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Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages

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Presentation at IABSE Young Engineers Colloquium YEC2016 (01.04.2016, Hamburg)
Paper at: https://github.com/kzdanowicz/conf/blob/master/160401_IABSE_YEC2016_Zdanowicz_paper.pdf
Presentation for quick download at: https://github.com/kzdanowicz/conf/blob/master/IABSE_YEC2016_Zdanowicz.pdf

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Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages

  1. 1. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering 1 Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages Katarzyna ZDANOWICZ, M.Sc. Leibniz Universität Hannover Institut für Massivbau
  2. 2. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: properties CFRP GFRP* BFRP** AFRP Steel tendons Tensile strength [MPa] 1800 – 2500 400 – 1600 1100 – 1350 1200 – 2100 1700 – 1900 E-modulus [GPa] 137 – 150 30 – 60 45 – 70 60 – 70 195 Ultimate strain [-] 0.013 – 0.017 0.012 – 0.037 0.022 – 0.030 0.015 – 0.037 0.05 – 0.10 Density [kg/m³] 1500 – 1700 1700 – 2100 2000 – 2200 1200 – 1400 7850 ** GFRP tendons are not accepted by all standards *** BFRP tendons are in testing phase and are not included in any standards for prestressing 1x7 (φ12.5 mm) 1x37 (φ40 mm) BFRP [RockBar, MagmaTech]CFRP [CFCC, TokyoRope] CFRP [Leadline, Mitsubishi]
  3. 3. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: durability issues CFRP GFRP SEM images, 3000x NaOH solution, 28 days Source: Sim, Park et al. 2005
  4. 4. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: applications  1980: 7 m span bridge, Lünen’sche Gasse in Düsseldorf, prestressed with 12 GFRP tendons  1983: AFRP prestressing tendons in the posts of a noise barriers along highways (Netherlands)  1988: the first bridge worldwide prestressed only with FRPs (CFCC; 24 girders), Shinmiya Bridge (Japan)  1991: Ludwigshafen, the first road bridge prestressed with CFRP tendons: 85 m long, 4 CFRP tendons used with steel tendons  2001: the Bridge Street Bridge (Michigan, USA) – the first structure completely reinforced with carbon FRP reinforcement
  5. 5. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: applications façade beams, poles, hexagonal marine structures Source: Karbhari 1998, Terrasi 2012
  6. 6. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: codes and standards • Japan: – Recommendation for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures Using Continuous Fibre Reinforcing Materials, Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, 1995 • Canada: – CAN/CSA S6-00 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, 2000 (2014) – CAN/CSA S806-02 Design and Construction of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers, 2002 (2012) – Design Manual Prestressing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers, The Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence on Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures (ISIS), 2007 • USA: – ACI 440.4R-04, Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP Tendons, 2004 (2011)
  7. 7. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering • Europe (fib):  Bulletin No. 40 FRP reinforcement in RC structures (2007): “it was decided not to include design approaches for prestressed concrete members”  Model Code 2010 for Concrete Structures (2013): “The prestressing tendons considered in this Model Code are made either of prestressing steel [...] or of FRP materials.” FRP tendons: codes and standards
  8. 8. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP tendons: permissible tendon stresses CAN/CSA S806-12 CAN/CSA S6-14 ACI 440.4R-04 Model Code 2010 at jacking CFRP 0,70 0,70 0,65 --- AFRP 0,40 0,40 0,50 --- GFRP * --- 0,30 --- --- at transfer CFRP 0,65 0,65 0,60 0,80 AFRP 0,35 0,35 0,40 0,50 GFRP * -- 0,25 --- 0,30 * – GFRP tendons are permitted only by CAN/CSA S6-14 and Model Code 2010
  9. 9. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: bond anchorages Source: Schmidt, Bennitz et al. 2012
  10. 10. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: HEM (highly expansive material) anchorage Source: Rohleder et al. 2008 Penobscot Narrows Bridge, Maine, USA (2006)
  11. 11. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: bond-type anchorage for multiple FRP tendons Source: Fang et al. 2013 Aizhai Bridge hangers (2012) Reactive powder concrete grout as expansive material
  12. 12. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: bond anchorages Bond materials:  epoxy resins,  mortars (normal or expansive),  reactive powder concretes Problems:  ageing,  creep,  maintenance,  long-term performance
