Lubricant Deposit Characterization, Greg Livingstone, Fluitec

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Properly characterizing a lubricant deposit can provide insight into the cause of a problem and allow plants to make corrective actions, resulting in tremendous savings. This webinar will present a multitude of real-world case studies where this practice of deposit characterization has been used in the field. Attendees will learn how a unique deposit that is not detectable through normal varnish testing caused a million-dollar shutdown at a nuclear facility, about the creation of tar balls in a sensitive gas turbine, how black goo was generated in a critical gas compressor, among others. (Greg Livingstone, Fluitec, 2014)

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  • Investigación enfocada a reducir el barniz en el aceite lubricante y evitar paros innecesarios
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Lubricant Deposit Characterization, Greg Livingstone, Fluitec

  1. 1. Lubricant Deposit Characterization Greg Livingstone Exec. VP Bus Development ©2013. Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Deposit Issues Deposits cause a host of problems Sticking valves Plugged lubricant orifices Plugging filters Inefficient heat exchanger operation Bearing Lubrication Loss of Seals Page 2. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Why do we want to Characterize Deposits? 1. To establish a condition monitoring program 2. To discover the root cause of fluid failure 3. To take proactive actions to improve the life and performance of your lubricants. Page 3. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. How do We Analyze the Deposits Page 4. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. How do We Analyze the Deposits Page 5. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Current Practices Assume that all deposits or varnishes are created equal. Using visual characterization of a deposit • assumes that since it is brown • it must be the same as previously observed. This assumption can be far from correct Can lead to the wrong corrective actions. Page 6. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Degradation & Deposit Formation Oxidation Thermal Degradation Contaminants Other Water Additive Drop-Out Metal Catalysts MicroDieseling Solids Additive Reaction Byproducts Ultraviolet Hot Spots Gas Formulation Quality Combustion Incompatible liquid Incompatible fluids Air Spark Discharge Page 7. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Analyzing the Deposit Page 8. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Characterizing the Deposit Page 9. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Common to have multiple types of deposits in a system. Page 10. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Classifying the Deposits Deposits are classified by: • Physical characteristics • Source of formation Based on this information, proactive measures can be taken to eliminate deposit formation. Page 11. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Beyond Academic – Case Studies ©2013 Fluitec. All rights reserved
  13. 13. Case Studies 1. 2. 3. 4. Gas Turbine Tar Balls Deposits in a Nuclear Power Plant EHC system deposits Dirty Gas Turbine Reservoir Page 13. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. 1. Gas Turbine Tar Balls A Large Frame Gas Turbine had an oil sample that caused concern: Page 14. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Significant deposits occurred during the outage When the fluid temperature got below 32oC large black tar-balls were observed floating on the lube-oil surface in the tank and clogged hydraulic filters. Page 15. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. An Oil Reclamation Company helped clean up the system Page 16. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. The Deposits were analyzed 3391 1027 3048 1156 2854 %T 693 1459 1303 2924 766 748 Varnish Isolated Fraction 1 1385 PHENYL-A-NAPHTHYL AMINE(PANA) 4000.0 • • • 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1589 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 605.0 Decomposed amine antioxidant derived from the lubricant formulation. The analysis identified this material as a mixture of unreacted and reacted PANA. The unreacted N-H from the PANA can easily be seen in FTIR at 3391 cm-1 along with the characteristic fingerprint stretches in the 1500-700 cm-1 region. Page 17. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Isolated components identified foam inhibitor 107.6 100 90 3452 80 70 60 1648 696 50 766 %T 864 40 2968 2859 30 2925 20 732 1455 Varnish Isolated Fraction 2 Acrylate Defoamant 937 1239 1372 10 1100 1020 1735 2.7 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 450.0 cm-1 • • Acrylate polymer additive typically used to control foam This additive could not be observed in the in-service fluids from this system – nor could it be observed in the new fluid. Page 18. