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Lesson 1 - 'Layers of the Earth' PowerPoint


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Lesson 1 - 'Layers of the Earth' PowerPoint

  1. 1. Inside Earth the Image courtesy of Wikipedia (2010). Image courtesy of Volcanolive (2010).
  2. 2. <ul><li>Earth’s interior is composed of 4 layers: </li></ul><ul><li>3 solid and 1 liquid </li></ul><ul><li>1. Crust </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mantle </li></ul><ul><li>3. Outer core </li></ul><ul><li>4. Inner core </li></ul>Interior Layers
  3. 3. The Crust <ul><li>Outermost layer – made of the lightest materials - rock, soil & seabed. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into continental crust and oceanic crust. Thickness ranges from 8km beneath oceans to 40km beneath continents. </li></ul><ul><li>Continents are relatively light ‘blocks’ floating high on the upper mantle. </li></ul><ul><li>Seafloor is made of ‘basalt,’ a denser rock that presses deeper into the mantle. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Mantle <ul><li>Upper mantle and lower mantle – 2900 km thick (approx 84% of earth’s volume). </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature ranges – 500ºC near crust to 4,000ºC near outer core. </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily solid, but the rock is so hot that parts of the mantle ‘flow’ under pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot rock rises and cooler rock descends creating slow moving currents. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of Magnesium, Iron, Aluminum, Silcon and Oxygen. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Outer Core <ul><li>Liquid layer above the inner core – shell of molten iron, 2,300 km thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooler than outer core – but still scorching hot at approx 4,500ºC . </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly iron, plus sulphur & nickle. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrically conducive liquid - Creates earth’s magnetic field. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Center of the earth - Deepest layer, 6250 km under the surface </li></ul><ul><li>A solid ball of an iron alloy (sulphur & nickle traces). </li></ul><ul><li>Solidified state due to intense pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>2400 km in diameter, high pressure, WHITE HOT like the sun - approx 6000ºC. </li></ul>The Inner Core
  7. 7. Cross Section of the Earth http:// =Q9j1xGaxYzY
  8. 8. <ul><li>What would it be like to journey to the centre of the earth? </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to describe your journey in detail and </li></ul><ul><li>include facts about the layers of the earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will you get through the each layer? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are you taking with you? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is going with you? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will you see? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will it feel? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will you reach the earth’s core and see a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solid iron ball? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What could go wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will you return to the surface… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through a volcano… a hollow tree… a cave? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>