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  1. 1. Community Participation in Environment Management Case studies of wetlands conservation in Himachal Pradesh, north-western Himalaya SANJEEV SHARMA CSRD/SSS-III, JNU, New Delhi E-mail:
  2. 2. Why Conservation? Why Participation? Are we conserving our self or whom? Development vs Conservation
  3. 3. Man-Environmental relationship • The human-environment relationships deals primarily with the linkages between the social and physical systems, focusing on the human pressures on the biogeochemical processes and the environmental effects on society. • Man-environmental relationship changed through time with the development of human society and dimension of environment Physical man Social economic technological man
  4. 4. Environment & Man • The environment affects man through: Biophysical limitation Behavioral Controls Resources availability Economic deterministic Ecological
  5. 5. Genesis • Ecosystem services can be defined as all the benefits people obtain from ecosystem. • These benefits include provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services directly and indirectly to the people living in that particular landscape. • Assessing the key ecosystem indicators can play an important role in decision-making and adaptive management and provide an important interface between science, society, technology, nature and policy. • Key relevant indicators provided ecosystem services are forest, land, water, air and other various ecological services. • The key to sustainable development is achieving a balance between exploitation of natural resource for socio-economic development and conserving ecosystem services that are critical to every ones well being and livelihoods. The sustainable development Goals (SDGs15), mentioned the need to integrate ecosystem value into planning development process and strategies for reducing poverty.
  6. 6. Discovery of farming:  Early human began noticing things around them and started thinking more about those things.  They saw the seed in the soil grew into plants and got the idea of growing plants for their food.  They started collecting and sowing seed in the soil thus start growing food for his family.  For farming, they used stones to dig the soil first. Later on they improved their tools using wood. Now they could give proper shape to their tools that were made up of wood and stones.  Started taming useful animals like hen, goats, cows, sheep and dog.  They used some animals for getting food like milk and eggs and some of them were useful for cartage and farming.  They started using bullocks to plough the field and dogs for hunting and security from wild animals.
  7. 7. Life’s of early man………………… Hunting and gathering
  8. 8. Human Activities that have changed the biosphere include may have once caused often relies on the methods of the have resulted in which increased Food supply Pesticide use Monoculture use Hunting and gathering Agriculture Industrial growth Urban development Extinctions of large animals Green revolution High standard of living Increased pollution Section 6-1 Concept Map Go to Section:
  9. 9. • The emergence of farming is embedded in broader cultural developments occuring among hunter gatherer communities some 10,000 year ago (8000 BC to 12000 BC).Earth belong to hunter gathering . • The key factor in this process was the biological domestacation of targeted plants and animals through selective breeding and other form of selection. • Much earlier in the Paleothic period of the ICE AGE. • Domestication Economic process of managing the reproduction of plants and animals and changing their character Increase control by human Separation
  10. 10. Wetlands: A wetland is any place, where people can get their feet wet without being able to swim Wetlands are ecosystems that provide numerous goods and services that have an economic value, not only to the local population living in its periphery but also to communities living outside the wetland area. They are important sources for food, fresh water and building materials and provide valuable services such as water treatment and erosion control. The Ramsar Convention describes wetlands as "areas of marsh, fen, peat land or Water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporal, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or slat, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres" (Ramsar Convention, 1971). Wetlands are often described as “ Kidneys of the landscape” (Mitsch & Gosselink)
  11. 11. Wetlands of the World
  12. 12. HAW distribution worldwide (reported in scientific literature) Sources: WWF-India
  13. 13. Photo//© Sanjeev Sharma
  14. 14. Photo//© Sanjeev Sharma
  15. 15. Background • The Himalayan high altitude wetlands (3000 m asl) are unique and immensely productive ecosystems, playing a crucial role in the interaction with all other ecosystems. • High-altitude wetlands (HAWs) have a direct impact on freshwater systems of downstream. • These wetlands represent unique flora, especially native, endemic and medicinal plants and are important for their survival. • They are also crucial for the mountain communities who depend on these wetlands directly or indirectly for their livelihoods. • Chandertal and Manimahesh are very important high altitude wetlands of Himachal Pradesh and major attraction for Tourists & Pilgrims. •At present these wetlands are facing growing impacts of the tourism in the region which adds significantly to the biotic pressures on wetlands and adjoining grasslands. • The degradation can be checked through proper management of the tourism, controlling the grazing pressure and sustainable development.
