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Convergence of Transitioning Technologies

Introductory lecture to module on Management of Innovation and Technology . This presentation is the first lecture of the module " Management of Innovation and Technology" which was prepared for the students enrolled in the Masters in Biotechnology program, at Grenoble ecole de management, France. It introduces the students to the different technologies that are currently disrupting the economy, and is aimed at a business audience. Slides were updated on November 2015.

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Convergence of Transitioning Technologies

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY Leveraging Technology by understanding it
  2. 2. Kariappa BHEEMAIAH Data Analyst – STYLE Project (EU) Subjects: Youth Unemployment, Technological Impact , Digital Economy, Quantitative Analysis.
  3. 3. Journal of Psychological Science in the Public Interest
  4. 4. Topics – 1st Half  AI and Robotics  Finance and Economics  Big Data, Networks and Computing Systems
  5. 5. AI and Robotics
  6. 6. Robotics
  7. 7. Definition of a Robot….But the definition is changing A robot is a machine that can physically communicate with its environment. It is a machine that is capable of :  Sensing its environment  Processing that information  Responding to that information AI Brain that is programmed Body Chassis with sensors and wiring Mechanical means of movement
  8. 8. Domains of use • Auxiliary/ Support robots • Domestic robots • Robot Companions • Advanced Competences
  9. 9. Robots that substitute human intervention Areas of usage: 1. Replacing manual operations 2. High levels of precision 3. Increased Speed 4. Increasing Scale 5. Hazardous Environments Auxiliary Robots
  10. 10. Support robots Robotic Surgery - minimally invasive surgery that uses miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions. •Virtual and Augmented Reality •Decision Aid •Remote Learning •Scar-less surgery • Reduced Training Costs
  11. 11. Domestic robots • Roomba is able to change direction on encountering obstacles, to detect dirty spots on the floor, and to sense steep drops to keep it from falling down stairs • It can adapt to perform other more creative tasks using an embedded computer. • Robots are now so dexterous, smart and cheap that they rival the efficiency of low-cost outsourced labor
  12. 12. • Baxter and Roomba invented by former MIT prof Rodney Brooks • Baxter learns by observing…No reprogramming . • It’s sensors detects humans…. so it safe to work around it. • Baxter = $22,000. • Kiva equipped warehouse can handle 4 times the volume of an un- automated warehouse Baxter: The Blue-Collar Robot
  13. 13. Baxter /Sawyer Video...Human Robot Collab
  14. 14. • Endoscopy • Camera takes 60,000 photos  esophagus  stomach  the intestines in eight hours. • Diagnose small- intestine conditions & tumors
  15. 15. Robot Companions
  16. 16. Advanced Competences
  17. 17. Advanced Competencies - BioRobotics • Neurodevelopmental BioEngineering • Marine Robotics • Soft Robotics – Wearable Tech/Robotics – Artificial Hands • Self-Organising Robots
  18. 18. March 2015: Brain–computer interfaces based on electroencephalography (EEG) allow paralyzed woman to fly a F-35 JET with her mind. Oct 2015: Scientists at BRAINGATE connect Brain to a Basic Tablet—Paralyzed Patient Googles. Neural Engineering and Neural Prostheses  Neuro engineering = electrical + mechanical engineering + nanotechnology + computer science + cellular, molecular & cognitive neuroscience  Neural prostheses directly interface the brain with computers.  An aspirin sized microarray chip is implanted into the brain, and neural signals associated with intent are decoded by sophisticated algorithms in real time and used to control mouse cursors.
  20. 20. Machine Learning, Deep learning & A.I.
  21. 21. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) • General intelligence The ability of a system to achieve a variety of complex tasks in different complex environments using limited computational resources “Specialized AI”, rather than “Artificial General Intelligence” (AGI) still dominates the AI domain– Specific tasks instead of multi-disciplinarity.
  22. 22. Moving from AI to AGI
  23. 23. Machine Learning and Deep Learning Axon Dendrite Nucleus
  24. 24. Machine Learning
  25. 25. How did they do it?
  26. 26. Future Challenges
  27. 27. Finance and Economics
  28. 28. Decentralized Distributed Innovative environment Proof of Work HashCash CAPTCHA
  29. 29. E-Commerce Transaction Fees (2.9%) = $18 Billion Retail Credit Card Transaction fees (2.5%) = $260 Billion Global Bank Transaction Fees = $524 Billion Global Remittances --- 8.9% to 30% (Inter- Africa) $49 Billion of the $524 Billion in 2013. Global Transaction Fees Estimated to reach $681 billion in 2016.
