes, qualities through Articles ande texts layout, ‘unpacked’ and logical relations pronouns previewing meaning Active or passive(mode) keep track and voice adjust of ideas reviewing of Topic information focus content sentences/pre Participants tracked Spelling views predict using cohesive and and organise resources (eg. punctuation layers of reference, substitution assist information and repetition) meaning
  35. 35. And..a toolkit for developingunderstandings of language for specific contexts Whole text Paragraph Sentence Word (grammar) (lexis)Expressing &ideas (field)Connecting ideas(fieldInteracting withothers (tenor)Creating cohesivetexts (mode) Adapted from Humphrey, Martin, Dreyfus and Mahboob (2010)
  36. 36. a 4x4 perspective to represent resources of explanation
  37. 37. a 4x4 perspective to represent resources of explanation
  38. 38. a 4x4 perspective to represent resources of narrative
  39. 39. a 4x4 perspective to represent resources of narrative
  40. 40. Reflecting on a 4x4 view of language
  41. 41. Revisitingunderstandings oflanguage at whole textlevel:A warm up….
  42. 42. Assessing students’ use of languageActivity 1Text 1 was written within anHSIE unit of work on government.Read the whole text and thencomplete the questions toidentify language features ofthe sample student text for thepurposes of assessment andfeedback..
  43. 43. Question: Are governments necessary? Give reasons for your positionText A: Student’s responseI think Governments are necessary because if there wasntany there would be no law people would be killingthemselves. They help keep our economic system in order forcertain thingsIf there wasnt no Federal Government there wouldnt havebeen no one to fix up any problems that would have occurredin the community. Same with the State Government if the SGdidnt exist there would have been noone to look after theschool, vandalism fighting would have occurred everyday. Thelocal Government would be important to look after therubbish because everyone would have diseases 43
  44. 44. Assessing 4 meanings Whole text CommentsIs the purpose and text typerecognisable through thestructure of the ideas asstagesAre the ideas relatedlogically within ananalytical frameworkDoes the writer adopt anexpert role to engage and/orconvince the audience? 44
  45. 45. Assessing 4 meanings .. Paragraph level CommentsDo ideas in paragraph develop anargument through phases of Point ^Elaboration ^ Evidence ^ Link(PEEL)Do the phases of verbal text (andimage) link in logicalrelationships (eg. time,cause,consequence,elaboration,comparison)Are claims supported, justified,reinforced 45Are expert sources acknowledged
  46. 46. Drilling down to the grammar whole Para- Sentence Word text graph (grammar)ExpressideasConnectideasInteract withothersCreatecohesivetexts
  47. 47. text paragraph Sentence WordLanguage ‘tools’ for (grammar) expressing ideas Express ideas Connect ideas Interact with others Create cohesive texts
  48. 48. text paragraph Sentence WordLanguage ‘tools’ for (grammar) expressing ideas Express ideas Connect ideas Interact with others Create cohesive textshow we name and describe:• what is going on (processes, activities, behaviours or states of being)• who or what is taking part (people, places, things, concepts, etc.)• the details or circumstances surrounding these events (where, when, how, with what, etc.)
  49. 49. text paragraph Sentence WordOpening up the toolkit (grammar) through visual text Express ideas Connect ideas Interact with others Create cohesive texts
  50. 50. 1. What type of text is this image from?2. What kind of world is the image creating: literary, scientific/technical or historical?3. Who or what are the main participants in the image?4. What are the participants doing? What actions are they engaged in?5. What circumstances surround these actions? What details are provided about how, when, where, why and with whom?
  51. 51. What type of text is this image from?1. What kind of world is the image creating: literary, scientific/technical or historical?2. Who or what are the main things or participants in the image?3. How are these participants related or described? - as parts of a whole? - as sub-types within a category?4. What circumstances surround these participants and the relationships between them? What details are provided about how, when, where, why etc..?