  16. 16. Importance of wetlands
  17. 17. Floral Diversity of HAW in H.P. Caltha palustris Lagotis kanawarensis Corydalis species Saussurea species Rhodiola species Pleurospermum species Potentilla peduncularis Androsace sarmentosa Anemone rivylaris Euphorbia pilosa
  18. 18. Ramsar Wetlands in India Source: MoEF, 2007
  19. 19. List of Ramsar Site in India Sources:
  20. 20. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 > 500 100-500 25-100 10-25. < 10 <2,25 Very Large Large Medium Small very small < 2.25 12 30 179 495 1991 1996 No. of lakes Lake Size (ha.) Size wise distribution of high altitude wetlands in the IHR 95462 4861 7434 7558 8429 2505 Very Large Large Medium Small very small < 2.25 Total lakes=4703; Area 126249 ha. Source: SAC, ISRO, 2011
  21. 21. State No. of lakes Area (ha.) % Lake Area Arunchala Pradesh 1672 11863 9.4 Himachal Pradesh 272 617 0.49 Jammu Kashmir 2104 110131 87.23 Sikkim 534 3325 2.63 Uttarakhand 118 231 0.18 West Bengal 3 82 0.07 4703 126249 100 State wise distribution of high altitude wetlands in IHR Source: SAC, ISRO, 2011
  22. 22. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3000-4000 4000-5000 >5000 High altitude Higher altitude Very high altitude 1300 2642 761 No. of Lakes 1300 2642 761 High altitude 3000-4000 Higher altitude 4000-5000 Very high altitude >5000 Area (ha.) Source: SAC, ISRO, 2011 Altitude wise distribution of HAW in the Himalaya
  23. 23. 0 50 100 150 200 250 > 500 100-500 25-100 10-25. < 10 <2,25 Very Large Large Medium Small very small < 2.25 3 5 34 230 No. of HAW in H.P. Area (ha.) Size wise status of HAW in Himachal Pradesh Source: SAC, ISRO, 2011
  24. 24. • Home to several Endangered, Endemic species • Hydrological role due to location in headwaters of mighty rivers • Role as natural reservoirs • Immense livelihood, cultural and spiritual significance for the local communities • Wetland conditions and productivity are largely dependent upon climate and hydrologic regimes. • Several global climate models predict an increase in temperature and precipitation for the Himalaya over the next century. • A warmer and wetter climate will have unknown consequences for high altitude wetlands and downstream river systems. High Altitude Wetlands: Critically Important
  25. 25. CAPACITY BUILDING RESOURCE MATERIAL Workshops Trainings Meetings Students competitions Camps Visits Posters/Charts Movies (Multimedia Cds) LCD Presentation Manuals Books Brochures News paper/Radio Awareness component
  26. 26. Wetlands Conservation Step 1: Learn (L) about the issue thoroughly Step 2: Experience (E) and Evaluate the knowledge Step 3: Adapt (A) the knowledge for community Step 4: (P) Promote the Knowledge LEAP Sources: Bhandri, B.B. (2003)
  27. 27. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Kangra Chamba Kullu Kinnaur Lahaul-Spiti Shimla Mandi 2960 3000-4400 2700-4600 3600-4000 3700-4800 3960 2900 1 18 8 5 7 1 1 Lakes (in number) A l t i t u d e ( m a s l ) / D i s t r i c t High Altitude Wetlands: Field Survey
  28. 28. Study Sites 32023'44002" N to 076038'18009" E (4088 masl) 77° 37'0”E and 32° 28'52”N (4,290 masl)
  29. 29. Different view of Manimahesh Lake High altitude wetlands in Chamba District
  30. 30. Status of Kareri Lake in distt. Kangra
  31. 31. HAW in Kinnaur High altitude wetlands in Kinnaur District
  32. 32. Status of Nako Lake
  33. 33. High altitude wetlands in Kullu District
  34. 34. High altitude wetlands in Kullu District
  35. 35. Threats
  36. 36. Waste scenarios at Chandratal Lake Heap of Waste Half-burnt Waste Waste in a Pit Collected Waste
  37. 37. Steps of Solid Waste Sampling (Kuniyal & Sharma, 2009) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Per cent (by weight) NBW RBW BW NBW RBW BW Waste characterization results Collection Segregation Quantification
