Bovine Cysticercosis and Its Public Health Importance in Ethiopia


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This PPT has been prepared for seminar in University of Gondar for the course Seminar on Animal Health.

By: Kassahun Semie,
FVM, Gondar, Ethiopia

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Bovine Cysticercosis and Its Public Health Importance in Ethiopia

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Tapeworm infestation has been recorded in history 1500 years ago as human parasitic disease.  T. saginata is a worldwide zoonotic cestode affecting 55-77 million individuals annually.  T. saginata adult worms cause taeniasis in human.  Bovine cysticercosis is a disease that affects the musculature of cattle.  It is caused by metacestode stage of T. saginata.
  3. 3. Con’t……..  It is most prevalent in developing countries like Ethiopia.  Deep rooted tradition and custom of eating raw and under cooked meat, habit of open field defecation and free grazing made taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis most prevalent in Ethiopia.  Ethiopia is ideally placed to export live animals to Middle East markets.  But export earning is low due to presence of unimproved animal health problems like bovine cysticercosis.
  4. 4. Objectives :  To highlight the status bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.  To review control and prevention strategies, and public health and economic importance of the disease.
  5. 5. BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS ETIOLOGY  Metacestode stage of human intestinal cestode, T. saginata.  T. saginata is classified under: Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Platyhelminthes Class – Cestoda Order – Cyclophyllidea Family – Taeniidae Genus – Taenia Species – T. saginata
  6. 6. Morphology  Adult T. saginata – commonly known as beef tapeworm: large ribbon-shaped (usually 4-15 m long) white flat worm multisegmented hermaphrodite its body is divided into three distinct parts as: head (scolex) – attachment organ provided with suckers neck – short unsegmented organ strobilla – chain of segments (proglottids)  Eggs - sub spherical to spherical in shape - measures about 30 – 45µm
  7. 7. Morphology…………..  Eggs - contain- shell - hexacanth embryo (oncosphere) - thick and brown in color - resistant to external environment  Metacestode stage (larval stage) – commonly known as beef measles or bladder worm - small pea-sized - oval in shape ss - translucent scolex - contain single white scolex
  8. 8. EPIDEMIOLOGY Host range ♠ Adult – in intestinal tract of man (definitive host) ♠ Larval stage – musculature of cattle (intermediatehosts) ♠ Cattle of all ages are susceptible, but youngs are more susceptible. Geographic Distribution ♦ Worldwide ♦ Highly endemic in developing countries like Ethiopia.
  9. 9. Con’t…………. ☞ In Ethiopia, taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis is common due to:  customs of eating raw or under cooked beef dishes such as kurt, lebleb and kitffo,  Open field (under bush) defecation, and  Free grazing. ☞ Estimates made by different investigators on prevalence of taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia vary widely - from 2% - 16% to over 70%.
  10. 10. Distribution Of Metacestodes In Organs: ♠ Metacestode are found throughout edible parts which includes:  Masseter muscles  Cardiac muscles  Triceps  Thigh muscles  Shoulder muscles  Diaphragm  Intercostal muscles  Tongue  Liver  The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles are the main predilection sites of the cyst.
  11. 11. Source of infection and Mode of transmission  Man is the source of the parasite  human habits are responsible for spread of BC non-hygienic disposal of stool usage of human sewage as fertilizer on pasture ☞these acts are responsible for cattle infection.  Human infection perpetuates as a result of man’s custom eating raw/under cooked beef poor sanitation ♠In Ethiopia incidence of T.saginata taeniasis is high due to ♦ extensive cattle rearing system ♦ poor sanitation ♦ tradition of raw meat aeting
  12. 12. LIFE CYCLE
  13. 13. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION  In human  generally asymptomatic  manifested as non specific GIT illness  abdominal pain  digestive disturbance  nausea  utilizes nutrition of man – leads to weight loss  in large number – causes enteritis  In cattle  no clinical illness  in heavy infection – causes myocarditis - muscle stiffness
  14. 14. DIAGNOSIS ☞ In man ♠ no clear clinical picture ♠ diagnosis is based on • laboratory findings • stool examination for gravid proglottids  for identification of T. saginata focus on  proglottids – more than 13 uterine branches  scolex – lacks hooks/rostellum ☞ In cattle √ meat inspection – incise at the predilection muscles √ immunological dx – using ELISA to detect a antibodies like IgG
  15. 15. Differential dx  Sarcocyst species – forms white soft nodules (protozoa) -found mainly in esophagus  Onchocerca dukei – nematode parasite - nodules are firm to touch and reveal worms upon sectioning  Cysticercus dromedarius (C. cameli)  metacestode of T. hyenae  twice larger than C. bovis  possesses double raw of hooks
  16. 16. TREATMENT  Most widely used anticestodal drugs for Rx of human taeniasis in Ethiopia are:  niclosamide (@ dose rate of 2000mg)  praziquantel (@ dose rate of 5 – 10) ☞ Many traditional herbal drugs are used by rural inhabitants in Ethiopia. Some of them are: ♠ Enkoko – Embelia schimperi ♠ Kosso – Hygenia abyssinica ♠ Bisana – Corton macrustachy ♠ Duba firie – Cucurbita pepo: the pump kin  In cattle – albendazole (50 mg per kg) -Praziquantel (50 mg per kg) - mebendazole (50 mg per kg)  but they are not fully effective.
  17. 17. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE � Bovine cysticercosis is important zoonotic disease � Pose variety of problems in man like:  non specific intestinal disturbance – colic, discomfort  non specific appetite change – increase or loss  loss – due to abdominal pain and discomfort  increase – in heavy infestation because they compete with parasites for nutrients, they need to eat a lot  body weakness, headaches, dizziness and delirium (mind disturbance)  malnutrition – large no. of worms cause malabsorption  poor hair quality – due to severe malnutrition (in children)  intestinal blockage – due to massive infestation  perinial or anal irritation – due to migrating proglottids ☞ Infected workers may absent from work or reduce their working uneasiness lowers productivity.
  18. 18. Economic Importance  Economic loss is determined by  disease prevalence  grade of animals infected – not fit for market  potential market policy of cattle – export market  treatment cost for live animals and detained carcass  carcass condemination.
  19. 19. CONTROLAND PREVENTION  In cattle  improve livestock farming techniques – intensive  reinforcement of veterinary inspection  vaccination – under trial not marketed  In human  diagnose carriers and treat with taenicides  improve personal hygiene  installation of good sanitary accommodations  enhance environmental hygiene  public health education, stressing danger of raw meat consumption  mass education to use latrine
  20. 20. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ♠ Cysticercosis is important zoonotic disease that affects both human and animal health ♠ Prevalence of the disease in Ethiopia is high and economically significant ♠ customs of eating raw/under cooked meat, backyard slaughtering especially in holydays, and lack of sanitation give a great favor for continual existence of parasite/disease within human and animal population. ☞ Based on the above conclusion the following recommendations are forwarded:  there should be public awareness about health and economic importance of the disease through social and public media
  21. 21. Con’t  avoid raw/undercooked meat  infected meat and meat products should under go the processes of boiling and freezing  strong collaboration between medical and veterinary professionals should exist to reduce impact of the disease  the community should use latrines/toilets  untreated human feces shouldn’t used as fertilizer on pasture  there should be strict meat inspection
  22. 22. “Eat healthily, sleep well, breathe deeply, move harmoniously.” Barral J.P
  23. 23. THANK YOU !