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Pugh sikm leaders conversational ai 190618

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Conversation and Conversational AI are both changing the modern organization. We discuss parallel tracks in transformational conversation (e.g., the "conversational firm"), and commercial intelligent agents, and ask how they can cross-pollinate for better learning, better understanding, and better innovation.

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Pugh sikm leaders conversational ai 190618

  1. 1. SIKM Leaders: Conversational AI Katrina Pugh, Columbia University and EY, June 18, 2019
  2. 2. Alchemy of conversation: from individual identity to collective wisdom • The World Café [conversation] process reawakens our deep species’ memory of two fundamental beliefs about human life. • First, we humans want to work together on things that matter to us. In fact, this is what gives satisfaction and meaning to life. • Second, as we work together, we are able to access a greater wisdom that is found only in the collective. SIKM Leaders Conversational AI Margaret Wheatley, 2005 What if wisdom is compiled and presented back in aggregate? What if humans are augmented or nudged to improve the tone or accuracy? 2
  3. 3. Agenda • Conversation: A 20 year journey • Conversational AI and its research • Short tour of conversational AI research today • Discussion: What’s our responsibility as a KM community? 3
  4. 4. Generative Conversation (A 20 year journey) SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 4
  5. 5. 1991: Dialogue (Bohm) • Dialogue: “To turn toward another” or “Meaning flowing through” • “I can hold the space for you, but I bring my own experiences.” …New, shared meaning 5Four Discussion DisciplinesSIKM Leaders Conversational AI Bohm, David, Donald Factor and Peter Garrett, Dialogue: A Proposal (1991) http://infed.org/archives/e- texts/bohm_dialogue.htm
  6. 6. 1995: World Café (Juanita Brown and David Isaacs) SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 6 Small group conversation at a Gurteen Knowledge Café (Source: Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Caf%C3%A9#Origin
  7. 7. ~1999-today: Conversation spaces (Steve Jobs) Heightened awareness High energy Not “just chilling” (What happens when we “go digital”?) Source: TPG Architecture: SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 7
  8. 8. 1999: Dialogue Practices (William Isaacs) 8 SIKM Leaders Conversational AI ListeningSuspension Respect Voice Not assuming (opposite: Abstraction) Not judging (opposite: Certainty ) Appreciating what is (opposite: Violence) Sense of agency or authority (opposite: Idolatry) Isaacs, William Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together, Currency/Doubleday, 1999.
  9. 9. 2011: Knowledge Jam/Knowledge Harvesting (Intel, Pugh, Dixon) SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 9 1. Captured knowledge not at appropriate detail level 2. Captured knowledge not in the right form 3. Knowledge not contextualized 4. Captured knowledge “taken for granted” Why use conversation for tacit knowledge transfer?
  10. 10. 2013: Columbia/Motorola Research: 4 Discussion disciplines drive innovation Skifstad and Pugh, “Beyond netiquette: Discussion discipline drives innovation” (In Smarter Innovation, Ark Group, 2014). Discussion discipline Description 1. Integrity Use true voice, research views, Ask questions that propel 2. Courtesy Respect others and forum. 3. Inclusion Broaden the perspective. Explain terms, call others in. 4. Translation Summarize/use insights generated, and help others with summarizations. Benefit to Collaboration Primarily tonal; builds community and social capital. Primarily content- related; drives innovation. 10 SIKM Leaders Conversational AI In a 2013 Columbia Information and Knowledge Strategy Capstone for Motorola Solutions we regressed productivity and innovation on the use of the four discussion disciplines. Six years later, we can see in the public sphere: • Fake news (anti- integrity), • Steamrollling (anti- courtesy), • Closed-mindedness (anti-inclusion), • Certainty, abstraction (anti-translation).