  38. 38. Threats Weed generation Development of concrete wall
  39. 39. Action component for HAW Conservation
  40. 40. Involvement of Indian Army for HAW Conservation
  41. 41. Publications
  42. 42. Conservation Initiative in Manimahesh Lake
  43. 43. High Altitude Wetlands Conservation Impacts at Manimahesh 2009 2009 2010 2010
  44. 44. Conservation Measures: Awareness
  45. 45. Initiatives for Conservation Measures Conservation Measures
  46. 46. In 2006 when we have started (GBPIHED) waste management study at Chandertal lake situation is like this but after 5 years lake is now conserved and no camping, waste, entry of vehicles and other problem at Chandertal lake, tourists now put their tents 2.5 kms away from the lake, trek more than 2 kms, parked their vehicles and camp in the designated camping and paring site. In 2011 In 2011 In 2006 In 2006
  47. 47. In 2011 In 2010 In 2009 In 2011
  48. 48. In 2009 In 2009 In 2011 In 2011
  49. 49. Mr. Govind standing in the right side. Dhaba’s and tent owners put his tent near to lake in the past (see in photo 2006-2010) but now he is helping in conservation activities and shifted his tents and dhabas 2.5 kms away from the lake. In right side Mr, Govind is standing in the empty old site of his dhaba. In 2011 In 2006
  50. 50. Acknowledgements Mr. Govind Mr. Lovgang Mr. Nawang State Council for Science Technology & Environment Forest Deptt. Govt. of H.P. Distt. Adminstration Thanks

Editor's Notes

  • The HKH includes all or part of four global biodiversity hotspots, 330 important bird areas, two mega-diversity countries (India and China), and 60 eco-regions of which 12 are global 200 eco-regions. A total of 488 protected areas cover 39 per cent of the total area. The region directly provides essential ecosystem services to more than 210 million inhabitants living within the region and indirectly supports around 1.3 billion people living downstream with diverse ecosystem goods and services. The 10 river systems originating in the HKH mountains are critical source of water, food and energy to close to 1.4 billion people. The diversity and richness of the environment and natural resources of the region have been the
    basis from which global community for centuries have been drawing multiple benefits. The HKH region however has more than 40 per cent of the world’s poor. The region has been experiencing above-average warming and climatic variability during the 20th century with significant implications for both environment and vast population that depend on the ecosystems services derived from the mountains. In the Himalayas, progressive warming at higher altitudes has been three to five times greater than the global average. Due to the rapid melting of the
    Himalayan glaciers and increase in frequency of extreme events, people’s lives and livelihoods are at increasing risks due to aggravation of the problems of poverty, food insecurity, hazards and social inequity. Climate and socioeconomic changes are posing serious threats especially to the
    ability of the least developed countries in the region to achieve the Minimum Development Goals and worse still is the unlikely reversal of trend and pace of development which many countries have been able to accelerate in recent years. HKH referred as ‘water tower of Asia’ for the lowlands, 10 major rivers originating from the HKH region are the source for close to 1.3 billion people. The water from these rivers supplies the most precious resource for agriculture and drinking. As stated already, the most recent estimate of the extent of ice and snow in the HKH Mountains is about 60,000 sq. km. in the form of glaciers, snow, and ice. Vast amount of fresh water is also available in soil, groundwater, and lakes.