  52. 52. Visual grammar in the classroomintroducing students to the grammar through visual texts. In dynamic literary images, students can:• search, for recurring images of characters, events and settings that might form a motif or theme central to the story’s message.• make predictions about the characters, setting, and possible complications and resolutions.In static conceptual images, students can:• sort the participants representing parts or types according to different criteria (eg. a type of something, a part of something, a description of something).Teachers can demonstrate the differences between different types ofimages by reading a literary text and an information text on a similartopic while students either sort images to illustrate each text, orcreate their own images to illustrate each text.
  53. 53. Expressing ideas in verbal texts
  54. 54. Exercise 2.3: Organising the parts of clauses in an historical recountText 2.A below is an historical recount, a type of text that is verycommonly found in school textbooks. Read the text and answer thequestions belowText 2.A Red gold rushSoon after European settlement a rush on the red cedar forests ofthe east coast of New South Wales began. During the nineteenthcentury cedar-cutters in New South Wales logged most of the cedarfor housing and furniture. Gradually people began to consider thefuture of the cedar forests. In recent times some of the lastremnants of these majestic forests have been saved.
  55. 55. 2. Identify the processes, participants and circumstances in the four clauses in this extract. Example Circumstance Participant Process (when?) (what?) (what’s happening?) Soon after European a rush on the red cedar forests of the began. settlement east coast of New South Wales Clause 1Circumstance Participant Process Participant Circumstance (when?) (who?) what’s happening? (what?) (why?) logged Clause 2Circumstance Participant Process Participant (how?) (who?) (what’s happening?) (what?) Gradually began to consider Clause 3Circumstance Participant Process (when?) (what?) (what’s happening?)
  56. 56. 2. Identify the processes, participants and circumstances in the four clauses in this extract. The first clause is completed as an example. Example Circumstance Participant Process (when?) (what?) (what’s happening?)Soon after European a rush on the red cedar forests of the began.settlement east coast of New South Wales Clause 1Circumstance _ Participant Process _ Participant Circumstance (when?) (who?) (what’s (what?) (why?) happening?) logged Clause 2Circumstance Participant Process Participant (how?) (who?) (what’s happening?) (what?)Gradually began to consider Clause 3Circumstance Participant Process (when?) (what?) (what’s happening?)
  57. 57. In the classroom: probe questionsStudents can learn to use the probe questions (what’shappening? who? what? how? when? where? why?) tofind processes, participants and circumstances in clauseslong before they have mastered the more complexgrammatical forms in which words are grouped togetherto express each of these meanings. Once students areable to think about word groups in terms of themeanings they make in clauses, they are ready to explorethe formation of these groups.
  58. 58. What is happening or going on: processes and verb groups Exercise 2.5: Identifying action and relating processesIn Text 2.C Lily has used both relating and action processes inher story. All of these processes have been underlined in thetext below. Highlight the relating processes and circle theaction processes.Text 2.C Lily Year 5The beast was a horrific sight. It had a huge bulbous bodywith bloated pustules. On its head were two lidless red eyes,which grew larger in the light. At first the beast seemed calmbut then it became restless. Suddenly it lurched towards meand spurted green slimy liquid onto the floor. I turned and randown the passage and out of the cave.