  11. 11. 2015: Text-based communication is on the rise Penetrates the office We hear, “This is quicker and less intrusive.” Daily Breakdown of Modes of Communications TPG Architecture Study of Connectivity, 2015 11Four Discussion DisciplinesSIKM Leaders Conversational AI
  12. 12. 2016: Conversational firm is a new model SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 12 • Employees at TechCo are used to (social media) transparency, have expectations of having voice, and corporate policies align to convening structures (physical layout, wiki). • “Conversation” was more apt [than ‘Openness,’ as a term]…The key is to have an open enough communication environment so that the organization can collectively surface the needs of the current moment and thoughtfully approach the next.” Source: A look inside a “Conversational Firm” MIT Sloan Management Review Ideas Made to Matter
  13. 13. Conversational AI: How are modern organizations and societies collectively surfacing and solving problems? SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 13
  14. 14. SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 14 Conversational AI refers to the study of conversation, and then use of messaging apps, speech-based assistants, and chatbots to automate communication and create personalized customer or employee experiences at scale. How is this collaboration? ✓ Studies practices of human conversation, then ✓ Conversation content or guardrails are informed by the practice, then ✓ New conversation participation is humans and bots
  15. 15. Six leading tech companies are pouring money into Conversational AI SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 15 Facebook Natural Language Processing and Speech Our natural language processing and speech researchers focus on the interaction between people and computers using human languages, both in diverse written and spoken forms... 6,000 languages, deep learning/neural networks, natural language processing, language identification, text normalization, word sense disambiguation, and machine learning, to break down the problems, and build and deploy robust language translation solutions. Google Language Research Team We advance the state of the art in natural language technologies and build systems that learn to understand and use language in context. Uses ML to detect negative conversation Google's Perspective API and this article. The NY Times uses it to handle comments Microsoft Research Natural Language Processing Group Develops efficient algorithms to process text and to make their information accessible to computer applications. The goal of the group is to design and build software that will analyze, understand, and generate languages that humans use naturally, so that eventually people can address computers as though they were addressing another person. Apple Machine Learning Journal Apple is dedicated to advancing state-of-the- art machine learning technologies. As part of this, we’re building a team of exceptional researchers and engineers who can infuse intelligence into our devices and services to touch the lives of millions of users every day. We’re looking for people with backgrounds in machine learning , deep learning, reinforcement learning, computer vision, and language technologies. Positions are available in the following areas: Amazon Alexa AI The Alexa AI team contributes to the magic that is Alexa. Our goal is to make voice interfaces ubiquitous and as natural as speaking to a human. .. cutting-edge techniques, like highly scalable deep learning, to train our speech models. ..virtually all fields of human language technology. This WIRED article, which includes interviews with several Alexa scientists, provides good insight into our customer- centric approach to research and development, as does this interview with Rohit Prasad, vice president and head scientist, Amazon Alexa. IBM Watson Research labs for Conversational AI IBM Research is tackling some of AI's greatest challenges. Our scientists and engineers focus on fundamental scientific breakthroughs to help guide the advancement of AI. Browse some of our latest publications spanning a wide range of core AI disciplines. Watson Assistant is an offering for building conversational interfaces into any application, device, or channel.
  16. 16. Page 16 Transforming the working world with knowledge tech Are these letters, words or meaningful images? Optical character recognition (OCR), voice/image recognition What language is this? Language translators Recap: What does it mean to “sense and respond”? What is this? What type of document? (Is it a contract? Email? Letter? Article?) Unitization, document review, coding Is there critical language? personally identifiable information (PII)? Data mining, indexing, Statistical Machine Translation, Info Retrieval Is the event or process “working”? Can we improve it? Pattern recognition and machine learning, robotic logic, text replacement, legal remedies, legal hold, data loss prevention Source: EY at KM World 2018SIKM Leaders Conversational AI
  17. 17. Public sphere: Google Perspective AI learns about tone, slang • API uses machine learning models to score the perceived impact a comment might have on a conversation. Developers and publishers can use this score to give real-time feedback to commenters or help moderators SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 17https://www.perspectiveapi.com/#/
  18. 18. Public Sphere: Social listening SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 18 • Social listening involves finding pattern matches against brands, logos, celebrities or keywords, and tracking them against demographics, time, current events, and competitors. • Social image listening includes pulling down and examining related images Source: Crimson Hexagon 2019 US Consumer Trend Report Social Media Today: How to create a Winning Social Listening Strategy for 2019
  19. 19. Private Sphere: Microsoft Office Graph learns from your interaction SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 19 Introduced in 2014, the Office Graph (Microsoft Delve) continuously collects and analyses signals that you and your colleagues send when you work in Office 365. Signals include: • Working on the same doc • Email • Your manager • Your colleagues Delve organizes documents on your home page according to what’s likely to be most relevant to you right now. (Also supports search) Workplace Analytics lets managers see patterns, MyAnalytics lets individuals see patterns.
