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Bits of Charters: Putting Carolingian
Charters into a Database
Rachel Stone, King’s College London
rachel.stone@kcl.ac.uk
http://www.charlemagneseurope.ac.uk
King's College London’s digital experience
• 1987 Elite prosopography: Prosopography of the
Byzantine Empire
• 2000 Society-wide prosopography: Prosopography of
Anglo-Saxon England (http://www.pase.ac.uk)
• 2005 Socio-economic data and mapping: PASE II, Profile
of a Doomed Elite
• 2007 Charter-specific databases: People of Medieval
Scotland (http://www.poms.ac.uk/)
6000+ charters
from 768-814
What is a charter?
• A material object
• A text
• A source of information
Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden (http://lba.hist.uni-marburg.de/lba/)
Codice diplomatico
della Lombardia
medievale
(http://cdlm.unipv.it/)
Charters Encoding Initiative (http://www.cei.lmu.de/index.php)
DKAR 1:169: What to mark up (1)?
Tassilo ‘had caused a monastery to be newly built in honour
of the Holy Saviour within our forest at the place called
Kremsmünster in the pagus of Traungau’ (in monasterium
honore sancti Salvatoris infra waldo nostro loco qui dicitur
Chremisa in pago nuncupante Drungaoe novo opere construere
fecisset)
DKAR 1:169: What to mark up (2)?
•‘the venerable abbot Fater’ (vir venerabilis Fater abbas )
•‘abbot Fater’ (Fater abbas)
•‘the said abbot Fater’ (prefatus Fater abbas)
• ‘the said abbot Fater and his successors as abbots of the
said monastery of Holy Saviour’ (sepe dictus Fater abbas
suique successores, qui fuerint rectores ipsius monasterii
sancti Salvatoris)
What is a factoid?
‘an assertion made by the project team that
a source ‘S’ at location ‘L’ states something
(‘F’) about person ‘P’’
Bradley, John, and Short, Harold, 'Texts into databases: the evolving
field of new-style prosopography', Literary and Linguistic Computing 20,
Supplement (2005), 8
Factoid
Factoid type
Authority List
Charter
Agent (Person/Institution)
Possession
Place
has type
Simplified data structure diagram for Charlemagne’s Europe factoids
is characterized
using
is evidence forhappened at
involves
involves
can be related to
Looking at data: dealing with people
Precarial grant by Wolfbold and his children to St Gall
(SGA 1, 148)
Wolfbold & children (granter – lessee; additional information on
persons, e.g. sex, and on relationship, e.g. Wolfbold = father of
Bernegarius & Otsinda; Bernegarius & Otsinda = siblings &
children of Wolfbold & Adalswinda etc.), St Gall & abbot Werdo
(recipient – lender); mancipia (if named; additional information:
[former] property of Wolfbold, [later] property of St Gall) (or
should mancipia only be listed as objects? or as both? as
both but with different data structures?); witnesses & scribe
comments from April 2012
Collating data
• CHARTER TYPE/TRANSACTION TYPE
PROVISIONAL LIST
• Charter type potentially overlaps with Transaction
type. POMS used Document type for different
formats of documents e.g. Agreement, Charter,
Inquest, Letters patent, Notitia, Papal privilege,
Settlement and Transaction type for contents:
Possible categories for use, with examples (where
known) of less common types
 (DT) Charter
 (DT) Chirograph charter – two copies of charter
written on same piece of parchment and then
separated, so that their edges match for checking
authenticity
 (DT) Letter
 (DT) Notitia (St Gall II-10, Manaresi 22, DK 69)
MKCHEUR: SUGGESTED INITIAL
AUTHORITY LIST OF RELATIONSHIPS
(version 1, 4/5/12)
Familial relationships:
POMS has category "Familial relationship".