  59. 59. Relating verbs in the classroomTo help students identify relating verbs, teachers mightrefer to them in symbolic terms as ‘equal or arrow verbs’(=/ ). Students can be encouraged to build word banks ofthe specialised relating verbs they find in:• mathematics (symbolises, represents, equals),• science (is composed of, is classified as) or• geography (is found, is located, is situated).Students can also be encouraged to use more formalrelating verbs such as concerns and relates to whenintroducing topics or arguments in persuasive writing. eg The first argument against nuclear power concerns safety
  60. 60. Verb groups: The grammatical form of processes
  61. 61. Elements of the verb groupIn addition to the main verb which expresses the process,verb groups can include other elements which addmeaning to the main verb. These elements indicate:• a phrasal verb (eg. turn off the light)• a passive verb (eg. the trees were cut by the loggers)• the tense of the main verb (eg. I came; I am coming; I was going to come)• the modality of the main verb (eg.; I can come)• multi-word verb groups (eg. I liked to look at the pictures)• non-finite verb forms (eg. to be or not to be)
  62. 62. Who or what is taking part:participants and noun groups
  63. 63. Exercise 2.15 Using probe questions to identify participantsUse probe questions to identify the process (eg What’s happening?) andany participants (Who or what?) in the following clauses taken from arange of texts of different types. Highlight the process in each clause andthen underline the participants.1. The reporter asked Mr Norman some very important questions.2. The movement of electrons causes electrical energy.3. Mr Tinker appeared to be very polite.4. Blend the milk, bananas and honey.5. Sarah watched the strange child with the haunting blue eyes.6. The peregrine falcon and southern sea eagle are birds of prey.7. He began to chase the children that had kicked over the rubbish bins.8. Loss of habitat has led to the extinction of many species of animals.9. The funny little man sneezed.10. He gave the bottle to the girl.
  64. 64. Exercise 2.16: Using different kinds of participants in textsText 2.M Excerpt from personal recount written as an emailBob took some photos with his underwater camera. Some fish were rainbowcoloured and others had dark stripes. Then Bob noticed two big sharks near thepontoon and called the instructor.Text 2.N Excerpt from a poem, The Surfers, by Christopher Year 7 The golden ball appears above the horizon. The worshippers swarm, prepare their alters on the sand and glide into the waves. Glassy water folding around them - genies on carpets flying across their watery playground.Text 2.O Excerpt from scientific report on sharksRhincodon typus is a filter feeding shark. It is a member of the genus Rhincodon and belongs to the Chondrichthyes class. It eats macro-algae and small nektonic life such as squid or vertebrates.
  65. 65. Exercise 2.16: Using different kinds of participants in textsText 2.M Excerpt from personal recount written as an emailBob took some photos with his underwater camera. Some fish were rainbowcoloured and others had dark stripes. Then Bob noticed two big sharks near thepontoon and called the instructor.Text 2.N Excerpt from a poem, The Surfers, by Christopher Year 7 The golden ball appears above the horizon. The worshippers swarm, prepare their alters on the sand and glide into the waves. Glassy water folding around them - genies on carpets flying across their watery playground.Text 2.O Excerpt from scientific report on sharksRhincodon typus is a filter feeding shark. It is a member of the genus Rhincodon and belongs to the Chondrichthyes class. It eats macro-algae and small nektonic life such as squid or vertebrates.
  66. 66. Grammatical form of participants: the noun groupGrammatical structures for expressing participants :• a noun group or combination of nouns, eg. That funny old man sneezed loudly; the hunters shot four buffalo, two camels and several dingoes.• an adjective or adjectival group which names qualities, eg. Reality TV shows are boring; Mr Tinker appeared to be very polite• a whole clause (called an embedded clause) which names facts, activities or ideas, eg. What I’m afraid of is snakes; The fact that it’s raining doesn’t change my plans to go swimming.the most common grammatical form is the noun group.
  67. 67. Noun Group Structure
  68. 68. Exercise: Identifying noun groups and their partsIn the following clauses use probe questions to underline noun groups• Circle the main noun.• highlight premodifiers in yellow• Highlight the qualifier in green.• Use brackets **….++, to mark embedded clauses.Example: Plants use green pigments such as chlorophyll.1. Animals that use camouflage blend in with their background.2. This magnified view of the underside of the leaf shows small holes called stomata.3. Evidence of discrimination can be seen in many ways.4. Those who are bilingual will experience many advantages.5. The delicious smell of frying spices wafted in our window.6. The stock routes used by the early drovers continue to be a feature of the Australian outback.