  13. 13. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: clamp anchorages Source: Burningham et al. 2014  suitable when there are neither special aesthetic demands nor necessity of compact devices,  possibility to differentiate the torque for each row of the bolts
  14. 14. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: transverse strength problem
  15. 15. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: transverse strength problem end of anchorage
  16. 16. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: sleeve-wedge anchorages Source: Schmidt, Smith et al. 2011 Sleeve:  usually aluminium or cooper,  uniform distribution of radial compressive stresses around the tendon circumference
  17. 17. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: integrated sleeve-wedge anchorages Source: Schmidt et al. 2010, 2011  consisting of one piece with a gap and two slits  grips the tendon both circumferentially and longitudinally
  18. 18. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: gradient anchorages Source: Meier 2012
  19. 19. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: gradient anchorages Source: Meier 2012  Elasticity modulus modified through combination of aluminum oxide ceramic (Al2O3) granules and epoxy resin  Stork Bridge in Winterthur, Switzerland (1996)
  20. 20. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Anchorages: CFCC anchorages Source: CFCC Manual 2014
  21. 21. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP materials: economical issues Source: Lux Research, Inc. Report
  22. 22. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering FRP materials: economical issues Source: Lux Research, Inc. Report
  23. 23. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Conclusions Research areas:  anchorages, which will not induce too large transverse stresses on the tendons,  prestressing devices and procedures  deviators to shape the tendon profile without any damage risks  relaxation and long-term behaviour
  24. 24. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering 24 Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages Katarzyna ZDANOWICZ, M.Sc. Leibniz Universität Hannover Institut für Massivbau Thank you for your attention!
  25. 25. Young Engineers Colloquium Hamburg 1st April 2016 Katarzyna Zdanowicz: Fibre Reinforced Polymer Prestressing Tendons and their Anchorages International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering References ACI 440.4R-04, 2004 (2011): ACI 440.4R-04 Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP Tendons. Burningham, C.; Pantelides, C.; Reaveley, L. (2014): New unibody clamp anchors for posttensioning carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer rods. In: PCI Journal 59 (1), S. 103–113. Fang, Z.; Zhang, K.; Tu, B. (2013): Experimental investigation of a bond-type anchorage system for multiple FRP tendons. In: Engineering Structures 57, S. 364–373. Fédération international du béton (fib) (2013): fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. Berlin. Karbhari, V. M. (1998): WTEC study on use of composite materials in civil infrastructure in Japan. Baltimore: International Technology Research Institute World Technology (WTEC) Division. Meier, U. (2012): Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Cables. Why? Why Not? What If? In: Arab J Sci Eng 37 (2), S. 399–411. JSCE-CS23, 1997: Recommendation for design and construction of concrete structures using continuous fiber reinforcing materials. Rohleder, W. J.; Tang, B.; Doe, T. A.; Grace, N. F.; Burgess, Ch. J. (2008): CFRP Strand Application on Penobscot Narrows Cable Stayed Bridge. In: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 17 (2050), S. 169–176. CAN/CSA S6-14, 2014: S6-14 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code. CAN/CSA S806-12, 2012: S806-12 Design and construction of building structures with fibre-reinforced polymers. Schmidt, J. W.; Bennitz, A.; Täljsten, B.; Goltermann, P.; Pedersen, H. (2012): Mechanical anchorage of FRP tendons – A literature review. In: Construction and Building Materials 32, S. 110–121. Schmidt, J. W.; Smith, S. T.; Täljsten, B.; Bennitz, A.; (2011): Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of an Integrated Sleeve-Wedge Anchorage for CFRP Rods. In: J. Compos. Constr. 15 (3) Sim, J.; Park, C.; Moon, D. Y. (2005): Characteristics of basalt fiber as a strengthening material for concrete structures. In: Composites Part B: Engineering 36 (6-7), S. 504–512. Terrasi, G. P. (2012): Prefabricated Thin-walled Structural Elements Made from High Performance Concrete Prestressed with CFRP Wires. In: JMSR 2 (1).

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