Introductory lecture to module on Management of Innovation and Technology . This presentation is the first lecture of the module " Management of Innovation and Technology" which was prepared for the students enrolled in the Masters in Biotechnology program, at Grenoble ecole de management, France. It introduces the students to the different technologies that are currently disrupting the economy, and is aimed at a business audience. Slides were updated on November 2015.
Adapted from How to Study in College 7/e by Walter Pauk, 2001 Houghton Mifflin Company
SPRITAM manufacturing uses 3D printing to produce a porous formulation that rapidly disintegrates with a sip of liquid, making it easier to swallow. The “ZipDose Technology” allows for delivering a high drug load, up to 1,000 mg in a single dose, which is expected to help patients take their medication as prescribed. SPRITAM is expected to be available in the first quarter of 2016
Source. http://www.rand.org Scientists can take skin cells from people of various ages and transform them into brain cells reflecting the ages of their donors. By creating neurons that retain the effects of aging. This technique opens up new avenues for studying aging, age-associated diseases, and the possibility that drugs might stave off what was once inevitable.
Convergence of Transitioning Technologies
MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION
Leveraging Technology by
Data Analyst – STYLE Project (EU)
Subjects: Youth Unemployment, Technological
Impact , Digital Economy, Quantitative Analysis.
Journal of Psychological Science in the Public Interest
Topics – 1st Half
AI and Robotics
Finance and Economics
Big Data, Networks and Computing Systems
Definition of a Robot….But the definition is changing
A robot is a machine that can physically communicate with its
It is a machine that is capable of :
Sensing its environment
Processing that information
Responding to that information
AI Brain that is
Domains of use
• Auxiliary/ Support robots
• Domestic robots
• Robot Companions
• Advanced Competences
Robots that substitute human intervention
Areas of usage:
1. Replacing manual operations
2. High levels of precision
3. Increased Speed
4. Increasing Scale
5. Hazardous Environments
Robotic Surgery - minimally invasive surgery that uses
miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of
•Virtual and Augmented Reality
• Reduced Training Costs
Domestic robots • Roomba is able to change direction
on encountering obstacles, to detect
dirty spots on the floor, and to sense
steep drops to keep it from falling
• It can adapt to perform other more
creative tasks using an embedded
• Robots are now so dexterous, smart
and cheap that they rival the
efficiency of low-cost outsourced
• Baxter and Roomba
invented by former MIT
prof Rodney Brooks
• Baxter learns by
• It’s sensors detects
humans…. so it safe to
work around it.
• Baxter = $22,000.
• Kiva equipped warehouse
can handle 4 times the
volume of an un-
Baxter: The Blue-Collar Robot
March 2015: Brain–computer
interfaces based on
allow paralyzed woman to fly a
F-35 JET with her mind.
Oct 2015: Scientists at
BRAINGATE connect Brain to a
Basic Tablet—Paralyzed Patient
Neural Engineering and Neural Prostheses
Neuro engineering = electrical + mechanical engineering +
nanotechnology + computer science + cellular, molecular & cognitive
Neural prostheses directly interface the brain with computers.
An aspirin sized microarray chip is implanted into the brain, and
neural signals associated with intent are decoded by sophisticated
algorithms in real time and used to control mouse cursors.
Artiﬁcial General Intelligence (AGI)
• General intelligence
The ability of a system to achieve a variety of complex tasks in
different complex environments using limited computational
“Specialized AI”, rather than “Artiﬁcial General Intelligence”
(AGI) still dominates the AI domain– Specific tasks instead of
Proof of Work
E-Commerce Transaction Fees (2.9%) = $18 Billion
Retail Credit Card Transaction fees (2.5%) = $260
Global Bank Transaction Fees = $524 Billion
Global Remittances --- 8.9% to 30% (Inter-
$49 Billion of the $524 Billion in 2013.
Global Transaction Fees Estimated to reach
$681 billion in 2016.
Growth of the Number of Things
Connected to the Internet: CISC0
Investment in Fintech ventures =
3X Growth, from $930 million in
2008 to $2.97billion in 2013
The 21 Bitcoin Computer is
the first computer with
native hardware and
software support for the
Easily build bitcoin-payable
apps, services, and devices
Cost $ 399
This level of investment is changing how entrepreneurs do business
and how large enterprises are thinking about future revenue models.
