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Container Orchestration Wars

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Video: https://youtu.be/C_u4_l84ED8

Karl Isenberg reviews the history of distributed computing, clarifies terminology for layers in the container stack, and does a head to head comparison of several tools in the space, including Kubernetes, Marathon, and Docker Swarm. Learn which features and qualities are critical for container orchestration and how you can apply this knowledge when evaluating platforms.

Published in: Technology

Container Orchestration Wars

  1. 1. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION WARS
  2. 2. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 KARL WHO? Where? - Mesosphere - Pivotal - Williams-Sonoma What? - DC/OS - Kubernetes - CloudFoundry - BOSH - Spring Ecommerce Platform - github.com/karlkfi - twitter.com/karlkfi - linkedin.com/in/karlkfi - karl.isenberg.us
  3. 3. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Revisionist History of Distributed Computing Container Orchestration Container Platforms Platform as a Service Distributed Operating Systems Competitive Landscape AGENDA
  4. 4. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 IN THE BEGINNING...
  5. 5. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hardware Operating System Application 5 COMPUTERS
  6. 6. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hardware Operating System Web Application 6 INTERNET
  7. 7. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Web App Hardware Operating System 7 SCALE & HIGH AVAILABILITY Operating System Operating System Hardware Hardware Web App Web App
  8. 8. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Service Service Service Web App Web App Web App Hardware Operating System 8 SERVICE- ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE Operating System Operating System Hardware Hardware
  9. 9. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Service Service Service Web App Web App Web App Machine Operating System 9 HARDWARE VIRTUALIZATION Operating System Operating System Infrastructure Machine Machine
  10. 10. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Operating System Operating System Operating System ServiceApp ServiceServiceAppApp 10 MICROSERVICES Machine Infrastructure Machine Machine ServiceService ServiceServiceServiceService
  11. 11. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ServiceApp ServiceServiceAppApp OS 11 CONTAINERIZED MICROSERVICES OS OS Machine Infrastructure Machine Machine Container Runtime Container Runtime Container Runtime ServiceService ServiceServiceServiceService
  12. 12. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Service Container Runtime Container Runtime Container Runtime OS 12 CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION OS OS Container Orchestration Machine Infrastructure Machine Machine App ServiceServiceAppApp
  13. 13. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 “The automated arrangement, coordination, and management of complex computer systems, middleware and services.” - Wikipedia ORCA-WHAT-NOW?
  14. 14. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 “Continuous automated scheduling, coordination, and management of complex systems of containerized components and the resources they consume.” - Karl CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION
  15. 15. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Orchestration 15 Machine Infrastructure Web Apps & Services Scheduling Resource Management Container Runtime Machine & OS Service Management CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION Machine & OS Machine & OS Container Runtime Container Runtime Revised
  16. 16. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 SCHEDULING - Placement - Replication/Scaling - Resurrection - Rescheduling - Rolling Deployment - Upgrades - Downgrades - Collocation RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - Memory - CPU - GPU - Volumes - Ports - IPs SERVICE MANAGEMENT - Labels - Groups/Namespaces - Dependencies - Load Balancing - Readiness Checking FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES
  18. 18. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 SCALABILITY Performance, Responsiveness, Efficiency AVAILABILITY Fault Tolerance, Robustness, Reliability, Resilience, Disaster Recovery FLEXIBILITY Format Support, Portability, Interoperability, Extensibility USABILITY Familiarity, Maintainability, Compatibility, Debuggability PORTABILITY Container Runtimes, Host OS, Hosted, Cloud, Bare- Metal SECURITY Auditability, Secrets Management, Encryption, Isolation NON-FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES
  19. 19. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 “A platform is any base of technologies on which other technologies or processes are built.” - Some Guy on the Internet CLOUD PLATFORM?
  20. 20. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 “Platform as a service (PaaS) is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.” - Wikipedia PAAS?
  21. 21. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 “A distributed system on which users develop, run, and manage containerized applications and services.” - Karl CONTAINER PLATFORM
  22. 22. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE Source Repo, Continuous Integration, Artifact Repo CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION Scheduling, Resource Management, Service Management DAY 2 OPERATIONS Debugging, Maintenance 22 CONTAINER OPERATIONS
  23. 23. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE CONTAINER OPERATIONS Code Build, Test, Package Publish Deploy
  24. 24. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Applications & Services 24 APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE CONTAINER OPERATIONS Source Control Continuous Integration Artifact Repository Orchestration
  25. 25. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE CONTAINER OPERATIONS Applications & Services Source Control Continuous Integration Artifact Repository Orchestration
  26. 26. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 DEBUGGING - Logging & Metrics - Emitting - Aggregation - Search - Reporting - Alerting - Dashboards - Shell Access MAINTENANCE - Package Management - Upgrading - Cluster Resizing - Application Autoscaling - Capacity Planning - Software Defined Networking - Backups - Disaster Recovery DAY 2 OPERATIONS CONTAINER OPERATIONS
