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Lecture 4: Packaging Operations on Fruits and Vegetables


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A lecture on Packaging Operations on Fruits and Vegetables

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Lecture 4: Packaging Operations on Fruits and Vegetables

  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson, the learners are expected to: 1. explain the importance of proper packaging in prolonging the shelf life of fruits and vegetables; 2. enumerate the criteria for choosing the proper packaging materials; 3. identify different types of packaging materials; 4. explain the different practices in packing house handling ; and 5. explain various pre-storage treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables.
  3. 3. LESSON OUTLINE 1. Importance of Proper Packaging in Prolonging the Shelf Life of Fruits and Vegetables 2. Criteria for Choosing the Proper Packaging Materials 3. Types of Packaging Materials 4. Packing House Handling 5. Pre-Storage Treatments for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
  4. 4. Packaging fresh fruits and vegetables is one of the more important steps in the long and complicated journey from grower to consumer. Bags, crates, hampers, baskets, cartons, bulk bins, and palletized containers are convenient containers for handling, transporting, and marketing fresh produce. Importance of Packaging Materials in Prolonging the Post Harvest life of Fruits and Vegetables
  5. 5. Packing and packaging materials contribute a significant cost to the produce industry. It is important that packers, shippers, buyers, and consumers have a clear understanding of the wide range of packaging options available.
  6. 6. CRITERIA IN CHOOSING THE RIGHT PACKAGING Recyclability/Biodegradability . A growing number of municipalities have waste disposal restrictions for packaging materials. In the near future, almost all produce packaging will be recyclable or biodegradable, or both. Many of the largest buyers of fresh produce are also those most concerned about environmental issues.
  7. 7. Variety The trend is toward greater use of bulk packages for processors and wholesale buyers and smaller packages for consumers. There are now more than 1,500 different sizes and styles of produce packages.
  8. 8. Sales Appeal. High quality graphics are increasingly being used to boost sales appeal. Multi- color printing, distinctive lettering, and logos are now common.
  9. 9. Shelf Life Modern produce packaging can be custom engineered for each commodity to extend shelf life and reduce waste.
  10. 10. Container The container must enclose the produce in convenient units for handling and distribution. The produce should fit well inside the container, with little wasted space.
  11. 11. Small produce items that are spherical or oblong (such as potatoes, onions, and apples) may be packaged efficiently utilizing a variety of different package shapes and sizes.
  12. 12. Protection The package must protect the produce from mechanical damage and poor environmental conditions during handling and distribution.
  13. 13. Produce containers must be sturdy enough to resist damage during packaging, storage, and transportation to market.
  14. 14. Identification The package must identify and provide useful information about the produce. It is customary (and may be required in some cases) to provide information such as the produce name, brand, size, grade, variety, net weight, count, grower, shipper, and country of origin.
  15. 15. In consumer marketing, pack- age appearance has also become an important part of point of sale displays. Universal Product Codes (UPC or bar codes) may be included as part of the labeling. The UPCs used in the food industry consist of a ten-digit machine readable code. Efficient use of UPCs requires coordination with everyone who handles the package
  16. 16. Types of Packaging Materials Wood Pallets literally form the base on which most fresh produce is delivered to the consumer. Because many are of a non-standard size, the pallets are built as inexpensively as possible and discarded after a single use Although standardization efforts have been slowly under way for many years, the efforts have been accelerated by pressure from environmental groups, in addition to the rising cost of pallets and landfill tipping fees.
  17. 17. In the early 1950s, an alternative to the pallet was introduced. It is a pallet-size sheet (slipsheet) of corrugated fiberboard or plastic (or a combination of these materials) with a narrow lip along one or more sides. Packages of produce are stacked directly on this sheet as if it were a pallet. Once the packages are in place, they are moved by a specially equipped fork lift equipped with a thin metal sheet instead of forks.
  18. 18. For the most part, the preparation of produce for market is carried out in a packing house, which may range from a simple, on-the- farm thatched shed to an automated regional packaging line handling large tonnages of a single commercial crop like citrus fruit. Packing House Handling
  19. 19. Packinghouse handling include: Sorting: removes foreign matter (stones, leaves, debris) Cleaning and washing: hand washing or on a line use only clean running water Fungicide treatment: post-harvest application of fungicide is usual on crops such as bananas, yams and citrus fruit which are to be stored for a long period or those which undergo long periods of transport to distant markets. Quality selection and grading: manually or on a packing line
  20. 20. Use chlorinated water to wash produce Change water when dirty Wash, rinse and sanitize packing lines surfaces at end of each day Store packaging material in a clean area Recommended Practices in Packing Houses
  21. 21. Packing or Packaging  Suitable packages and handling techniques can reduce the amount of damage to which fresh produce is exposed during marketing  Packaging should be designed to prevent physical damage to produce, and be easy to handle
  22. 22. Selection of packaging for fresh produce Besides providing a uniform-size package to protect the produce, there are other requirements for a container: it should be easily transported when empty it must be easy to assemble, fill and close either by hand or by use of a simple machine; it must provide adequate ventilation for contents during transport and storage; its capacity should be suited to market demands;
  23. 23. Selection of packaging its dimensions and design must be suited to the available transport in order to load neatly and firmly; it must be cost-effective in relation to the market value of the commodity for which used; it must be readily available, preferably from more than one supplier.