Distributed Transaction Processing & Applications
without the need for centralized control
Robust Security where no trusted third party is
required to secure transactions.
Peer-to-peer decentralized networks
A value-exchange protocol like the Blockchain
Autonomous Device Coordination
• The block chain is a powerful idea that could be applied to more than just
• One use can be to develop computerized, self-enforcing contracts that make
automatic payments when a task is complete.
• This can be extended to voting systems, crowdfunding platforms, and even
• All these interaction need TRUST!
• Ethereum is suited to these situations --- when users do not trust one another
and where central control is a weakness !
• In 2014, to make it easier to develop such applications, Gavin Wood and Vitalik
Buterin devised a way to combine the block chain with a programming
language. At present it is the first Turing complete language in the space
Bitcoin Blockchain ,non-
Non-bitcoin currency & non-Bitcoin
To shareholders who
Big Data, IoT & Quantum Computing
ECONOMICS COMPLEXITY ECONOMICS
CONSENSUS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
REPUTATION ANONYMIZATION & PRIVACY
TECH as TOOL PART OF US
Bio-Tech= Bio + Tech+ Info
• Smart Textiles
• How do you power
• How do they
• Can we use the body as
• BODY HEAT
A Quantum leap in Computer Science
• Spin = 1 Spin = 0 qbit
• 2 qbits- 00, 01, 10, and 11.
• A one liter molecular computer with ~1018 logic
elements might cost a few dollars.
• 1027 logic operations per second at 1 gigahertz
• Almost 10,000,000 Blue Gene supercomputers
($100,000,000 each) in parallel
• Roughly the computational power of 1011 humans
• June 26, 2015: D-Wave Systems broke the 1000 qubit
quantum computing barrier.
At 1000 qubits, the processor considers 21000 possibilities
• Sept 3, 2015: Intel Invests US$50 Million to Advance
• Oct 5, 2015: Using Industrial Manufacturing
technologies, University of New South Wales created
the first t quantum logic gate in silicon
Finance, Security and most importantly, Health care
sectors will be impacted.
The Universe is made up of matter and energy and is
governed by mathematical equations.
Humans are remarkably creative, intelligent and
adept at uncovering underlying mathematical
equations, yet they need computers to solve
problems at a grand scale for societal problems.
Really big problems require very large computational
Supercomputing leverages and integrates the best
technologies to help scientists transform their
research into new discoveries.
Supercomputing is the invisible engine that impacts
safety, security and quality of life in today’s society.
From predicting hurricanes to finding more efficient
energy sources to designing new drugs to cure
diseases, supercomputing is fundamental to society
3D Printed Integrated Circuits • Conductive Ink lets
you print objects
and circuits in one
• This reduces cost,
time and the
• The company has
also created inks
that can print
• This liquid power
source can be
3D Printing in the Bio Tech Sector
Anatomics: 3D Prints Titanium Ribs and Sternum for Cancer Patient
Using CT scans of the patient’s chest, they created
a precise 3D model, and then printed the implant
• As 3D printing allows products to be
custom-matched to an exact body shape, it
is being used to make better titanium bone
implants, prosthetic limbs and orthodontic
• Experiments in printing soft tissue are
underway, and may soon allow printed veins
and arteries to be used in operations.
• Today’s research into medical applications of
3D printing covers nano-medicine,
pharmaceuticals and printing of organs.
• 3D printing is now being used to customize
medicines and reduce, if not eliminate,
organ donor shortage.
3D Printing Drugs
• Nearly 100% of all prescription drugs are mass produced by pharmaceutical
companies in commonly prescribed doses and in a handful of shapes.
• The shape and size of a pill can greatly change the effect it has .
“The future of medicine design
and manufacture is likely to
move away from mass
production of tablets/capsules of
limited dose range towards
extemporaneous fabrication of
unit dosage forms of any dose,
personalized to the patient,”
To correlate geometry with dissolution behavior.
Conclusion: Tablets showed no dependence on
the surface area but rather on surface are to
volume ratio, indicating that geometrical shape
has an influence on drug release profile.