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Composition of the Deposits Source: • Formulation derived (Amine Antioxidant) • Contaminant derived (Foam Inhibitor) Incompatible fluid mixed into this system. Page 19. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Gas Turbine Plant Conclusions Deployed a quality control program to ensure incompatible lubricants do not accidentally get added to the system. Page 20. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. 2 – Deposits in a nuclear power plant Sticking valve in a feed water pump caused an expensive, 30-hour unplanned outage. 700-gallon reservoir using ISO 32 turbine oil. Oil analysis results did not reveal any problems. • MPC value was 16. Deposits were gathered and analyzed to determine their source. Page 21. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. ● Investigation 1. Removed & analyzed deposits from valve surface 2. Concentrated and analyzed degradation products from the oil Ref: Livingstone, Wooton Page 22. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. ● Deposit chemistry matched oil chemistry 110 105 100 95 2924.37cm -1 90 %T 1401.72cm -1 1702.53cm - 1 85 838.35cm - 1 U2R16 MPC 42697 80 1116.31cm - 1 75 71 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 650 cm -1 Ref: Livingstone, Wooton Page 23. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. ● Unique FTIR fingerprint was identified Carboxylic acids were present as well as primary amides. Doublet indicate primary amides Ref: Livingstone, Wooton Page 24. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Source: Oxidation and contamination from steam leaks Page 25. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. ● Nuclear Power Plant Conclusions Ammonia was present in the plant’s steam chemistry. Carboxylic Acids Ammonia Deposits consisting of Primary Amides 1. It was not feasible to remove sources of ammonia from entering the system, but it is possible to remove acids. 2. In addition to MPC, plant is monitoring these units with FTIR to measure acidic content and primary amide production. Ref: Livingstone, Wooton Page 26. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. 3. EHC System Deposits Rapid filter plugging and fluid failure was experienced at a steam turbine plant causing an outage. Page 27. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Deposits were separated and analyzed It is common for some EHC systems to experience microdieseling. This creates dark oil and black deposits. Strong evidence of thermal degradation. Page 28. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Fluid & Deposits were analyzed Page 29. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. What type of thermal degradation? ESD Type of Deposit Micro-Dieseling High Temperature Thermoplastic <1.0 micron soot- >1.0 micron like particles black particles Black deposits indicated EHC deposits caused by microdieseling or high temp degradation. Page 30. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Thermal Degradation Paper Chromatography was done to assist in identifying particle size. Very small particles will go through the filter unless varnish is present to prevent it. Analysis indicated it was not from micro-dieseling. Page 31. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Thermal Degradation Microscopic evaluation revealed particles >5microns in size. Page 32. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. EHC Deposit Conclusions Instead of fixing the assumed micro-dieseling problem, the plant focused on potential sources of high heat. Malfunctioning pump was found to produce temperatures of 500oF. Repaired the pump, solving rapid fluid degradation. Page 33. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. 4. Dirty Gas Turbine Reservoir Very dark and wide bathtub ring, reservoir deposits and varnish through the inside of a 7FA gas turbine. Page 34. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. ● Impossible to Wipe off! @#$&!!! Ref: Livingstone, Page 35. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  36. 36. ● Deposits derived from Polyacrylate Foam Inhibitor 99.6 90 80 70 60 %T 50 40 30 20 10 2.8 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 450.0 cm-1 System Deposit POLYACRYLATE DEFOMANT Ref: Livingstone, Wooton Page 36. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  37. 37. Conclusions 1. There are many possible modes of fluid degradation. 2. Your condition monitoring program should be based on the failure mode of the fluid. 3. Understanding the mode of failure allows you to address the root cause. 4. Most importantly, don’t make assumptions! Let the data drive the decisions. Page 37. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.
  38. 38. Acknowledgements 1. Dr. Dave Wooton was involved in these root cause analysis and has co-authored multiple papers with me on this subject. 2. TestOil provided laboratory support to these projects and has developed leading deposit characterization services. Page 38. ©2013 Fluitec. All Rights Reserved.

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