  27. 27. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. System Space Orchestration User Space Source Control Continuous Integration Artifact Repository 27 CONTAINER OPERATIONS Load Balancer Package Manager Security Networking Logging & Metrics Storage
  28. 28. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kernel 28 OPERATING SYSTEM System Space Hardware User Space
  29. 29. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM Hardware Hardware Hardware User Space Circa 1992 Microkernel System Space Microkernel Microkernel
  30. 30. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 DYSEAC & MOBIDIC Circa 1954
  31. 31. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31 PLAN 9 Circa 1992
  32. 32. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32 THEN - Rewrite your Applications - Concurrent Programming Language - Virtual Machine Environment - UNIX-like, POSIX-like - Custom Kernel - Process-level Fault Tolerance NOW - BYO Applications - BYO Programming Language - BYO Container Operating System - BYO Container Runtime - BYO Machine Operating System - System-level Fault Tolerance DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM
  33. 33. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33 Machine Infrastructure Applications & Services Orchestration Container Runtime System Services DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM Container Runtime Container Runtime Revised OS OS OS Machine Machine Machine DistributedOS
  34. 34. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34
  35. 35. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35 SECURITY CONCERNS - End-To-End Encryption - Secrets - Certificate Management - Public Key Infrastructure - Service Accounts - User Accounts - User Groups - Directory Service Integration - Multitenancy - Permissions - Security Policies - License Management
  36. 36. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36 SERVICE CATALOG - Distributed Storage - Databases - Message Bus - Stream Processing - Machine Learning - API Brokers - Autoscalers - Log Search - Version Control - Continuous Integration - Container Repositories
  37. 37. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37
  38. 38. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38 WHO ARE TODAY’S CONTESTANTS?
  39. 39. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39
  40. 40. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40 TODAY’S CONTESTANTS - Docker Swarm - ECS - Kontena - Nomad - Kubernetes - Rancher - OpenShift - DC/OS Non-Exhaustive List
  41. 41. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41 CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION - Scheduling - Resource Management - Service Discovery CONTAINER PLATFORM - Container Lifecycle Management PLATFORM AS A SERVICE - Application Lifecycle Management DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM - Container Operations - Distributed System Services - Services Catalog & Application Ecosystem What’s What?
  42. 42. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42 Docker Swarm
  43. 43. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43 Docker Swarm CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION
  44. 44. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44 Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS)
  45. 45. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 45 Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION
  46. 46. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 46 Kontena
  47. 47. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 47 Kontena CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION
  48. 48. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 48 Nomad by HashiCorp
  49. 49. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 49 Nomad by HashiCorp ORCHESTRATION
  50. 50. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 50 Kubernetes
  51. 51. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 51 Kubernetes CONTAINER PLATFORM
  52. 52. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 52 Rancher
  53. 53. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 53 Rancher CONTAINER PLATFORM
  54. 54. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 54 OpenShift
  55. 55. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 55 OpenShift PaaS
  56. 56. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 56 DC/OS
  57. 57. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM 57 DC/OS
  58. 58. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 58
  59. 59. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 59 ORCHESTRATION FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON
  60. 60. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 60 SCHEDULING ORCHESTRATION FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON (06/2016) Placement Kubernetes Mesos/Marathon ECS Swarm Nomad Cattle Kontena Replication/Scaling Readiness Checking Resurrection Rescheduling Rolling Deployment Collocation Included External/Partial
  61. 61. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 61 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ORCHESTRATION FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON (06/2016) Memory Kubernetes Mesos/Marathon ECS Swarm Nomad Cattle Kontena CPU GPU Disk Space Persistent Volumes Ports IPs Included External/Partial Volumes
  62. 62. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 62 SERVICE MANAGEMENT ORCHESTRATION FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON (06/2016) Labels Kubernetes Mesos/Marathon ECS Swarm Nomad Cattle Kontena Groups/Namespaces Dependencies Load Balancing Readiness Checking Included External/Partial
  63. 63. © 2016 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 63 "Let's face it, the universe is messy. It is nonlinear, turbulent, and chaotic. It is dynamic. It spends its time in transient behavior on its way to somewhere else, not in mathematically neat equilibria. It self-organizes and evolves. It creates diversity, not uniformity. That's what makes the world interesting, that's what makes it beautiful, and that's what makes it work." Donella H. Meadows (Thinking in Systems: A Primer)

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