Pre-Hispanic Philippines <br />Society is divided to three classes:<br />Datu<br />Maharlika<br />Slaves<br />A person’s status may immediately be changed in this period: A Datu may become a slave and a slave may become a Datu.<br />
Datu<br />Maharlika<br />Slaves<br />The leader of the community<br />Soldiers are included in this class of society<br />The lowest class of the society<br />
Slavery may be due to the ff:<br />Inherited status<br />Captured by the enemies in war<br />Those who cannot pay their debt<br />Punishment of the crime committed<br />Sold to become slave<br />
2 kinds of slaves in Tagalog<br />Aliping namamahay – those who have their own houses and only works for their master in times of sowing and harvest.<br />Aliping saguiguilid – those who live in their master’s house and does what their master told them to do.<br />
Government<br />The Barangay is the basic unit of government . It may compose of about 30-100 families. Every barangay is autonomous, and is ruled by either a Datu, Rajah, King or Lakan.<br />
Powers of a Datu:<br />In times of peace: Executive, Legislator and Chief Justice.<br />In war: he is the commander in chief of the armed forces<br />Foreign affairs: the datu enables treatise and truse(sanduguan)<br />
How one can be a Datu<br />It may be inherited, either by a man or a woman. (the eldest child)<br />Or may be chosen by the community according to the following characteristics (bravest, wealthiest or the wisest)<br />
Laws<br />It may be written or not<br />Unwritten laws are spoken laws that is passed by of course the word of mouth, and may be passed through generations.<br />Written laws are made by the Datu together with the council of the elders as his advisers. <br />Written laws are proclaimed by the umalokohans<br />
Family<br />The society encourages the marriage of equal status in the society. But it does not discourage marriages of different class. A Datu may be married to a slave.<br />Divorce is allowed in some parts of the country due to: if the wife is unfaithful, if the man abandons his wife and children, domestic violence, barren or impotence. <br />
Spanish era:<br /><ul><li>Governor, Governor General or Captain General is the highest local position (only for Spaniard General).
The Governor General represents the King of Spain.
He has the powers: Legislate, Executive and Judicial Powers.
Has the right to suspend the orders of the King it is called Cumplase.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>He is the commander in chief of the Armed Forces
Has the capacity to remove any government official except those appointed by the King of Spain.
Foreign Affairs: He has the right to make treatise, and accept establishment of embassies and etc.
Patron of the Church may recommend a priest and resolve any crisis among clergies (Patronadoreal) royal patronage.</li></li></ul><li>The advisers of the Governor General<br /><ul><li>Board authority: 1850, Cabinet composed of ( Archbishop of Manila, 2nd General, admiral of the sea, director general, general of civil administration, president of the supreme court and the solicitor general.
Council of administration: 1861, Council of the State. Compose of: Council of Authority, government treasurer, head of religious orders, president of SociedadEconomico, delegates from Luzon, Visayas and Minadanao compose of 3 representatives and 4 appointees of the King.</li></li></ul><li>Ways of stopping the powers of the Governor General <br /><ul><li>Audencia – Supreme Court
The Archbishop of Manila together with the influential clergy, that may influence the King.
Complains of the lower officials that are brought to the King.
Visitador</li></li></ul><li>Encomienda<br />Encomienda de real Corona – owned by the King.<br />Encomienda de particulares – owned by individual.<br />
Provinces are divided into 2<br /><ul><li>Alcadia: these are the provinces which attains a peaceful status, fully controlled by the Spanish government. It is governed by the Alcalde Mayor (Luzon and Visayas)
Corigimiente: the province that are not yet peaceful administered by Corregidor (Mindanao, Palawan, Mindoro and Northern Luzon).</li></li></ul><li>Alcalde bayor<br /><ul><li>Appointed by the governor Gneral