Fundamentals of Lubrication and Wear

Lubrication Fundamentals:
Lubricating Oil Basics
PRESENTED BY: Dwon Ruffin, TestOil ...
What is the Function of a Lubricant?
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Function #1: Lubricate

Protect

Reduce Friction and Wear
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #2: Cool
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #3: Clean
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #4: Protect
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #5: Seal
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #6: Transmit Power
Lubricant Types
• Mineral Oils
– Crude Oil
– Solvent Refining
– Hydro-Cracking

• Synthetic Fluids
– Man made or altered
–...
API Base Oil Categories
Category

Sulfur (%)

Saturates (%)

Viscosity
Index

Manufactured

Group I

>0.03

and/
or

<90

...
Mineral Oil vs. Synthetic
• Mineral Oil
– Molecules not uniform

• Synthetic
– Molecules nearly identical
Mineral Oils Refining Process
• Crude Oil Distillation Process
Synthetic Oils
• Advantages
– Extended range of
service temperatures
– Resistant to oxidation
– Extended service life
– Cl...
Additives
• Chemical compounds added to
impart specific properties
• Added to improve performance
characteristics
• Formul...
Lubricating Oils
• Composed of base oil and additives
– 70 - 95% Base Oil

Gear Oil
AW Hydraulic Oil
Engine Oil

Turbine O...
Common Additives

Oil additives are
chemical compounds
that improve the
lubricant performance
of base oil
Typical Additive Packages
Oil Type

Magnesium

Calcium

Zinc

Phosphorus

EP Gear

0

0

0

220

AW Hydraulic

0

40

320
...
Viscosity
Defined as a fluid’s resistance to flow
Most important characteristic of an oil
and has a direct correlation to
...
ISO Viscosity Grades
SAE Oil Weight
Multi-Grade Oils
Weight that oil
emulates in cold
temperatures

Stands for
“winter”

Oil weight under
normal operating
con...
Proper Viscosity
Factors that effect proper choice of viscosity
LOAD, TEMPERATURE & SPEED

• Low viscosity
–Good cooling
–...
Rules of Thumb
• Load
– The higher the load, the heavier the oil
– The lighter the load, the lighter the oil

• Temperatur...
THANK YOU!
Any Questions?
www.testoil.com
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Lubrication Fundamentals: Lubricating Oil Basics

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One of the most important things an operator can do for his machinery is to make sure it is properly lubricated. So what is a lubricant and how does it affect operations when used properly? In this webinar we will answer these questions and more by covering the fundamentals of lubrication. During this webinar we will discuss how a lubricant works to remove friction, the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant, and the many functions of a lubricant.

Published in: Technology

Lubrication Fundamentals: Lubricating Oil Basics

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Lubrication and Wear Lubrication Fundamentals: Lubricating Oil Basics PRESENTED BY: Dwon Ruffin, TestOil Analysts
  2. 2. What is the Function of a Lubricant? Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect
  3. 3. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Function #1: Lubricate Protect Reduce Friction and Wear
  4. 4. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect Function #2: Cool
  5. 5. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect Function #3: Clean
  6. 6. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect Function #4: Protect
  7. 7. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect Function #5: Seal
  8. 8. Lubricate Transmit Power Cool LUBRICANT Seal Clean Protect Function #6: Transmit Power
  9. 9. Lubricant Types • Mineral Oils – Crude Oil – Solvent Refining – Hydro-Cracking • Synthetic Fluids – Man made or altered – Molecules have identified structure – Properties are predictable
  10. 10. API Base Oil Categories Category Sulfur (%) Saturates (%) Viscosity Index Manufactured Group I >0.03 and/ or <90 80 to 120 Solvent Refining Group II <0.03 and >90 80 to 120 Hydrocracking Group III <0.03 and >90 >120 Hydrocracking and ISO Dewaxing Group IV Polyalphaolefin (PAO) – Synthetic Hydrocarbon Group V Esters, silicones, PAG,
  11. 11. Mineral Oil vs. Synthetic • Mineral Oil – Molecules not uniform • Synthetic – Molecules nearly identical
  12. 12. Mineral Oils Refining Process • Crude Oil Distillation Process
  13. 13. Synthetic Oils • Advantages – Extended range of service temperatures – Resistant to oxidation – Extended service life – Cleaner system – Energy savings due to lower internal friction • Disadvantages – Cost – Compatibility issues • • • • seals paints packings other fluids – Higher disposal costs – Film strength consideration for gear applications
  14. 14. Additives • Chemical compounds added to impart specific properties • Added to improve performance characteristics • Formulated to provide specific set of performance parameters • Can have detrimental side effects
  15. 15. Lubricating Oils • Composed of base oil and additives – 70 - 95% Base Oil Gear Oil AW Hydraulic Oil Engine Oil Turbine Oil R&O Hydraulic Oil Transmission Fluid Compressor Oil
  16. 16. Common Additives Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil
  17. 17. Typical Additive Packages Oil Type Magnesium Calcium Zinc Phosphorus EP Gear 0 0 0 220 AW Hydraulic 0 40 320 450 Turbine Oil 0 0 0 0 Compressor Oil 0 0 0 0 550 1300 1100 1200 0 2500 1100 1200 PCMO (gas) HDMO (diesel) parts per million (ppm)
  18. 18. Viscosity Defined as a fluid’s resistance to flow Most important characteristic of an oil and has a direct correlation to temperature. Kinematic Viscosity Reported in Centistokes (cSt) Measured at 40 or 100 degrees C Saybolt Viscosity Reported in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) Measured at 100 or 210 degrees F
  19. 19. ISO Viscosity Grades
  20. 20. SAE Oil Weight
  21. 21. Multi-Grade Oils Weight that oil emulates in cold temperatures Stands for “winter” Oil weight under normal operating conditions (warm) 10 w 30 A 10 w 30 is an SAE 30 weight oil that acts like a 10 weight oil in the winter.
  22. 22. Proper Viscosity Factors that effect proper choice of viscosity LOAD, TEMPERATURE & SPEED • Low viscosity –Good cooling –Poor load handling –Low internal friction • High viscosity –Poor cooling –Good load handling –High internal friction
  23. 23. Rules of Thumb • Load – The higher the load, the heavier the oil – The lighter the load, the lighter the oil • Temperature – The lower the temperature, the thinner the oil – The higher the temperature, the thicker the oil • Speed – The faster the speed, the lighter the oil – The slower the speed, the heavier the oil
  24. 24. THANK YOU! Any Questions? www.testoil.com

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