Coastlines Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A


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Coastlines Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

  1. 1. COASTLINES What do you need to know?
  2. 2. The unit can be divided into two parts: <ul><li>Processes and features </li></ul><ul><li>What people do to protect sections of coastline that are vulnerable to erosion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key ideas about waves: <ul><li>How are they formed? </li></ul><ul><li>What affects their size and strength? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when they reach shallow water? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when they break on the beach? </li></ul><ul><li>Key words </li></ul><ul><li>Fetch </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing wind </li></ul><ul><li>Wave refraction </li></ul><ul><li>Swash </li></ul><ul><li>Backwash </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive waves </li></ul><ul><li>Destructive waves </li></ul>
  4. 4. Erosion <ul><li>What affects the rate of coastal erosion? </li></ul><ul><li>Rock type </li></ul><ul><li>Geology of the coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of the coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Key words </li></ul><ul><li>Discordant coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Concordant coastline </li></ul>
  5. 6. How does the sea erode? <ul><li>What are the processes at work? </li></ul><ul><li>Corrasion or abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul><ul><li>Scouring </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic action </li></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>You also need to know: </li></ul><ul><li>How the sea sorts material on the beach? </li></ul><ul><li>What weathering processes are at work on the cliffs? </li></ul>
  6. 7. What features are produced by these processes of erosion? <ul><li>1 More resistant rock types e.g. chalk </li></ul><ul><li>What is the sequence of their formation? </li></ul><ul><li>Headlands </li></ul><ul><li>Caves </li></ul><ul><li>Arches </li></ul><ul><li>Stacks </li></ul><ul><li>Stumps </li></ul><ul><li>Wave-cut platforms </li></ul><ul><li>2 Less resistant rock types e.g. clay </li></ul><ul><li>What is the sequence of their formation? </li></ul><ul><li>rotational cliff slumping </li></ul><ul><li>3 And don’t forget the bays! </li></ul>
  7. 9. How does the sea move material ( transportation )? <ul><li>You need to understand how longshore drift works along a stretch of coastline </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does the sea transport its sediment? </li></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Saltation </li></ul><ul><li>Traction </li></ul><ul><li>What influences the size of sediment being transported? </li></ul>
  8. 10. Beach Sea Cliff Direction of longshore drift
  9. 11. When does the sea deposit material? What features are produced by the process of deposition? <ul><li>Beaches </li></ul><ul><li>Sand dunes </li></ul><ul><li>Spits </li></ul><ul><li>Bars </li></ul><ul><li>Tombolos </li></ul>What is the sequence of their formation?
  10. 12. How can the different processes of erosion alter or damage an area of coastline? What do people do to protect the coastline, or deal with the consequences of erosion?
  11. 13. You need to learn a case study of how the sea is eroding part of the UK coastline. You will need to know what is being done to protect or ‘ manage ’ this stretch of coastline.
  12. 14. What are the causes of erosion on this part of the coastline?
  13. 15. Key ideas: <ul><li>Type of rock? </li></ul><ul><li>Geological structure of the coastline? </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing wind direction? </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of longshore drift? </li></ul><ul><li>Global changes in sea levels? </li></ul><ul><li>Human influences? </li></ul>
  14. 16. What are the effects of coastal erosion on this part of the coastline?
  15. 17. Key ideas: <ul><li>How much land has been lost, since when? </li></ul><ul><li>How many villages and farms have disappeared? </li></ul><ul><li>What towns and villages are under threat at the moment? </li></ul><ul><li>What specific roads or important industrial sites are at risk? </li></ul><ul><li>What tourist or leisure facilities are under threat? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the natural (physical) features that are being eroded away? </li></ul>
  16. 18. What is being done to ‘ manage ’ or control coastal erosion along this coastline?
  17. 19. Key ideas: <ul><li>Hard engineering </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. revetments, sea walls, groynes, tetrapods, gabions, rip-rap </li></ul><ul><li>Soft engineering </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. beach nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Do nothing’ or managed retreat </li></ul><ul><li>How are the decisions made? </li></ul><ul><li>Who or what ends up getting protected? </li></ul>
  18. 20. What are the consequences of coastal management schemes along this coastline?
  19. 21. Key ideas: <ul><li>Knock-on effects further along the coastline </li></ul><ul><li>accelerated cliff erosion </li></ul><ul><li> accelerated erosion of natural features (Spurn Head?) </li></ul><ul><li> prevention of sediment being carried to other coastlines, both nationally and internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Visual impact of hard engineering schemes </li></ul>
  20. 22. Remember: <ul><li>This case study has to be in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a case study that is local to you (e.g. Seaford for coastal management schemes) </li></ul>
  21. 23. To get maximum marks for a case study question: <ul><li>You must include some real ‘place knowledge’ in your answer </li></ul><ul><li>It therefore should not be vague and so could really be about anywhere along the UK coastline! </li></ul><ul><li>You should therefore learn some relevant facts and figures about the stretch of coastline such as the place names, and so on </li></ul><ul><li>You must also develop the points you make (explain what you mean) and write fluently and in sentences </li></ul><ul><li>You must try and use geographical terminology wherever you can </li></ul>
  22. 24. Good luck, thanks for listening, see you next week!