  69. 69. In the classroomStudents can have fun exploring the potential of the noun group bystarting with a simple noun (such as tree) and seeing how muchmeaning they can continue to add to it, with pre-modifiers butparticularly with qualifiers, for example: I loved the magnificent old gum tree [[that fell down in the horrific storm last week]].Distinguishing embedded clauses from ‘full’ clauses can be difficult forstudents. If the probe questions ‘Who?’ or ‘What?’ are used tocapture all the words that answer the question, students will bealerted to the role embedded clauses play as qualifiers, defining orfurther specifying the thing, for example: Question: ‘What did you love?’ Response: ‘the magnificent old gum tree that fell down in the horrific storm last week.’
  70. 70. In the classroomThe noun group provides a useful framework forvocabulary development. Word banks of factualdescribers, classifiers and technical terms can be builtup as part of learning about a particular topic. Lists ofsynonyms could also be developed for commonadjectives and used to make finer distinctions whenbuilding descriptions in narratives. The noun groupalso provides a meaningful context for addressingsome of the grammatical challenges students can facewhen using articles and comparatives, as well asprepositions and relative pronouns (in qualifiers).
  71. 71. The grammatical form of circumstances: adverbials
  72. 72. Exercise 2.26: circumstances contribute to the purpose of a narrative1. Highlight the circumstances in the extracts from The Hunt below. Label each type.2. What circumstances relate to the theme of camouflage?3. What circumstances give the reader a sense of the ‘hunt’ that takes place throughout the story?Text 2.W Extract from The Hunt by Narelle OliverOn silent wings, the frogmouth flies, watching for a flicker of movement, listening forthe faintest sound.At that moment a Bark Moth flutters towards a tree … Nearby, a Bush Cricket hopsfrom leaf to leaf. The frogmouth follows, but in a flash, the Bush Cricket has vanished.Just then a Retiarius Spider swings down across the breeze…Out from the leaves astripy Tree Frog long-jumps into view. All of a sudden the stripy frog is no where to befound. Close by a Leaf-tail Gecko scuttles up a granite rock. In the twinkling of an eyethere is no trace of it at all.Like an arrow a Stick Insect shoots to a branch above. In the very next moment theStick Insect has gone. Finally, an Emperor Gum Moth drifts down through the She-oaktwigs. This time there is no escape And it seems the hunt is won.But overhead, a Powerful Owl is watching.
  73. 73. Language for expressing ideas in narratives
  74. 74. Understanding how experiential resources set the scene in the Orientation stage of a picture book
  75. 75. Experiential resources to set the scene in narratives In the Orientation stage of Narratives, writers typically choose relating verbs, adverbials of place and time and complex noun groups help to identify and describe the characters and situate events (ie the participants, processes and circumstances).
  76. 76. Orientation stageThere was once a small boy called Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge, and what’s more he wasn’t very old either.His house was next door to an old people’s home and he knew all the people who lived there.
  77. 77. Experiential resources to develop plot and characters in narratives In the unfolding of Narratives, good storytellers choose a range of verb types to engage their audiences in both the outward action and the inner lives of their characters. • Action verbs engage audiences in the physical processes of the plot • give us access to the inner worlds of the characters, • engage us in how characters communicate with each other. The way characters participate in these processes (eg. as doer or done to) is an important way of building character
  78. 78. Modelling experiential resources to build character in a picture- book: WGMPHe Mrs Jordan who played the organ. What’s going on?He listened to Mr Hosking who told him scary stories. Acting? Sensing?He played with Mr Tippett who was crazy about cricket. Saying? Being?He ran errands for Miss Mitchell who walked with a wooden stick. Who’s doing the acting? Sensing?He Mr Drysdale who had a voice like a giant. Saying? Being?But his favourite person of all was Miss Nancy Alison Delacourt Cooper because she had four names, just as he did.He called her „Miss Nancy‟ and told her all his secrets.