  30. 30. 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 …more !!! Growth of the Number of Things Connected to the Internet: CISC0 (2013) $14.4 Trillion in Value at Stake /IoE_Economy.pdf Boom-in-Fintech-Investment.pdf Investment in Fintech ventures = 3X Growth, from $930 million in 2008 to $2.97billion in 2013
  31. 31. The 21 Bitcoin Computer is the first computer with native hardware and software support for the Bitcoin Protocol. Easily build bitcoin-payable apps, services, and devices Cost $ 399 This level of investment is changing how entrepreneurs do business and how large enterprises are thinking about future revenue models.
  32. 32. Key Objectives:  Distributed Transaction Processing & Applications without the need for centralized control infrastructure  Robust Security where no trusted third party is required to secure transactions. Solutions:  Peer-to-peer decentralized networks  A value-exchange protocol like the Blockchain  Autonomous Device Coordination Empowered Law CryptoCorp Colored Coins Codius
  33. 33. ETHEREUM • The block chain is a powerful idea that could be applied to more than just transaction records. • One use can be to develop computerized, self-enforcing contracts that make automatic payments when a task is complete. • This can be extended to voting systems, crowdfunding platforms, and even other cryptocurrencies. • All these interaction need TRUST! • Ethereum is suited to these situations --- when users do not trust one another and where central control is a weakness ! • In 2014, to make it easier to develop such applications, Gavin Wood and Vitalik Buterin devised a way to combine the block chain with a programming language. At present it is the first Turing complete language in the space
  34. 34. Bitcoin Blockchain ,non- bitcoin currency Non-bitcoin currency & non-Bitcoin Blockchain  Own capital  Hire people  Issue shares  Produce profits  Pay Dividends To shareholders who host DACs
  36. 36. Bio-Tech= Bio + Tech+ Info • Smart Textiles – Aesthetic – Performance Enhancing • How do you power them? • How do they communicate? • Can we use the body as an interface? • WIFI • SOLAR • BODY HEAT
  37. 37. Belly Band
  38. 38. A Quantum leap in Computer Science • Spin = 1 Spin = 0 qbit • 2 qbits- 00, 01, 10, and 11. • A one liter molecular computer with ~1018 logic elements might cost a few dollars. • 1027 logic operations per second at 1 gigahertz • Almost 10,000,000 Blue Gene supercomputers ($100,000,000 each) in parallel • Roughly the computational power of 1011 humans
  39. 39. • June 26, 2015: D-Wave Systems broke the 1000 qubit quantum computing barrier. At 1000 qubits, the processor considers 21000 possibilities simultaneously • Sept 3, 2015: Intel Invests US$50 Million to Advance Quantum Computing • Oct 5, 2015: Using Industrial Manufacturing technologies, University of New South Wales created the first t quantum logic gate in silicon Finance, Security and most importantly, Health care sectors will be impacted.
  40. 40. Super Computing The Universe is made up of matter and energy and is governed by mathematical equations. Humans are remarkably creative, intelligent and adept at uncovering underlying mathematical equations, yet they need computers to solve problems at a grand scale for societal problems. Really big problems require very large computational capabilities. Supercomputing leverages and integrates the best technologies to help scientists transform their research into new discoveries. Supercomputing is the invisible engine that impacts safety, security and quality of life in today’s society. From predicting hurricanes to finding more efficient energy sources to designing new drugs to cure diseases, supercomputing is fundamental to society
  41. 41. Networks and Computing Systems
  42. 42. Apart From Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing, Quantum Computing, and IBM Watson
  43. 43. Topics – 2nd Half  Nanotechnology and 3D Printing  CRISPR, Synthetic Biology and Bioinformatics  Virtual Reality
  44. 44. 3D Printing CHUCK HILL
  45. 45. 3D Printed Integrated Circuits • Conductive Ink lets you print objects and circuits in one machine. • This reduces cost, time and the business relationship with suppliers. • The company has also created inks that can print lithium-ion batteries. • This liquid power source can be deposited between components to reduce size.
  46. 46. 3D Printing in the Bio Tech Sector Anatomics: 3D Prints Titanium Ribs and Sternum for Cancer Patient Using CT scans of the patient’s chest, they created a precise 3D model, and then printed the implant • As 3D printing allows products to be custom-matched to an exact body shape, it is being used to make better titanium bone implants, prosthetic limbs and orthodontic devices. • Experiments in printing soft tissue are underway, and may soon allow printed veins and arteries to be used in operations. • Today’s research into medical applications of 3D printing covers nano-medicine, pharmaceuticals and printing of organs. • 3D printing is now being used to customize medicines and reduce, if not eliminate, organ donor shortage.
