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Aphasia and dyslyxia


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a presentation about language disorders

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Aphasia and dyslyxia

  1. 1. Language Disorders: Aphasia and Dyslexia Prepared by: Kawthar A. Nahi M.A. Studies 2015-2016
  2. 2. Introduction  Language impairments, or disorders, are known as aphasias and dyslexia.  The main cause for such impairments is the damage in a specific site in the hemisphere where language is located, i.e. the left hemisphere  The brain damage may cause problems in speaking and writing as well.  Such impairments can cause troubles in comprehension.
  3. 3.  Broca's Aphasia  The motor area for spoken speech is situated in the front part of the left hemisphere  Paul Broca, a French Surgeon, described it in 1865 in two patients who lost speech and showed a lesion in the 'lateral frontal lobe at autopsy'.  Broca's aphasia is a type of nonfluent aphasia, because speech production is effortful with many hesitations.  As for other skills of language, Individuals with this type of aphasia may be able to read but have limited ability in writing
  4. 4.  Wernicke's Aphasia  Wernicke’s aphasia andWernicke’s area are named after the German neurologist CarlWernicke.  He first related this specific type of speech deficit to a damage in a left posterior temporal area of the brain.  The ability to grasp the meaning of spoken words and sentences is impaired.  while the ease of producing connected speech is not very affected.  It is called also as ‘fluent aphasia’ or ‘receptive aphasia’.  Reading and writing are often severely impaired
  5. 5.  Anomic Aphasia  The most prominent difficulty is in word-finding  The person using 'generic fillers' in utterances, such as nonspecific nouns and pronouns, such as the word 'thing‘.  or circumlocution, where the person describes the intended word.
  6. 6.  Global Aphasia  It is founded at the other extreme of the severity scale.  It involves severe impairment in language function of both expressive and receptive skills.  The patient may be able to utter only a few syllables, not complete words.  Non-verbal output is used more than verbal output due to the problems in the auditory comprehension
  7. 7.  Conduction Aphasia  A type of fluent aphasia with a prominent impairment with repetition.  Damage typically involves the left parietal region.  The patient expresses him/ herself well, with some 'word-finding' issues.  Comprehension can be functional.  The patient will show significant difficulty in repeating phrases, particularly as the phrases increase in length and complexity  This type of aphasia is rare
  8. 8.  Transcortical Sensory Aphasia:  This language impairment is caused by a disconnection between sensory language processes and semantic knowledge of objects.  Conversational speech is fluent.  patients have severe problems with naming objects.  There is often 'alienation' of word meaning.  This means that the patients don’t understand the words, even after repeating and using them in a sentence.
  9. 9.  Dyslexia  specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.  It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities  These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction
  10. 10.  characteristics associated with dyslexia:  lack of fluency and speed in reading  hesitant predictive reading (using context)  hesitancy in reading  losing the place in reading  failing to recognise words  low level of comprehension  difficulty using dictionaries
  11. 11. References  Aitchison, J. (2008).The Articulate Mammal:An introduction to psycholinguistics. (5th edt.). NewYork: Routledge.  Eadon, H. (2005). Dyslexia and Drama. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.  Field, ,J. (2004). Psycholinguistics:The Key Concepts. London: Routledge  Garman, M. (1990). Psycholinguistics. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.  Gupta,A and Singhal, G. (2011). "Understanding Aphasia in a Simplified Manner". Available at:  Hickock, G. "Speech Perception, Conduction Aphasia, and the Functional Neuroanatomy of Language". From Grodzinsky,Y. et al (eds). (2007). Language and the Brain. San Diego: Academic Press. 87-104.    Steinberg, D. and Sciarini, N. (2006). An Introduction to Psychlinguistics. (2nd edt). London: Pearson Education Limited.  Whitaker, H., A. (ed.) (2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Brain and Language. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.