Aphasia and Dyslexia
Kawthar A. Nahi
Language impairments, or disorders, are known
as aphasias and dyslexia.
The main cause for such impairments is the
damage in a specific site in the hemisphere
where language is located, i.e. the left
The brain damage may cause problems in
speaking and writing as well.
Such impairments can cause troubles in
The motor area for spoken speech is situated in
the front part of the left hemisphere
Paul Broca, a French Surgeon, described it in
1865 in two patients who lost speech and
showed a lesion in the 'lateral frontal lobe at
Broca's aphasia is a type of nonfluent aphasia,
because speech production is effortful with
As for other skills of language, Individuals with
this type of aphasia may be able to read but
have limited ability in writing
Wernicke’s aphasia andWernicke’s area are named
after the German neurologist CarlWernicke.
He first related this specific type of speech deficit to
a damage in a left posterior temporal area of the
The ability to grasp the meaning of spoken words
and sentences is impaired.
while the ease of producing connected speech is
not very affected.
It is called also as ‘fluent aphasia’ or ‘receptive
Reading and writing are often severely impaired
The most prominent difficulty is in word-finding
The person using 'generic fillers' in utterances,
such as nonspecific nouns and pronouns, such as
the word 'thing‘.
or circumlocution, where the person describes
the intended word.
It is founded at the other extreme of the severity
It involves severe impairment in language
function of both expressive and receptive skills.
The patient may be able to utter only a few
syllables, not complete words.
Non-verbal output is used more than verbal
output due to the problems in the auditory
A type of fluent aphasia with a prominent
impairment with repetition.
Damage typically involves the left parietal region.
The patient expresses him/ herself well, with
some 'word-finding' issues.
Comprehension can be functional.
The patient will show significant difficulty in
repeating phrases, particularly as the phrases
increase in length and complexity
This type of aphasia is rare
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia:
This language impairment is caused by a
disconnection between sensory language
processes and semantic knowledge of objects.
Conversational speech is fluent.
patients have severe problems with naming
There is often 'alienation' of word meaning.
This means that the patients don’t understand
the words, even after repeating and using them
in a sentence.
specific learning disability that is neurological in
It is characterized by difficulties with accurate
and/or fluent word recognition and by poor
spelling and decoding abilities
These difficulties typically result from a deficit in
the phonological component of language that is
often unexpected in relation to other cognitive
abilities and the provision of effective classroom
characteristics associated with dyslexia:
lack of fluency and speed in reading
hesitant predictive reading (using context)
hesitancy in reading
losing the place in reading
failing to recognise words
low level of comprehension
difficulty using dictionaries
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