  24. 24. Next Pre-Storage Treatments
  25. 25. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Introduction Pre storage treatments are the treatments given to a commodity (fruits and vegetables) generally after harvesting to reduce postharvest losses, enhance storage life and retain quality.
  26. 26. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Some of the important pre storage treatments are : Cleaning, Washing, Sorting, Grading, Waxing, Packing, Pre cooling, Curing, Desapping, Chemical treatments, Irradiation, Vapour heat treatment
  27. 27. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 1. Cleaning This is a treatment given to remove adhering dust, dirt, extraneous matter, pathogenic load etc. from the surface of a commodity. Cleaning basically sanitizes the produce and avoid entry of undesirable contents to enter the packaging and storage line. Cleaning is a broader term and includes, dusting, washing etc. Methods of cleaning i. Dry method (Dusting etc.) ii. Wet method (Washing)
  28. 28. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments i. Dusting This method is mainly used to remove the adhering soil, etc from commodity i.e. potato, root vegetables, carrot, radish etc. Dusting helps to shed undesirable load (weight) of the commodity and thus reduce transportation cost. It also removes pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil from the surface of the vegetables.
  29. 29. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments ii. Washing This method is used in most fruits and vegetables. Washing is done at the pack house through automated washing system fitted with overhead sprayers and smooth rotating brushes to clean and wash the fruits. Washing with clean water mixed with a neutral detergent at 0.1% (1 ml / litre of water) is effective. The process of cleaning and washing will take 3-5 minutes. The temperature of water should be at room temperature (270 C).
  30. 30. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 2. Sorting and Grading This may be done manually or by using a machine. Fruits are graded on the basis of their colour, size and weight and sorted for freeness from damage/ diseases.
  31. 31. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments At the sorting and grading table, trained workers wearing gloves sort out the oversized and undersized fruits, immature/ scarred/ blemished fruits, diseased/insect damaged fruits and as well as fruits with sap injury (in mango) under the supervision of quality supervisor. The segregated fruits in the grader machine kept in plastic crates are removed at the end each working shift from the process area and are distinctly labeled for disposal.
  32. 32. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Difference between Sorting and Grading Sorting Grading 1. Undesirable type of fruits i.e. diseased, damaged, deformed are removed 1. Fruits and vegetables are categorized according to difference in their weight, size, colour, maturity etc. 2. Done primarily to reduce spread of infection to other fruits 2. Done to fetch better price in the market.
  33. 33. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 3. Waxing / Coating It is the process of applying wax on the surface of commodity by spraying, dip or immersion, brushing, fogging or foaming. Some fruits develop natural fruit wax on their surface at the time of maturity. i.e. plum, apple, citrus, grapes etc.
  34. 34. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments This has its role in reducing water loss fro the commodity and thus reducing shriveling and weight loss. While handling care is taken to touch the fruits as minimum as possible to retain as much of the natural wax (also called bloom) on the fruit. Types of waxes: Paraffin wax, carnauba wax, bee wax etc
  35. 35. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Advantages of waxing: •Improve appearance of fruit •Reduce moisture loss by 30-50% and retards wilting/ shriveling •Heals minor injuries •Protects fruits from minor infections •Provides modified atmosphere and increase shelf life •Acts a carrier for various chemicals etc
  36. 36. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 4. Pre-cooling It is the prompt cooling of the commodity immediately after harvest (generally within 24 hrs of harvest), to its safe storage temperature , which aims at removal of field heat. Rate of cooling depends on • Initial product temperature • Rate of flow of cooling media around the commodity • Temperature difference between produce and cooling media • Thermal conductivity of produce
  37. 37. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments There are different cooling methods followed for different commodities. Some fungicides may be mixed in water during hydro-cooling to reduce decay incidence . Weight loss during forced air cooling can be reduced by maintaining high (95%) relative humidity in the pre-cooling chamber
  38. 38. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 5. Chemical treatment Various chemicals are applied to fruits and vegetables in order to control postharvest diseases and pest infestations. Methods of application of chemicals i.Dipping: The commodity is immersed in water containing appropriate concentration of chemical which is toxic to the pathogen. However, the concentration of chemical should not be toxic to the fruit/ vegetable and should not endanger public health.