PASE has 7 categories, which seems
excessive)
o Adoptive relative (Not sure how far we'll need
to break this down, but there are some
examples of this).
o Ancestor
o Aunt (amita/matertera)
o Bride/betrothed (f.) (sponsa)
o Bridegroom/betrothed (m.) (sponsus)
o Brother
o Children (liberi)
Tassilo
Charlemagne
30 Slavs Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Dietach &
Sierning
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
founded
without permission of
granted
to
on
cleared
land at
without permission of
cleared
land at
at
belonging to
belonging to
including
including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Geographical range of charter witnesses:
Wendy Davies, Small Worlds: the Village
Community in Early Medieval Brittany (1988)
Numbers of original charters from France:
Mersiowsky, Mark. 2003. ‘Y-a-t-il une influence
des actes royaux sur les actes privés du
IXe siècle?’ (2003)
Monasterium.net version of
Kremsmünster confirmation charter
• Karolus Dei gratia Rex Francorum et Langobardorum et
Patritius Romanorum. Si petitionibus Sacerdotum vel
servorum Dei, in quo nostris auribus fuerint prolatae,
libenter obaudimus et eas in Dei nomine ad effectum
perducimus, regiam consuetudinem exercemus et hoc
nobis ad mercedem vel stabilitatem regni nostri pertinere
confidimus.
• Text from http://monasterium.net/mom/AT-
StiAKr/KremsmuensterOSB/0791_I_03/charter
Data
schema:
from this...
...to this
Dealing with place names
DKAR 1:169
‘infra waldo nostro loco
qui dicitur Chremisa’
Names in charter texts:
DKAR 1:169 (plus ENN 2:2)
• Bettinbah/Petenpach/Petinpach
• Allinchova/Allinchofa/Allinchhof
• Liubilinbah/Liubilinpach/Livpilinpach
• actum Wormacie
....
Name
instances:
Liubilinbah,
Liubilinpach
DKAR 1:169
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Medieval
hierarchy:
in Traungau
Name
instances:
Liubilinbah,
Liubilinpach
DKAR 1:169
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Medieval
hierarchy:
in Traungau
Orbis Latinus
(http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/Graesse/contents.html)
Name
instances:
Liubilinbah,
Liubilinpach
Standardised
medieval name
Liubilinbah*
DKAR 1:169
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Medieval
hierarchy:
in Traungau
Name
instances:
Liubilinbah,
Liubilinpach
Standardised
medieval name
Liubilinbah*
Identified
modern place:
Leombach
DKAR 1:169
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Medieval
hierarchy:
in Traungau
Certainty of
identification:
certain
Name
instances:
Liubilinbah,
Liubilinpach
Standardised
medieval name
Liubilinbah*
Identified
modern place:
Leombach
DKAR 1:169
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Medieval
hierarchy:
in Traungau
Certainty of
identification:
certain
Geolocation:
48.11667 / 14.08333
Modern hierarchy:
Upper Austria, Austria
Name
instance:
Teginga
Standardised
medieval name
Teginga*
MON 124
Place role:
Location of
possession
Place
descriptor:
locus
Identified
modern place:
Deining
Geolocation:
47.95171 / 11.49745
Modern hierarchy:
Bavaria, Germany
Identified
modern place:
Töging am Inn
Geolocation:
48.26018 / 12.5846
Modern hierarchy:
Bavaria, Germany
Identified
modern place:
Döging
Geolocation:
47.96685 / 12.4934
Modern hierarchy:
Bavaria, Germany
Tassilo
Charlemagne
30 Slavs Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Dietach &
Sierning
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
founded
without permission of
granted
to
on
cleared
land at
without permission of
cleared
land at
at
belonging to
belonging to
including
including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo
Charlemagne
30 Slavs Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Dietach &
Sierning
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
founded
without permission of
granted
to
on
cleared
land at
without permission of
cleared
land at
at
belonging to
belonging to
including
including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo
Charlemagne
30 Slavs Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Dietach &
Sierning
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
founded
without permission of
granted
to
on
cleared
land at
without permission of
cleared
land at
at
belonging to
belonging to
including
including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo
Charlemagne
Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
granted
to
on
at including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo
Charlemagne
Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
granted
to
on
at including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo
Charlemagne
Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
12 places
Eberstalzell
22 possessions
Right to hold land
(possession)Unconditional terms
Terms of
service
granted
to
on
at including
confirms
grants
at
to
on
to
Tassilo Kremsmünster
12 places
22 possessions
Unconditional terms
granted
to
onat
Agent Name Agent Role
Tassilo Granter
Kremsmünster Recipient
...
Place Name Place Role
Leombach Location of possession
...
Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions
Transferred Land Leombach
...
Agent Name Agent Role
Tassilo Granter
Kremsmünster Recipient
Place Name Place Role
Leombach Location of possession
Unknown 715
(Raotola)
Location of possession
...
Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions
Transferred Land Leombach
Transferred Vineyard Unknown 715
...
Agent Name Agent Role
Charlemagne Confirmer
Kremsmünster Recipient
Men of
Eberstalzell
Recipient
...
Place Name Place Role
Leombach Location of possession
Eberstalzell Location of possession
...
Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions
Held Land Leombach
Transferred Right to hold land Eberstalzell Service to monastery
...
?
List of
possessions
given by
Tassilo in
DKAR 1:169
List of
possessions
given by
Tassilo in
DKAR 1:169
Flows in sales
Agent 1 Agent 2
Transferred
possessions
Price
Agent Name Agent Role
Agent 1 Vendor
Agent 2 Buyer
...
Possession
role
Object type Quantity Location Terms &
conditions
Return
Transferred Land Place 1
Price solidi 30 X
Charlemagne
Men of
Eberstalzell
Kremsmünster
Eberstalzell
Right to hold land
(possession)
Terms of
service
grants
at
to
on
to
Representing third-party returns
Agent 1 Agent 2 Agent 3
Transferred
possessions Return
Cinderella Sisters by saturninus
(http://saturninus.deviantart.com/art/Cinderella-Sisters-10178181)
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Selected agents and places in DKAR 1:169
Tassilo
Fader
Decania of Slavs
Kremsmünster
beekeepers
Worms
Raotola
Alkoven
Leombach
Selected agents and places in DKAR 1:169
Tassilo: granter
Fader: petitioner
Decania of Slavs: object of
transaction
Kremsmünster:
recipient
Beekeepers: object of
transaction
Worms: location
of transaction
Raotola: location
of possession
Alkoven: location
of possession
Leombach: location
of possession
Agents and places: generalised rules
granter
petitioner
object of transaction
recipient
object of transaction
location of transaction
location of possession
location of possession
location of possession
Digital + historical
• Understanding historical documents
• Reinventing the wheel
• Responding to your historical period
• Consistent inputting
• Imperfect databases

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Carolingian Charter Database Puts Sources into Digital Format

  • 1. Bits of Charters: Putting Carolingian Charters into a Database Rachel Stone, King’s College London rachel.stone@kcl.ac.uk
  • 3. King's College London’s digital experience • 1987 Elite prosopography: Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire • 2000 Society-wide prosopography: Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (http://www.pase.ac.uk) • 2005 Socio-economic data and mapping: PASE II, Profile of a Doomed Elite • 2007 Charter-specific databases: People of Medieval Scotland (http://www.poms.ac.uk/)
  • 5. What is a charter? • A material object • A text • A source of information
  • 6. Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden (http://lba.hist.uni-marburg.de/lba/)
  • 8. Charters Encoding Initiative (http://www.cei.lmu.de/index.php)
  • 9. DKAR 1:169: What to mark up (1)? Tassilo ‘had caused a monastery to be newly built in honour of the Holy Saviour within our forest at the place called Kremsmünster in the pagus of Traungau’ (in monasterium honore sancti Salvatoris infra waldo nostro loco qui dicitur Chremisa in pago nuncupante Drungaoe novo opere construere fecisset)
  • 10. DKAR 1:169: What to mark up (2)? •‘the venerable abbot Fater’ (vir venerabilis Fater abbas ) •‘abbot Fater’ (Fater abbas) •‘the said abbot Fater’ (prefatus Fater abbas) • ‘the said abbot Fater and his successors as abbots of the said monastery of Holy Saviour’ (sepe dictus Fater abbas suique successores, qui fuerint rectores ipsius monasterii sancti Salvatoris)
  • 11. What is a factoid? ‘an assertion made by the project team that a source ‘S’ at location ‘L’ states something (‘F’) about person ‘P’’ Bradley, John, and Short, Harold, 'Texts into databases: the evolving field of new-style prosopography', Literary and Linguistic Computing 20, Supplement (2005), 8
  • 12. Factoid Factoid type Authority List Charter Agent (Person/Institution) Possession Place has type Simplified data structure diagram for Charlemagne’s Europe factoids is characterized using is evidence forhappened at involves involves can be related to
  • 13. Looking at data: dealing with people Precarial grant by Wolfbold and his children to St Gall (SGA 1, 148) Wolfbold & children (granter – lessee; additional information on persons, e.g. sex, and on relationship, e.g. Wolfbold = father of Bernegarius & Otsinda; Bernegarius & Otsinda = siblings & children of Wolfbold & Adalswinda etc.), St Gall & abbot Werdo (recipient – lender); mancipia (if named; additional information: [former] property of Wolfbold, [later] property of St Gall) (or should mancipia only be listed as objects? or as both? as both but with different data structures?); witnesses & scribe comments from April 2012
