English has many dialects DIALECT Subordinated variety of a language -Regional dialect It saysThere are different where we come fromkinds of dialects -Social dialect It says who we are Geographical features (river, mountains, etc) The study of dialects has to do with BOUNDARIES Social nature (different social class)
Language and Dialect inPapua New Guinea• North West new Britain in Pacific region It contains many indigenous languages. People live in small Great concentration villages all are of diversity multilingual people speak 4 or 5 1.500 languages languages are spoken North West New BritainIn Papua New Guinea languagesare spoken by small groups, 40%have fewer than 500 speakers
The experiment was about how people in different villages from Papua New Guinea would request someone to give them “betel nut to chew” -A betel nut is a small green nut of the betel palm (intoxicant) -It has cultural importance in North West Britain *ten examples from different villages Results: Varieties: 6 and 7 Identical -Constitute dialects of 1 8 and 9 Similar to 6 and 7 (differ in pronunciation) language Varieties: 3, 4 and 5 show close relationship differ in -Dialects of term of vowels in the roof and in the prefix of 1 language verb “chew” Variety: 10 not very different-Grammar Similar in all casesBetel nut+ 3 person singular form of the verb “come” + 1rst person verb phraseLiterally: “betel nut, it comes, I chew”Or loosely: “give me some betel nut chew”
Linguists recognize two major language families in Papua New Guinea comprising between 700 and 800 languages.1) Austronesian (it is near extinction)2) Non-Austronesian (or Papuan)
What counts as a language or a dialect?Classic cases: Intelligibility Stretches through rural between adjacent-The West Romance communities from the villagesdialects Atlantic coast of France-Germanic dialects through Italy, Spain and Find each othercontinua. Portugal. mutual intelligibility In SCANDINAVIA Danish, Swedish, Norwegianif a tourist knows: Dialects of one language It is possible to communicate across language boundaries
•Danish V/S Norwegian •Modern languages derived from Nordic ancestor. Their-Have a great deal of increasing fragmentation reflectsvocabulary in common but political historydiffer in pronunciation. •Separate languages due to•Swedish V/S Norwegian political reasons. Understand a nd-Better more in vocabulary r st de-have more similar better than U n Norwegianspronunciation Danes Swedes Danes •WHY? -Because more Norwegians have been in Sweden than Danes. -Swedes have been in the other two countries.
STATISTICS:• ¼ of Swedes read anything in Norwegian or Danish.• 41% of Danes and 52% of Norwegian listen to Swedish radio• 9% of Swedes listen to Norwegian or Danish radio.
•Is American English a dialect of English or a separate language? It depends on your point of view.•George Bernard Shaw England and America as twonations divided by a common language•Noah Webster Authored a dictionary containingdifferent spellings in American and British words (color,criticize)
Varies from other The way of dialects of the sameACCENT pronouncing a DIALECT language in at least variety three levels of organization -Pronunciation -Grammar -Syntax -Vocabulary They share a common grammar, they differ more in terms of vocabulary and pronunciation.
Register Gives a clue about what we are doing •Example: Two lawyers are It is concerned with variation in language Talking about a legal matter, conditioned by uses they are using the register of law rather than users. (context)Speech commu Social Group It is a convention n ity Communicative who claims a that a speech competence variety as their community share own. about their speech variety. •People don’t necessary share the same language but they share a set of norms •This term is used by sociolinguists to refer and rules for the use of language to a speaker’s underlying knowledge of the •It has social boundaries rules of grammar, and rules for their use in social appropriate circumstances