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Lecture #01
Transmission Media
NET302
Asma AlOsaimi
Topics:
• Review
• Transmission media types
• UTP
• STP
• Wireless Media
The two models
Getting it Connected
Connecting to the Network
• A physical connection can be a wired connection using a cable or a
wireless connection using radio waves.
Getting it Connected
Connecting to the Network
• Switches and wireless access points are often two separate dedicated
devices, connected to a router.
• Many homes use integrated service routers (ISRs),
Getting it Connected
Network Interface Cards
• Network Interface Cards (NICs) connect a device to the network.
• Ethernet NICs are used for a wired connection whereas WLAN (Wireless
Local Area Network) NICs are used for wireless.

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lecture01_tm.pptx

  • 2. Topics: • Review • Transmission media types • UTP • STP • Wireless Media
  • 4. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network • A physical connection can be a wired connection using a cable or a wireless connection using radio waves.
  • 5. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network • Switches and wireless access points are often two separate dedicated devices, connected to a router. • Many homes use integrated service routers (ISRs),
  • 6. Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards • Network Interface Cards (NICs) connect a device to the network. • Ethernet NICs are used for a wired connection whereas WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) NICs are used for wireless.
  • 7. Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards • Wireless devices must share access to the airwaves connecting to the wireless access point. • Slower network performance may occur • A wired device does not need to share its access • Each wired device has a separate communications channel over its own Ethernet cable. Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender
  • 8. The Physical Layer • Encoding or line encoding - Method of converting a stream of data bits into a predefined "codes”. • Signaling - The physical layer must generate the electrical, optical, or wireless signals that represent the "1" and "0" on the media.
  • 9. Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Media • The physical layer produces the representation and groupings of bits for each type of media as: • Copper cable: The signals are patterns of electrical pulses. ( Focus on STP & UTP) • Fiber-optic cable: The signals are patterns of light. ( details in NET301) • Wireless: The signals are patterns of microwave transmissions. ( brief description only )
  • 10. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Bandwidth • Bandwidth is the capacity of a medium to carry data. • Typically measured in kilobits per second (kb/s) or megabits per second (Mb/s).
  • 11. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Throughput • Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. • Due to a number of factors, throughput usually does not match the specified bandwidth in physical layer implementations. • http://www.speedtest.net/ • http://ipv6-test.com/speedtest/
  • 13. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Types of Physical Media • Different types of interfaces and ports available on a 1941 router
  • 15. Copper Cabling Characteristics of Copper Media • Signal attenuation - the longer the signal travels, the more it deteriorates - susceptible to interference • Crosstalk - a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of a signal on one wire to the signal in an adjacent wire. 1 2 3 4
  • 17. Copper Cabling Categories CATEGORY TYPE DATA RATE Applications Distance Connectors CAT1 UTP Up to 1 Mbps Standard telephone (POTS) wiring, or for ISDN. Up to 100 meter CAT2 UTP Up to 4 Mbps 4Mbpss token ring networks. Up to 100 meter CAT3 UTP Up to 10 Mbps 10BaseT Ethernet networks (100Base-T), but has now been superseded by Cat-5 cable. Up to 100 meter RJ45 CAT4 UTP Up to 16 Mbps 16Mbps token ring networks. Up to 100 meter RJ45 CAT5 UTP Up to 100 Mbps Cat 5 cable superseded the Cat 3 version ( Ethernet Network , fast Ethernet Network) Up to 100 meter RJ45 CAT5e UTP Up to 1 Gbps (Ethernet , Fast Ethernet Network , Gigabit Ethernet network) Up to 100 meter RJ45 CAT6 UTP or STP Up to 10 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet network , 10G Ethernet Networks) Up to 55 meter RJ45 CAT6a UTP or STP Up to 10 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet network , 10G Ethernet Networks) Up to 100 meter RJ45 CAT7 STP Up to 10 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet network , 10G Ethernet Networks) - usually used in Data Centers for backbone connections between servers, network switches and storage devices. Up to 100 meter Non-RJ45 CAT8 STP Up to 250 Gbps TBR TBR Class I :Rj54 , Class2:non- RJ45
  • 18. Note One thing you should keep in mind is that your network is only as fast as your slowest component, so unless every piece of your network (routers, cables, etc.) supports Gigabit Ethernet, you will not be able to reach those speeds.
  • 21. Copper Cabling UTP • EIA/TIA-568A/B compliant refers to which of the four pairs in the UTP cable are designated as transmit, and which are designated as receive. Use the following as a guide: • EIA/TIA-568A: Devices transmit over pair 3, and receive over pair 2. • EIA/TIA-568B: Devices transmit over pair 2, and receive over pair 3.
  • 26. Copper Cabling Straight-Through Vs. Crossover • Use straight-through cables for the following cabling: • Switch to Router. • Switch to Server (PC). • Hub to Server (PC). • Use crossover cables for the following cabling: • Switch to Switch. • Switch to Hub. • Hub to Hub. • Router to Router. • PC to PC
  • 27. Copper Cabling Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable Foil Shields Braided or Foil Shield • UTP cable does not use shielding to counter the effects of EMI and RFI. Instead, cable designers have discovered that they can limit the negative effect of crosstalk • STP cable combines the techniques of shielding to counter EMI and RFI and wire twisting to counter crosstalk.
  • 28. • IEEE 802.11 standards • Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. • Uses CSMA/CA • Variations include: • 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz • 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz • 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz • 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz • 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz • 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz • IEEE 802.15 standard • Supports speeds up to 3 Mbps • Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters. • IEEE 802.16 standard • Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps • Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Wireless Media 3) Wireless Media