  79. 79. Explicit teaching of grammar in context – Gold unitSpecialised terms with more meaning packaged inside them• Establish shared field of Gold – explaining why people came to Australia during gold rushes and what changed in Australia as a result of gold rushes. Take students contributions.• Write following sentence on board During the gold rushes many people left their countries and came to Australia and stayed here.• Explain that we can divide that sentence into three events. Event 1 - many people left their countries Event 2 - many people came to Australia Event 3 - many people stayed here.• Ask students how we might have known there were three events (3 verbs)• Establish that students know what a verb is and that there are different kinds of verbs (eg. action, relating, saying, thinking and feeling). Establish that the above sentence has 3 action verbs – this is common for spoken language and for story (recount and narrative) text types. But when it comes to explaining at stage 3 and 4 sentences tend to have fewer verbs – often only one.• So lets see if we can turn all those verbs into one. – what did the people do? – elicit ‘migrated’ – so 81• During the gold rushes many people migrated to Australia
  80. 80. Group Exercise Worksheet 1Change the words which are highlighted into more specialised terms.You will find these terms in the text: ‘Why did different groups of peoplecome to Australia during the Gold rushes?’Example: I was looking for more chancesAnswer: I came in search of greater opportunities (paragraph 1)1. A lot of bad things happened in my country . There were …… (Par 2)2. I was very good at mining. I had ………………………………………. (Par 4).3. People were hurt. There was violent …………………………………(Par 5)4. I left my country after people overthrew the government. There was a …………………………………………………………… (par8)5. We all wanted to escape. We had a …………………… to escape (Par 9).6. Things were bad about living in our country. There were …… (Par 9)7. People died because they didn’t have enough to eat. There was..(par11)
  81. 81. Explicit teaching of grammar in context – Gold unitNominalisation• Make link with previous lesson –Give examples to explain the concept of abstract nouns• Begin with establishing students understanding of nouns – concrete nouns people, places or things – ie table, chair,.(All these things can be seen, touched etc,,)• Explain that nouns can also be a package of actions that cannot be touched and which in fact name processes. Eg The Gold rushes = people rushing to look for gold. The search for gold =• Go through terms on worksheet with students to establish them as abstract nouns. Eg I was looking for (action – therefore verb) – I came in (the) search of We all wanted (feeling –verb) – We had a desire• Note that the verbs which are left in the sentence are often relating (be or have)Quick exercise:• Turn the following abstract nouns into verbs (you may need to include other words as well as the verb) Gold rushes Migration Convict transportation Prosperity The increase 83
  82. 82. Unpacking Abstract nouns Worksheet 21. Change the following abstract nouns into verbs1. Gold rushes = when people …………………… to a place to look for gold2. Migration = when people…………… from one place to another3. Convict transportation = when convicts were …………………………4. Prosperity = when people ………………… a lot of money5. The increase = when things …………… up. 84
  83. 83. b. Resources for explaining cause and effectWrite following three sentences on the board with arrows between.1. Some people discovered gold in Australia2. Many people migrated to Australia3. The population of Australia roseExplain/elicit that these events are linked in time and in cause andeffect. Lets look at some ways language can do the job of the arrows.Work through the following examples with two of the events on board1. Some people discovered gold in Australia and so many people migrated (spoken like conjunction – leaves action verbs)2. Many people migrated to Australia because some people discovered gold (Because ( subordinate conjunction – makes a complex sentence but still two verbs/events)3. Many people migrated to Australia because of the discovery of gold (Because of (preposition phrase - tighter – we have to change a verb into a noun)4. Migration caused the discovery of gold. ( causal verb: both verbs 85 into nouns – much simpler sentence structure X Y)
  84. 84. Worksheet 3: cause and effect expressionsIn each sentence below, change the underlined verb into an abstractnoun to complete the cause and effect sentence.ExampleWhen the Portugese found gold in Brazil, local native tribes weredevastated.The discovery of gold in Brazil led to the devastation of the local nativetribes1.The Portugese wanted gold and so they persecuted many people inBrazil.The Portugese desire for gold resulted in…………………………………………… of many people in Brazil.2. People discovered gold in California and so people rushed to thegoldfields.The discovery of gold in California led to ………………………………to thegoldfields.Now draw a circle around the cause and effect verbs in the sentences 86above.
  85. 85. Cause and Effect expressions in Explanations Worksheet 3

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