  • 14. Collating data • CHARTER TYPE/TRANSACTION TYPE PROVISIONAL LIST • Charter type potentially overlaps with Transaction type. POMS used Document type for different formats of documents e.g. Agreement, Charter, Inquest, Letters patent, Notitia, Papal privilege, Settlement and Transaction type for contents: Possible categories for use, with examples (where known) of less common types  (DT) Charter  (DT) Chirograph charter – two copies of charter written on same piece of parchment and then separated, so that their edges match for checking authenticity  (DT) Letter  (DT) Notitia (St Gall II-10, Manaresi 22, DK 69) MKCHEUR: SUGGESTED INITIAL AUTHORITY LIST OF RELATIONSHIPS (version 1, 4/5/12) Familial relationships: POMS has category "Familial relationship". PASE has 7 categories, which seems excessive) o Adoptive relative (Not sure how far we'll need to break this down, but there are some examples of this). o Ancestor o Aunt (amita/matertera) o Bride/betrothed (f.) (sponsa) o Bridegroom/betrothed (m.) (sponsus) o Brother o Children (liberi)
  • 15. Tassilo Charlemagne 30 Slavs Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Dietach & Sierning Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service founded without permission of granted to on cleared land at without permission of cleared land at at belonging to belonging to including including confirms grants at to on to
  • 16. Geographical range of charter witnesses: Wendy Davies, Small Worlds: the Village Community in Early Medieval Brittany (1988) Numbers of original charters from France: Mersiowsky, Mark. 2003. ‘Y-a-t-il une influence des actes royaux sur les actes privés du IXe siècle?’ (2003)
  • 17.
  • 18. Monasterium.net version of Kremsmünster confirmation charter • Karolus Dei gratia Rex Francorum et Langobardorum et Patritius Romanorum. Si petitionibus Sacerdotum vel servorum Dei, in quo nostris auribus fuerint prolatae, libenter obaudimus et eas in Dei nomine ad effectum perducimus, regiam consuetudinem exercemus et hoc nobis ad mercedem vel stabilitatem regni nostri pertinere confidimus. • Text from http://monasterium.net/mom/AT- StiAKr/KremsmuensterOSB/0791_I_03/charter
  • 21. Dealing with place names DKAR 1:169 ‘infra waldo nostro loco qui dicitur Chremisa’
  • 22. Names in charter texts: DKAR 1:169 (plus ENN 2:2) • Bettinbah/Petenpach/Petinpach • Allinchova/Allinchofa/Allinchhof • Liubilinbah/Liubilinpach/Livpilinpach • actum Wormacie ....
  • 23.
  • 24. Name instances: Liubilinbah, Liubilinpach DKAR 1:169 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Medieval hierarchy: in Traungau
  • 25. Name instances: Liubilinbah, Liubilinpach DKAR 1:169 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Medieval hierarchy: in Traungau Orbis Latinus (http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/Graesse/contents.html)
  • 26. Name instances: Liubilinbah, Liubilinpach Standardised medieval name Liubilinbah* DKAR 1:169 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Medieval hierarchy: in Traungau
  • 27. Name instances: Liubilinbah, Liubilinpach Standardised medieval name Liubilinbah* Identified modern place: Leombach DKAR 1:169 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Medieval hierarchy: in Traungau Certainty of identification: certain
  • 28. Name instances: Liubilinbah, Liubilinpach Standardised medieval name Liubilinbah* Identified modern place: Leombach DKAR 1:169 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Medieval hierarchy: in Traungau Certainty of identification: certain Geolocation: 48.11667 / 14.08333 Modern hierarchy: Upper Austria, Austria
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Name instance: Teginga Standardised medieval name Teginga* MON 124 Place role: Location of possession Place descriptor: locus Identified modern place: Deining Geolocation: 47.95171 / 11.49745 Modern hierarchy: Bavaria, Germany Identified modern place: Töging am Inn Geolocation: 48.26018 / 12.5846 Modern hierarchy: Bavaria, Germany Identified modern place: Döging Geolocation: 47.96685 / 12.4934 Modern hierarchy: Bavaria, Germany
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Tassilo Charlemagne 30 Slavs Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Dietach & Sierning Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service founded without permission of granted to on cleared land at without permission of cleared land at at belonging to belonging to including including confirms grants at to on to
  • 37. Tassilo Charlemagne 30 Slavs Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Dietach & Sierning Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service founded without permission of granted to on cleared land at without permission of cleared land at at belonging to belonging to including including confirms grants at to on to
  • 38. Tassilo Charlemagne 30 Slavs Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Dietach & Sierning Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service founded without permission of granted to on cleared land at without permission of cleared land at at belonging to belonging to including including confirms grants at to on to
  • 39.