  47. 47. 3D Printing Drugs • Nearly 100% of all prescription drugs are mass produced by pharmaceutical companies in commonly prescribed doses and in a handful of shapes. • The shape and size of a pill can greatly change the effect it has . “The future of medicine design and manufacture is likely to move away from mass production of tablets/capsules of limited dose range towards extemporaneous fabrication of unit dosage forms of any dose, personalized to the patient,” To correlate geometry with dissolution behavior. Conclusion: Tablets showed no dependence on the surface area but rather on surface are to volume ratio, indicating that geometrical shape has an influence on drug release profile. October 13, 2015: FDA approves Aprecia’s SPRITAM ,the 1st 3D-printed drug product for the treatment of epilepsy seizures (adults & children)
  48. 48. 3D Bio Printing • Bio-ink is made from living cells and behaves much like a liquid, making it easy to print a desired shape. • To make bio-ink, a slurry of cells is loaded into a cartridge and inserted into a specially designed printer, along with another cartridge containing a gel known as bio-paper. • When the printer is triggered , the cartridges alternate layers to build a three dimensional structure, with the bio-paper creating a supportive matrix that the ink can thrive on. • Applications: • Tissue engineering: materials and hydrogels, growth factors, cells, collagen, cholesterol • Drug delivery: bio-resorbable polymers, drugs , cells, genes, DNA, proteins , cholesterol • Medical diagnostics and Biosensors: DNA, proteins and peptides, antibodies, enzymes, cells • Structural genomics: lipids, proteins Example: World’s first 3D printable liver tissue
  49. 49. Companies Leading 3D Bioprinting Company Location Salient Features Organovo USA Provides pharmaceutical companies with aa3exVive3D™ Liver Tissue for drug toxicity testing. Major partner: L'Oréal Ultimate goal : 3D print human tissue for failing organs, and eventually entire organs Cyfuse Biomedical Japan Bioprinter : Regenova allows them to create components such as blood vessels, digestive & urinary organs, cartilage, tubular tissues, & miniature livers. BioBots USA Affordable desktop bioprinters to researchers, pharmaceutical companies Aspect Biosystems Canada Drug discovery and lab-on-a-printer technology. 3D Bioprinting Solutions Russia Aims to 3D print multiple human organs Made the first mouse aa5thyroid gland, which they implanted into a test subject (yes, another mouse) Rokit S - Korea Seeks to develop an in-situ 3D bioprinter by 2018, to make human skin for burn victims / dermatological diseases. 3Dynamic Systems Wales, UK Creating on demand Human Bone, Skin & Muscle TeVido USA Nipple replacement for breast cancer patients
  50. 50. CRISPR Cas9, Synthetic Biology, Gene Editing & Bio-informatics The transition from changing external elements to changing core elements.
  51. 51. CRISPR Cas9 Video
  52. 52. CRISPRs: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. CRISPR/Cas mechanism (Cas-"CRISPR associated" genes) targets & splices specific DNA strands — “edit” the genome. Set up cost for CRISPR editing-  order an RNA fragment (~$10)  off-the-shelf chemicals and enzymes (~$30 ).  Cheap + quick + easy to use + more accurate than previous methods  Reshaping biotech sector  Hundreds of millions of VC capital in the past 3 years. Key Players: Jennifer Doudna, UCBerkeley Feng Zhang, MIT George Church, Harvard
  53. 53. What is CRISPR cas9 being used for?  Adjust genes to eliminate diseases, create hardier plants, wipe out pathogens , etc….  Modified genes can be directly injected into fertilized zygotes to achieve heritable gene modification.  April 10, 2014: replace defective genes with a correct sequence to treat genetic disorders  June 19, 2014 : used to preventing HIV infection in human cells.  August 15, 2014: Genetically edited fruits. ….October 2015: DuPont enters agreement with Caribou Biosciences, a spin-off lab. of Jennifer Doudna. Says “Plants on Dinner Plates in Five Years”.  April 2015: Chinese scientists attempt to edit the DNA of a human embryo  August 2015: Editas Medicine, raises $120 million to create treatments for cancer, retinal disease, sickle-cell anemia, autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and bipolar disorder.
  54. 54. Synthetic Biology Producing standard biological components using the principles of computer science and engineering. Bits of Bases : From 0 & 1 to (A –T) and (C –G) 2010: Craig Venter Institute creates first self-replicating synthetic cells Along with learning how to read DNA, the drop in the price of computing has lowered the price of sequencing DNA <$1000 (less than an X-ray). By 2020 < $1 We can now read DNA and see how one differs from another. With all this data, Biology is no longer an analog science. It is an information science. We can now read it, analyze it computationally and print it.
  55. 55. Genetic Engineering -- The next IT industry Printing DNA---Array Synthesizer. Individual strands of DNA are grown on chips that are precise to the base pair. ….and the price is falling (Carlson Curves) This reduction in cost, is democratizing synthetic biology. Eg: iGEM -Synthetic Biology competitions Most of this info is available to anyone via GENBANK- an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. Base Pairs Time (in years) 102 20 103 10 104 5 105 106 ??? 107 Proteins Viruses Minimal Life Engineered Life What do we engineer?