  39. 39. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments
  40. 40. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments For improving the efficacy of the dip treatment and better surface coating some wetting agents may also be added. The effectiveness of the fungicidal solution may also be enhanced by hearting the water in which the fruit is being dipped. 500 ppm of benomyl in water at 50-55 min, for 2 to 15 min is effective for controlling anthracnose in mango without damaging the fruit.
  41. 41. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 6. Curing It is technique where the commodity is left in the field itself in a heap under shade for few days. It is an effective operation to reduce water loss during storage from hardy vegetables e.g. onion, garlic, sweet potato etc. In case of onion curing is a drying process intended to dry off the necks and 2-3 outer scales of the bulbs to prevent the loss of moisture and the attack by decay during storage.
  42. 42. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments The dry under-layer should have an attractive appearance. Onions are cured generally when they have lost 3 to 5% of their weight. Generally, are dried in the field by stacking in a warm, covered area with good ventilation.
  43. 43. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Onion and garlic can also be cured by tying the tops of the bulbs in bunches and hanging them on a horizontal support of pole, wire etc. pole in a well- ventilated and shaded place. Curing in shade improves bulb colour.
  44. 44. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments The essential conditions during curing are: o Heat (~ 30o C) o Good ventilation o Low humidity
  45. 45. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 7. Irradiation Irradiation is a treatment given to various fruits and vegetables to control different postharvest diseases and disorders. Fruits are exposed to various doses of electromagnetic radiations for small durations (few sec to few min.) of time under highly controlled conditions.
  46. 46. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 8. Vapour heat treatment This was developed to control infections of fruit flies in fruits. The treatment consists of stacking the fruits in boxes in a room which is heated and humidified by injection of steam. The temperature and exposure time may be adjusted depending upon the stage at which the fly is to be killed i.e. egg, larvae, pupa or adult.
  47. 47. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments The most difficult stage to control by VHT is larval stage as the insect goes further into the fruit and away from the surface thus requiring high temperatures for short time. Generally the treatment of citrus, papaya, mango or pineapples may be given at 43o C in saturated air for 8 hrs followed by maintaining the temperature for further 6 hrs.
  48. 48. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments 8. Desapping Desapping of mango fruits is carried out in processing area by trained workers under the supervision of processing supervisor. Desapping is done by holding the mango fruits upside down while cutting the stalk of fruits. The stalks of mango fruits are cut very carefully to 0.5 to 1.0 cm by trained workers by using a scissor with sharp long nose to avoid causing skin injury.
  49. 49. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments For exports, the pedicel of the fruits is cut approximately at a length of 1 cm from the fruit with the help of sharp scissors and fruits are kept up side down in special knitted pallets, for two hours so that the latex flows out from the fruit completely. Care should be taken that the latex drop does not fall on the fruit.
  50. 50. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments Let us sum up • Pre storage treatments are the treatments given to a commodity (fruits and vegetables in present context) generally after harvesting to reduce postharvest losses, enhance storage life and retain quality. • Cleaning removes adhering dust, dirt, extraneous matter, pathogenic load etc. from the surface of a commodity. Dusting, washing etc. are methods of cleaning.
  51. 51. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments • Fruits are graded on the basis of their colour, size and weight and sorted for freeness from damage/ diseases. • Waxing is the process of applying wax on the surface of commodity by spraying, dip or immersion, brushing, fogging or foaming. • Pre-cooling is the prompt cooling of the commodity immediately after harvest (generally within 24 hrs of harvest), to its safe storage temperature , which aims at removal of field heat.
  52. 52. NextEnd Previous Pre-Storage treatments • Chemicals are applied by spraying, dusting, dipping etc. for reducing disease incidence during storage. • Irradiation is application of radiation under controlled conditions to reduce incidence of disease or disorders.
  53. 53. Presentation 3.2 Packing andPacking and packagingpackaging Definir actores/roles/ Expectativas. • poor packing design (reduces efficiency and increases the risk of mechanical and biological hazards). • improper packing (lack of ventilation, low material resistance, sharp and wrinkled surfaces, etc.). • Over packing (many product layers). Associated Hazards
  54. 54. Definir actores/roles/ Expectativas. • Inappropriate pile up during packing. • packing products with different degree of maturity. • mechanical damages caused by personnel or improper design of mechanical grading machines. • Problems regarding over-handling of products and inappropriate process flows during post-harvest handling. Packing andPacking and packagingpackaging Associated Hazards
  55. 55. Thank You!