Chapter 28

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Chapter 28

  1. 1. America on the World Stage 1899 - 1909
  2. 2. “Little Brown Brothers” <ul><li>Filipinos assumed they would be granted their independence like Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate refused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feb. 4, 1899 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurrection led by Emilio Aguinaldo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filipinos were defeated & resorted to guerilla warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US used torture & camps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1901 – Aguinaldo was captured </li></ul></ul>
  3. 6. “Benevolent Assimilation” <ul><li>Philippine Commission 1899 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by McKinley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Howard Taft – head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to make appropriate recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved roads, sanitation, public health, & schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ill received </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philippines will receive their independence on July 4, 1946 </li></ul>
  4. 7. John Hay Defends China <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated by Japan 1894 – 1895 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia & Germany moved in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tore away valuable leaseholds & economic spheres of influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>churches worried about missionaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business feared European monopolies on Chinese goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sec of State John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy </li></ul>
  5. 8. Open Door Policy <ul><li>1899 – John Hay sent Open Door Note </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent to all great powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged countries to announce that in their dealings, they would respect certain Chinese rights & the ideal of fair competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually all nations agree with the exception of Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hay proclaimed that Open Door Policy is in effect </li></ul>
  6. 10. Problems with the Open Door <ul><li>1900 – Boxer Rebellion in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200 missionaries & whites killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18,000 multinational soldiers were sent & stopped the rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, Russia, Great Britain, France, Germany, & US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hay feared that the rebellion would be used to justify carving up China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1900 – expanded policy to include territorial integrity in addition to its commercial integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not ask for formal acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 12. Presidential Election 1900 <ul><li>Republicans – McKinley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform – prosperity, gold standard, & overseas expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VP – Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov of NY but political bosses wanted him out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats – Bryan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform – anti-imperialism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Campaign <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McKinley – front-porch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryan & TR traveled & campaigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McKinley won easily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity at home seemed more important than freedom aboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Election was not a mandate for or against imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For or against McKinley & Bryan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate for prosperity & protection </li></ul></ul>
  9. 16. TR becomes President <ul><li>Sept. 1901 - McKinley is assassinated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By a deranged anarchist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TR became youngest president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed he would carry on the politics of McKinley </li></ul></ul>
  10. 17. TR as President <ul><li>“ Speak softly and carry a big stick” </li></ul><ul><li>Outspoken moralizer & reformer </li></ul><ul><li>Master politician </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No respect for checks & balances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution was too rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President should lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt he may take any action in the general interest that was not specifically forbidden by the laws of the constitution </li></ul></ul>
  11. 18. The Need for a Canal <ul><li>TR understood the outside world more than his predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>War established the need for a canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USS Oregon – had to travel all the way around South America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canal would increase naval mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make defense of new territories easier </li></ul></ul>
  12. 20. Canal Plans <ul><li>Clayton-Bulwer Treaty – 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement with Great Britain that US would not control such a route </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hay-Pauncefote Treaty – 1901 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed to by Great Britain, US could build & fortify a canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicaragua </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama </li></ul></ul>
  13. 22. Nicaragua v. Panama <ul><li>French Canal Company – started building canal but had to stop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted US to continue where they left off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Panama Canal Company –led by Philippe Bunau-Varilla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped the price of the land from $109 million to $40 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress was concerned about volcanoes in Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><li>Hanna argued in Congress for Panama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress accepted June 1902 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 23. Problems in Panama <ul><li>Treaty was negotiated between US & Colombia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted use of 6 mile canal zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$10 million & $250,000 annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty was rejected by Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>TR was running for office in 1904 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to start building before election </li></ul></ul>
  15. 24. Panama Revolution Nov. 3, 1903 <ul><li>Panamanians wanted the canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counted on the prosperity to come </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bunau-Varilla raised a “patriot” army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of fire departments & Colombian troops that had been paid $100,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colombian troops were ready to attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US naval forces would not let them cross the isthmus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TR justified actions based on former treaty(1846) to maintain “perfect neutrality” of the isthmus </li></ul></ul>
  16. 26. Sealing the Deal <ul><li>TR quickly moved to recognize Panama </li></ul><ul><li>Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by US & Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price remained the same, zone increased to 10 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Rape of Panama” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in a downward turn in relations with Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Big Brother” Policy had begun </li></ul></ul>
  17. 29. Completing the Canal <ul><li>Difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor troubles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonel George Washington Goethals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped with organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonel William C. Gorgas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped made canal zone safe from yellow fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canal completed in 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$400 million </li></ul></ul>
  18. 34. TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine <ul><li>Latin American countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defaulted on their payments to European creditors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly Venezuela & the Dominican Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1903 - Germany attacked Venezuelan gunboats & a town </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TR feared that Germany & Great Britain might remain in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of Monroe Doctrine </li></ul></ul>
  19. 35. Roosevelt Corollary <ul><li>In the future, if Latin American countries defaulted on their loans, the US would intervene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take over customhouses, pay off the debts, and keep the troublesome powers on the other side of the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thou shall not intervene.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt Corollary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We shall intervene to prevent you from intervening.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 36. Colossus of the North <ul><li>1905 – US took over tariff collections in the Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DR were not happy with the interference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1906 – US Marines sent to Cuba to stop disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stayed until 1909 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Started “Bad Neighbor” policy </li></ul>
  21. 37. TR on the World Stage <ul><li>Russo-Japanese War – 1904 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia was trying to take ports in Manchuria, China – Port Arthur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese attacked Russia at Port Arthur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese eventually asked US for help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portsmouth, NH – 1905 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR helped Russia & Japan work out an agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese receive no money & some land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1906 – TR receives the Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul>
  22. 40. Results of Russo-Japanese War <ul><li>Relationship among US, Japan & Russia soured </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous Japanese laborers moved to California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1906 – 70,000 lived around the Pacific coast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1906 – Japanese were sent to special schools </li></ul><ul><li>Gentlemen’s Agreement – 1907-1908 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA repealed the school order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese agreed to stop the flow of immigrants </li></ul></ul>
  23. 42. The Great White Fleet <ul><li>1907 – TR sent 16 battleships on a cruise around the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to impress the Japanese & the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TR believed this to be his most important contribution to peace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US & Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific & to uphold the Open Door Policy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 43. The Great White Fleet

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