  56. 56. Nano-Bio-Robo Technology “The principles of physics as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things by the atom”… There’s plenty of room at the bottom MinION: Nanopore Sequencing of DNA -Uses the fact that DNA is a negatively charged polymer. USB Sized DNA sequencing machine Genome of Ebola Virus from 14 patients: 48 hrs $3 billion and 13 yrs for 1st human genome With this device: <$1000 and in a few hours Understand disease, personalize medicine, sequence other species , understand biodiversity
  57. 57. • r-fighting-robots
  58. 58. Virtual Reality in Biotech Annually 40,000 people in ICU’s may die of a mis-diagnonsis…. just in the US . A large percentage of mis-diagnosis happens because of insufficient visual inference of existing data. Education ,Simulate & repeat operations, Understand disease , Simulating drug delivery, Understand the brain (economics, IT, education, society) , Safer for patient, faster diagnosis (5- 10 minutes instead of 30-40) & more efficient… No more image by image!! Entirely virtual drug discovery platform with no lab
  59. 59. Deep Leaning and Bio informatics • Dec 2014: Deep learning used to computational model and predict splicing patterns based on genomic features • Feburary 2015 : DANN: a deep learning algorithm that annotates pathogenicity • August 2015: Deep learning to predict sequence specificity • Early 2015: Company Deep Genomics - Uses deep learning & artificial intelligence to map the genome and predict diseases. Challenges addressed- the genetic determinants of autism, cancers and muscular atrophy. Read the genome and find why we fall ill. Redefining personalized medicine. Salaries of these specialists? ++ $250,000 a year (Washington Post) Interdisciplinary Mindset = Good Business Sense
  60. 60. Big Data and Medicine 1. The Digitized Body When every organ has an IP address and every data point is sent to the cloud 2. Big Data Analytics Mining our own business 3. Consumerization of Healthcare Breaking down barriers of healthcare solutions 4. Open Table for Medicine Emergence of the marketplace economy in healthcare 5. The Google Now of Healthcare Remote technology, ambient intelligence, push notifications
  61. 61. Behavior & Cognition Biotechnology Informatics Social Networking Genomics/ Bio-banking/ Clinical Medicine Transforming Medicine through the Cloud and Crowd Health care pros 50% accuracy Watson has shown 90% accuracy
  62. 62. A change in mindset As a provider of healthcare: 1. Health Data in the Hands of Patients. 2. Get Feedback from Patients. 3. Have and Welcome a Patient Advisory Council. 4. Resources in the Hands of Patients. As a receiver of healthcare: 1. Know and use my health data. 2. Give Feedback. 3. Connect with Others who share my health issues. 4. Between Visits, Use the Resources My Providers Give Me and the Resources I Find.
  63. 63. Death is sooo 20th Century Google's project Calico to ‘cure’ death, announces $1.5 billion research center! Projected Population growth 2010-2050: 39% Growth of old-population (>>85) = +/- 400% (relative to 2010) Oct 2015: Scientists transform skin cells into living cultures of aging human neurons—test beds to reverse the effects of time. AGESISM IS AN ISSUE …AND AN OPPORTUNITY SEPTEMBER 30, 2015: Treats 1st Patient with Gene Therapy to Reverse Aging Work space ergonomics, Spectacle companies, elderly Healthcare, BEAM (suitable tech), SE Asia (Vietnam ) Oct 2015: Human Longevity, Inc. Launches the Health Nucleus The platform uses whole genome analysis, advanced clinical imaging & machine learning together.
  64. 64. Your Opportunities. • Develop solutions to a large-scale global challenge • Address a significant public / industry issue with profound health & economic consequences • Use the Crowd! Not just Specialists!! • Save lives and improve quality of life
  65. 65. 6D’s of Exponential Entrepreneurs • Digitalization- Culture makes progress cumulative. Innovation occurs as humans share and exchange ideas. • Deception- What follows digitalization is deception, a period during which exponential growth goes mostly unnoticed. • Disruption- a technology is any innovation that creates a new market and disrupts an existing one. Unfortunately, as it follows deception, the original technological threat often seems laughably insignificant SOURCE:P.Diamandis
  66. 66. • Demonetization- This means the removal of money from the equation. Consider Kodak. Their business evaporated when we replaced film with Pixels. • Dematerialization- While demonetization describes the vanishing of the money once paid for goods and services, dematerialization is about the vanishing of the goods and services themselves …Who makes film? • DEMOCRATIZATION – Crowd Source it and let the users/people decide. 6D’s of Exponential Entrepreneurs SOURCE:P.Diamandis
  67. 67. A MUST FOR ANY ONE SERIOUS about analysis of Data in the Biotech field s/qghhqm