October 13, 2015: FDA approves Aprecia’s
SPRITAM ,the 1st 3D-printed drug product for the
treatment of epilepsy seizures (adults & children)
3D Bio Printing
• Bio-ink is made from living cells and behaves much like a liquid, making it easy to
print a desired shape.
• To make bio-ink, a slurry of cells is loaded into a cartridge and inserted into a
specially designed printer, along with another cartridge containing a gel known as
• When the printer is triggered , the cartridges alternate layers to build a three
dimensional structure, with the bio-paper creating a supportive matrix that the ink
can thrive on.
• Tissue engineering: materials and hydrogels, growth factors, cells, collagen, cholesterol
• Drug delivery: bio-resorbable polymers, drugs , cells, genes, DNA, proteins , cholesterol
• Medical diagnostics and Biosensors: DNA, proteins and peptides, antibodies, enzymes, cells
• Structural genomics: lipids, proteins
World’s first 3D printable liver tissue
Companies Leading 3D Bioprinting
Company Location Salient Features
Provides pharmaceutical companies with aa3exVive3D™
Liver Tissue for drug toxicity testing. Major partner: L'Oréal
Ultimate goal : 3D print human tissue for failing organs, and
eventually entire organs
Cyfuse Biomedical Japan
Bioprinter : Regenova allows them to create components
such as blood vessels, digestive & urinary organs, cartilage,
tubular tissues, & miniature livers.
Affordable desktop bioprinters to researchers,
Aspect Biosystems Canada Drug discovery and lab-on-a-printer technology.
Aims to 3D print multiple human organs
Made the first mouse aa5thyroid gland, which they
implanted into a test subject (yes, another mouse)
Rokit S - Korea
Seeks to develop an in-situ 3D bioprinter by 2018, to make
human skin for burn victims / dermatological diseases.
3Dynamic Systems Wales, UK Creating on demand Human Bone, Skin & Muscle
TeVido USA Nipple replacement for breast cancer patients
CRISPR Cas9, Synthetic Biology, Gene
Editing & Bio-informatics
The transition from changing external elements to
changing core elements.
CRISPRs: Clustered regularly
interspaced short palindromic repeats.
CRISPR/Cas mechanism (Cas-"CRISPR
associated" genes) targets & splices
specific DNA strands — “edit” the
Set up cost for CRISPR editing-
order an RNA fragment (~$10)
off-the-shelf chemicals and enzymes
Cheap + quick + easy to use + more
accurate than previous methods
Reshaping biotech sector
Hundreds of millions of VC capital in
the past 3 years.
Jennifer Doudna, UCBerkeley
Feng Zhang, MIT
George Church, Harvard
What is CRISPR cas9 being used for?
Adjust genes to eliminate diseases, create hardier plants, wipe out
pathogens , etc….
Modified genes can be directly injected into fertilized zygotes to achieve
heritable gene modification.
April 10, 2014: replace defective genes with a correct sequence to treat
June 19, 2014 : used to preventing HIV infection in human cells.
August 15, 2014: Genetically edited fruits. ….October 2015: DuPont
enters agreement with Caribou Biosciences, a spin-off lab. of Jennifer
Doudna. Says “Plants on Dinner Plates in Five Years”.
April 2015: Chinese scientists attempt to edit the DNA of a human embryo
August 2015: Editas Medicine, raises $120 million to create treatments for
cancer, retinal disease, sickle-cell anemia, autism, schizophrenia,
Alzheimer’s disease, and bipolar disorder.
Producing standard biological components using the principles of computer
science and engineering.
Bits of Bases : From 0 & 1 to (A –T) and (C –G)
2010: Craig Venter Institute creates first self-replicating
Along with learning how to read DNA, the drop in the price of computing has
lowered the price of sequencing DNA <$1000 (less than an X-ray). By 2020 < $1
We can now read DNA and see how one differs from another.
With all this data, Biology is no longer an analog science. It is an information
science. We can now read it, analyze it computationally and print it.
Genetic Engineering -- The next IT industry
Printing DNA---Array Synthesizer.
Individual strands of DNA are grown on chips that are
precise to the base pair. ….and the price is falling
This reduction in cost, is democratizing synthetic
biology. Eg: iGEM -Synthetic Biology competitions
Most of this info is available to anyone via GENBANK-
an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA
Base Pairs Time (in years)
What do we engineer?