  20. 20. B2C or B2B or B2E: Chatbots range from playback, to suggesting, to personalized dialogue (illustrative) General Inquiries Handle basic customer inquiries traditionally hidden in FAQs. Complex Inquiries For requests that a Bot cannot complete hand off to a human agent. Appointment Booking Handle simple “anonymous” tasks via chat, e.g. booking an appointment. Account Inquiry Handle inquiries that require identification of the customer, e.g. account balance enquiry Make Payment Perform actions that require a user to be authenticated and authorised, e.g. make payment to predefined payee. Self-service content Take existing FAQs and content, enable staff to self-serve knowledge via Bot. Simple Customer Bots Know-you Bots Playback Bots Advisor Bot Assist a customer with a multi- step process, solve a problem IT Helpdesk Report an IT problem and check the status. Bot can provide self-help and escalate to engineer if required. Future: Dialogue ? Source: EY research SIKM Leaders Conversational AI
  21. 21. New Frontiers in Conversational AI Context switching Intent recognition Full spectrum of signals Open Source Our better selves SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 21
  22. 22. New frontiers in conversational AI: Context switching SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 22 “How do you really carry context throughout a dialogue? This is the biggest challenge. A lot of how you understand what I’m saying depends on what I said maybe five sentences ago, or fifteen sentences ago. You’re building up a state of the conversation.” Satinder Singh, Director of the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the University of Michigan. Source: Kore.ai Source: IBM (Hold and resume concept (Kore.ai))
  23. 23. New frontiers in conversational AI: Intent recognition example: Sarcasm SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 23 Check out Indian Institute of Technology research Sarcasm Suite Source: Quartz (2016) and NVDia Humans don’t always recognize it! It requires context (speaker, situation, world) Approaches: 1. Machine learning (volume, then phrase matching / information retrieval) 2. Rules (e.g., unexpected juxtaposition, exaggeration) 3. Deep learning
  24. 24. New frontiers in conversational AI: Conversational AI for full spectrum of human communication SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 24 Our interactions will be way more conversational, much more multi-modal. Apps will be able to pick up on our gestures, our facial expressions, our emotions, what is being said in our voice.” Gabi Zijderveld, Chief Marketing Officer, Affectiva Source: IBM Scientists have found a way to decode brain signals into speech It’s a step towards a system that would let people send texts straight from their brains. by Antonio Regalado Technology Review Apr 24, 2019 Google’s AI can now translate your speech while keeping your voice Researchers trained a neural network to map audio “voiceprints” from one language to another. by Karen Hao Technology Review May 20, 2019
  25. 25. New frontiers in conversational AI: Open source code working from open-source content Example: Stanford Question and Answer Dataset SQaD SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 25 Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) is a reading comprehension dataset, consisting of questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles, where the answer to every question is a segment of text, or span, from the corresponding reading passage, or the question might be unanswerable. Leader Board has coders who have taken both the question and the text and interpreted them effectively. Source: SQaD
  26. 26. New frontiers in conversational AI : Proposal to use AI to nudge us into better conversation behaviors SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 26 Disciplines that lead to productive conversation, growing social capital, and innovation. 1. "integrity" (asking clean questions, having a sense of one's truth) 2. “courtesy” (respecting others and the forum) 3. “inclusion” (drawing people in/not excluding through acronyms) 4. “translation” (making sense of the discussion's flow and meaning and summarizing). (See short article. http://sps.columbia.edu/information-and-knowledge- strategy/news/four-discussion-disciplines-drive-effective-online ) Let's use AI to detect good discussion “moves” and applaud them, or to detect their absence and "nudge." We could also watch how these play out across email and enterprise social networks, and improve how we converse.
  27. 27. New frontiers in conversational AI: Can Conversational AI help collaboration? 27 What if humans were augmented or nudged to improve the tone or accuracy? SIKM Leaders Conversational AISIKM Leaders Conversational AI What if wisdom were compiled and presented back in aggregate? SIKM Leaders at KM World, 2018
  28. 28. Your view? What’s our responsibility on this topic as a KM community? SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 28
  29. 29. Opportunities and risks SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 29 Conversation Conversational AI AI: Opportunity or Risk? Collective intelligence Crowdsourced, multi-sourced content O: Super-human R: Bias Voice, inflection, pitch “Data,” including these, plus history, comparables, other factors O: Super-human R: manipulation Mindfulness Context awareness O: Helps the forgetful R: De-humanizes Intention (personal purpose) Intention (goal) O: May help complete R: Absolves responsibility Container (trust) History (intelligence) O/R: Trust can be broken Affect “Sentiment” O: Can reduce extremism R: Can be manipulated Emergence Randomness O: Innovation R: Lose the human will Accountability, shared fate, shared faith Shaming, isolation O: Enforce/remind R: Lose the higher power
  30. 30. Our work-life is just a series of conversations. Let's live and interact intentionally. SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 30
  31. 31. Resources • IBM, How conversation (with context) will usher in the AI future https://www.ibm.com/watson/advantage-reports/future-of-artificial-intelligence/ai-conversation.html • Nanalyze, Conversational AI Examples (featuring Clinc) https://www.nanalyze.com/2019/06/conversational-ai-enterprise-applications/ • Nanalyze, “Latest trends in AI” https://www.nanalyze.com/2019/03/latest-trends-artificial-intelligence/ • Forrester Wave on Conversational AI, June, 2019. https://www.forrester.com/report/The+Forrester+New+Wave+Conversational+AI+For+Customer+Servic e+Q2+2019/-/E-RES144416 • Columbia University, Four discussion disciplines http://sps.columbia.edu/information-and-knowledge- strategy/news/four-discussion-disciplines-drive-effective-online • Stanford Stanford Question Answering Dataset SQaD • Technology Review, Scientists have found a way to decode brain signals into speech It’s a step towards a system that would let people send texts straight from their brains. by Antonio Regalado Technology Review, Apr 24, 2019 • Technology Review, Google’s AI can now translate your speech while keeping your voice Researchers trained a neural network to map audio “voiceprints” from one language to another. by Karen Hao Technology Review May 20, 2019 • Quartz, “Snark Attack,” Quartz (2016) • Context Switching and the Hold and resume concept (Kore.ai)) SIKM Leaders Conversational AI 31

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