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Critical Thinking - With Case Study

For the development of Critical thinking skills, complete with case studies examples and solutions.
Great for first time workshop.

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Critical Thinking - With Case Study

  1. 1. By Karyn Thng
  2. 2. 1. What is Critical Thinking? 2. What do you expect to achieve through attending this workshop?
  3. 3. What is Critical Thinking? Critical Thinking is the attempt to ask and answer questions systematically. This means 1. Asking the most useful questions in the most productive sequence in order to yield a coherent and credible “Story” 2. Asking questions instead of accepting “at face value” what you write or read, i.e., i. separating reliable facts from false assumptions ii. Look for evidence and good reason before believing something to be true
  4. 4. During World War 1, head injury among soldiers was very high and soldiers took a long time to recover . Evaluate.
  5. 5. Structure Model to Generate Critical Thinking Descriptio n Wh e r e Wh o ? ? Wh a t ? Wh e n ? Wh y ? Analysis Ho w? Wh a t ne x t ? Evaluation So wh a t ? Wh a t i f ?
  6. 6. The Common Question Words Starters: WHAT, WHO, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, WHY Follow by: WHAT IF, WHAT NEXT, SO WHAT
  7. 7. DESCRIBE • To describe is to clearly define what you are talking about, say exactly what is involved, where it takes place, or under what circumstances. • Basically an introduction to a topic.
  8. 8. ANALYSE • To analyse is to examine and explain how parts fit into a whole given reasons, compare and contrast different elements, show your understanding of relationships. • Analysis basically forms the main part of any indepth study.
  9. 9. EVALUATE • To evaluate is to judge the success or failure of something, it’s implications and/or value. • Evaluation leads us to conclusions or recommendations and are usually found at the end of a topic.
  10. 10. Generating Critical Thinking Identify a topic • This is the Topic/Issue you might want to explore in a particular section or paragraph. • Write key words in the middle of a sheet of paper, or a blank document screen.
  11. 11. Generating Critical Thinking Try to answer the questions • Starting with ‘what’ questions. Your answers may become part of an introduction, defining your terms or identifying issues.
  12. 12. Generating Critical Thinking Using the „who‟, „when‟ and „where‟ questions • To generate descriptive background information. • This will provide context or scenesetting material which is also useful for an introductory section.
  13. 13. Generating Critical Thinking Using the “How” question • ‘How’ requires consideration of the ways that something operates or works – e.g. processes or procedures. • Attempting to answer questions using “how‟ takes you from descriptive to more analytical work.
  14. 14. Generating Critical Thinking Using the “Why” question • ‘Why’ also moves you deeper into analytical territory. It gets you to find reasons, explanations or causes. • Think about all the possible questions to do with ‘why’.
  15. 15. Generating Critical Thinking Using the “What if” question • Asking questions using ‘what if’ moves you into a more evaluative phase of your thinking. • It helps you to consider the possible implications or results of a particular action. • This question is also useful for considering predictive work done by others, or engaging in forecasting of your own.
  16. 16. Generating Critical Thinking Using the “So what” question • ‘So what?’ is really the KEY QUESTION for an evaluation. It gets you thinking about value or values, meaning and significance. • It is also about discriminating between more or less important factors in any situation. • It helps you to think through and justify your own position, and discuss its implications.
  17. 17. Generating Critical Thinking Using the “What next” question • ‘What next?’ might refer to recommendations and predictions that your argument has brought to light. • It leads you to consider and plan for more specific actions that might be necessary in certain kinds of assignment, such as a project or business report.
  18. 18. Critical questions – A Linear Model WHERE? Where does it take place? Who is this by? Who is involved? Who is affected? Who might be interested? WHEN? An a l y s i s What is this about? What is the context / situation? What is the main point / problem / topic to be explored? WHO? De s c r i pt i o n WHAT? When does it occur? HOW? How did this occur? How does it work – in theory? – in practice / context? How does one factor affect another? Or, How do the parts fit into whole? Exploration of relationship Introductory and background information to contextualize problem / topic. of parts to whole.
  19. 19. Ev a l u a t i on An a l y s i s Critical questions – A Linear Model WHY? WHAT IF? SO WHAT? WHAT NEXT? Why did this occur? Why was that done? Why is argument / theory / suggestion / solution? Possible situations What if this were wrong? and alternative What are the alternatives? response? What if there were a problem? What if this or that factor were – added? removed? altered? What does this mean? Why is this significant? Is this convincing? Why/ why not? What are the implications? Is it successful? How does it meet the criteria? Is it transferable? How and where else can it be applied? What can be learnt from it? What needs doing now? Implications Solutions Conclusions Recommendatio ns
  20. 20. A survey conducted in Minnesota, USA presented below proves that Women are better drivers than Men. Di s c u s s . Age 20 - 65 Women Men No. of Accidents in Year 2010 42 300 60 000
  21. 21. THANK YOU
  22. 22. • World War I WHO – WW1 Soldiers WHAT – Head Injury
  23. 23. • World War I WHERE & WHEN - Brief Introduction • When: WW1 Started in 28 July 1914 and lasted till 11 November 1918 in • Where: Europe. • How: The cause of the conflict is due to long term imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe (German Empire, AustroHungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, British Empire, French Empire & Italy)