  • 40. Tassilo Charlemagne Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service granted to on at including confirms grants at to on to
  • 41. Tassilo Charlemagne Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service granted to on at including confirms grants at to on to
  • 42. Tassilo Charlemagne Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster 12 places Eberstalzell 22 possessions Right to hold land (possession)Unconditional terms Terms of service granted to on at including confirms grants at to on to
  • 43. Tassilo Kremsmünster 12 places 22 possessions Unconditional terms granted to onat Agent Name Agent Role Tassilo Granter Kremsmünster Recipient ... Place Name Place Role Leombach Location of possession ... Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions Transferred Land Leombach ...
  • 44. Agent Name Agent Role Tassilo Granter Kremsmünster Recipient Place Name Place Role Leombach Location of possession Unknown 715 (Raotola) Location of possession ... Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions Transferred Land Leombach Transferred Vineyard Unknown 715 ...
  • 45. Agent Name Agent Role Charlemagne Confirmer Kremsmünster Recipient Men of Eberstalzell Recipient ... Place Name Place Role Leombach Location of possession Eberstalzell Location of possession ... Possession role Object type Location Terms & conditions Held Land Leombach Transferred Right to hold land Eberstalzell Service to monastery ... ?
  • 48. Flows in sales Agent 1 Agent 2 Transferred possessions Price Agent Name Agent Role Agent 1 Vendor Agent 2 Buyer ... Possession role Object type Quantity Location Terms & conditions Return Transferred Land Place 1 Price solidi 30 X
  • 49.
  • 50. Charlemagne Men of Eberstalzell Kremsmünster Eberstalzell Right to hold land (possession) Terms of service grants at to on to
  • 51. Representing third-party returns Agent 1 Agent 2 Agent 3 Transferred possessions Return
  • 52. Cinderella Sisters by saturninus (http://saturninus.deviantart.com/art/Cinderella-Sisters-10178181)
  • 53.
  • 57. Browse by colour •blue (5) •green (3) •purple (4) •red (6) •turquoise (1) Browse by shape
  • 58. Browse by colour •blue (5) •green (3) •purple (4) •red (6) •turquoise (1) Browse by shape
  • 59. Browse by colour •blue (5) •green (3) •purple (4) •red (6) •turquoise (1) Browse by shape •circle (2) •rectangle (2) •star (2) •triangle (0)
  • 60. Browse by colour Browse by shape •circle (6) •rectangle (6) •star (6) •triangle (1)
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Selected agents and places in DKAR 1:169 Tassilo Fader Decania of Slavs Kremsmünster beekeepers Worms Raotola Alkoven Leombach
  • 66. Selected agents and places in DKAR 1:169 Tassilo: granter Fader: petitioner Decania of Slavs: object of transaction Kremsmünster: recipient Beekeepers: object of transaction Worms: location of transaction Raotola: location of possession Alkoven: location of possession Leombach: location of possession
  • 67. Agents and places: generalised rules granter petitioner object of transaction recipient object of transaction location of transaction location of possession location of possession location of possession
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70. Digital + historical • Understanding historical documents • Reinventing the wheel • Responding to your historical period • Consistent inputting • Imperfect databases

Editor's Notes

  1. Project website
  2. Development of more sophisticated data concepts – factoid (statements made by sources – we don’t second guess) Development of more flexible and powerful user interfaces – PBE was on CD-ROM How charters specifically can be used – social network analysis
  3. Data model July 2012