“The principles of physics as far as I can
see, do not speak against the possibility
of maneuvering things by the atom”…
There’s plenty of room at the bottom
MinION: Nanopore Sequencing of DNA
-Uses the fact that DNA is a negatively
USB Sized DNA sequencing machine
Genome of Ebola Virus from 14 patients:
$3 billion and 13 yrs for 1st human genome
With this device: <$1000 and in a few
Understand disease, personalize medicine,
sequence other species , understand
Virtual Reality in Biotech
Annually 40,000 people in ICU’s may die of a mis-diagnonsis…. just in the US .
A large percentage of mis-diagnosis happens because of insufficient visual inference of existing
Education ,Simulate & repeat operations, Understand disease , Simulating drug delivery,
Understand the brain (economics, IT, education, society) , Safer for patient, faster diagnosis (5-
10 minutes instead of 30-40) & more efficient… No more image by image!!
Entirely virtual drug
discovery platform with no
Deep Leaning and Bio informatics
• Dec 2014: Deep learning used to computational model and predict splicing
patterns based on genomic features
• Feburary 2015 : DANN: a deep learning algorithm that annotates pathogenicity
• August 2015: Deep learning to predict sequence specificity
• Early 2015: Company Deep Genomics - Uses deep learning & artificial intelligence
to map the genome and predict diseases.
Challenges addressed- the genetic determinants of autism, cancers and muscular
atrophy. Read the genome and find why we fall ill. Redefining personalized medicine.
Salaries of these specialists? ++ $250,000 a year (Washington Post)
Interdisciplinary Mindset = Good Business Sense
Big Data and Medicine
1. The Digitized Body
When every organ has an IP address and every data point is sent to the
2. Big Data Analytics
Mining our own business
3. Consumerization of Healthcare
Breaking down barriers of healthcare solutions
4. Open Table for Medicine
Emergence of the marketplace economy in healthcare
5. The Google Now of Healthcare
Remote technology, ambient intelligence, push notifications
the Cloud and
Health care pros
Watson has shown
A change in mindset
As a provider of healthcare:
1. Health Data in the Hands
2. Get Feedback from
3. Have and Welcome a
Patient Advisory Council.
4. Resources in the Hands of
As a receiver of healthcare:
1. Know and use my health
2. Give Feedback.
3. Connect with Others who
share my health issues.
4. Between Visits, Use the
Resources My Providers
Give Me and the Resources I
Death is sooo 20th Century
Google's project Calico to ‘cure’ death,
announces $1.5 billion research center!
Projected Population growth 2010-2050: 39%
Growth of old-population (>>85) = +/- 400%
(relative to 2010)
Oct 2015: Scientists transform skin cells into
living cultures of aging human neurons—test
beds to reverse the effects of time.
AGESISM IS AN ISSUE …AND AN OPPORTUNITY
SEPTEMBER 30, 2015:
Treats 1st Patient with Gene
Therapy to Reverse Aging
Work space ergonomics, Spectacle
companies, elderly Healthcare, BEAM
(suitable tech), SE Asia (Vietnam )
Oct 2015: Human
The platform uses whole genome
analysis, advanced clinical imaging
& machine learning together.
• Develop solutions to a large-scale global challenge
• Address a significant public / industry issue with profound
health & economic consequences
• Use the Crowd! Not just Specialists!!
• Save lives and improve quality of life
6D’s of Exponential Entrepreneurs
• Digitalization- Culture makes progress
cumulative. Innovation occurs as humans share
and exchange ideas.
• Deception- What follows digitalization is
deception, a period during which exponential
growth goes mostly unnoticed.
• Disruption- a technology is any innovation that
creates a new market and disrupts an existing
one. Unfortunately, as it follows deception, the
original technological threat often seems
• Demonetization- This means the removal of
money from the equation. Consider Kodak. Their
business evaporated when we replaced film with Pixels.
• Dematerialization- While demonetization
describes the vanishing of the money once paid for
goods and services, dematerialization is about the
vanishing of the goods and services themselves
…Who makes film?
• DEMOCRATIZATION – Crowd Source it and let
the users/people decide.
6D’s of Exponential Entrepreneurs
A MUST FOR ANY ONE SERIOUS
about analysis of Data in the