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Human Bondage Abroad Fishing Boats

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《Tempo Magazine》英文版「海上的奴役」全文

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Human Bondage Abroad Fishing Boats

  1. 1. INVES IGATION HUMAN BONDAGE ABOARD FISHING BOATSTEMPO AND AN INDEPENDENT PUBLICATION FROM TAIWAN, THE REPORTER, INVESTIGATED CASES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND ENSLAVEMENT ABOARD FISHING TRAWLERS. THERE ARE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF INDONESIAN CREW MEMBERS ABOARD TAIWANESE FISHING BOATS OPERATING ON INTERNATIONAL WATERS. HAVING NO OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, THESE SEAMEN ARE NOT LISTED AS MIGRANT WORKERS BY BOTH GOVERNMENTS OF INDONESIA AND TAIWAN, RENDERING THEM VULNERABLE TO ABUSE, MALTREATMENT AND POSSIBLY FATAL TORTURE. THE REPORTING AND RESEARCH OF THIS INVESTIGATIVE REPORT WAS A COLLABORATION BETWEEN TEMPO, THE TEMPO INSTITUTE, AND FREE PRESS UNLIMITED. 14 | | JANUARY 15, 2017 MUALIPDOC.
  2. 2. JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 15 Supriyanto in a video clip recorded by Mualip, a fellow crew member from Indonesia, on July 23, 2015, on board the Fu Tzu Chun.
  3. 3. he died. In the first video, taken on July 21, 2015, Supriyanto’s face appeared swollen, con- gealed blood oozing out of his nose. There was also a gaping wound on his head. Mu- alip taped Supriyanto’s battered condition using the camera on his cellular phone, at the same time asking him questions. “Who beat you up? What are their names?” asked Mualip in Javanese. “En- gine,” replied Supriyanto, meaning the head technician. “Who else? Which of us (Indonesians) took part in the beating?” “Agus, Munawir.” “Did the captain also take part in the beating?” “Yes, the captain also took part, rough- ing me up.” MUALIPDOC.(SUPRIYANTO), TEMPO/IRSYAMFAIZ(SETIAWAN) That one minute 51 second video was taken on their 70th day at sea. The Fu Tzu Chun left Pingtung port, about 370 kilome- ters south of Taipei, on May 12, 2015. Her crew members, all of whom were Indone- sians, had arrived in Taipei six days earli- er. In addition to Supriyanto and Mualip, therewereAgusSetiawan,MunawirSazali, Sukhirin, Slamet, Dulyaman, Dian Rozikin and Urip Muslikhin. The Fu Tzu Chun was led by Captain Chen Kai Chi, who is also the ship’s owner. The head technician was Chen Jin Biao, whom Supriyanto identified as the first to physically assault him. The second and third videos show Supri- yanto’s condition becoming worse. In the thirdvideotakenonAugust25,2015,Supri- M U A L I P showed Se- tiawan three video clips of his dead cousin Supriyanto, a few days before his family re- ceived his body on September 27, 2015. As if hypnotized by the visuals on his cellular phone, Setiawan asked Mualip not to show them to anyone. “I was worried that those pictures would upset my relatives, as Supriyanto’s body still had not arrived,” Setiawan told Tempo, in early December a year later. A month earlier, on August 25, Setiawan received word from Jangkar Jaya Samu- dera company that his cousin had died in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Jangkar is the agency which sent Supriyanto, born in 1969, from his hometown of Tegal in Cen- tral Java, to work as a crew member on board the Fu Tzu Chun, a Taiwanese fish- ing vessel operating over international wa- ters. According to the person who relayed the news, Supriyanto had fallen ill before 16 | | JANUARY 15, 2017 Setiawan holds Supriyanto’s passport and seaman book . Supriyanto in a video clip recorded by Mualip on July 21, 2015, aboard the Fu Tzu Chun (right).
  4. 4. to died. ● ● ● LIKE the fate which befell Supriyanto, the crew of Taiwanese ships operating on open seas—outside Taiwan territorial wa- ters—are generally subjected to abuse. Last November and December, Tempo inter- viewed scores of seamen at Tegal, Pema- lang, Cilacap, Jakarta, and in three cities in Taiwan: Taipei, Keelung and Kaohsiung. Their stories were basically the same. They work for more than 20 hours a day, 10 hours casting fishing lines followed by two hours of rest, then 10 hours of reeling in the lines and another two hours of rest. They sleep on whatever they can find in a yanto appears to be lying down, his body emaciated, just skin and bones. He ap- pearedtobewheezing.Itwasonthatdayin the Pacific Ocean, hundreds of kilometers away, south of Micronesia, that Supriyanto breathed his last. In addition to showing the video clips, Mualip told Setiawan that Supriyanto died after being repeatedly abused. The two crew Indonesian crew members who also beat him, Agus Setiawan and Munawir Sazali, were following the captain’s orders. “No matter how bad one of us might be, we wouldn’t be that cruel to our own people unless it was under orders from the cap- tain,” said Setiawan. Chen Jin Te, father of Captain Chen Kai Chi,deniedchargesthathissontookpartin abusing Supriyanto. “There were only two Taiwanese on board,” he said. “It’s impos- sible that the captain would commit such abuse, given the risk of being overpowered and killed by the crew.” Not long after sharing those videos, said Setiawan, Mualip went back to sea, as did the rest of the crew from the Fu Tzu Chun. After that ship returned to Pingtung Port on September 11, 2015, the crew, some of whom came from Tegal and Pemalang, went home before setting out again on the same ship, except for Urip Muslikhin. It seems Urip was declared missing at sea af- ter he fell from the deck of the Fu Tzu Chun on July 26, 2015—a month before Supriyan- JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 17 I N D O N E S I A N S L A V E S O N F I S H I N G V E S S E L S
  5. 5. INDONESIAN SLAVES ON TAIWANESE SHIPS INVESTIGATION TEAM TEAM LEADERS: Setri Yasra, Philipus Parera PROJECT HEAD: Anton Septian EDITORS: Philipus Parera, Setri Yasra, Yosep Suprayogi, Anton Septian WRITERS: Anton Septian, Mustafa Silalahi, Ahmad Nurhashim CONTRIBUTORS: Muhammad Irsyam Faiz, Mustafa Silalahi PHOTO: Ijar Karim DESIGN: Eko Punto Pambudi, Fitra Moerat Sitompul, Kendra Paramita stuffy room in the ship’s hull. If the fishing isgood,theycangoafulldaywithoutsleep- ing. They must also dive without oxygen tanks when cleaning the ship’s propellers. “This can be three times a week, regardless of whether it is day or night,” said Rizky Ok- taviana, a crew member aboard the Hom- sang 26, a Taiwanese ship which operated in the southern waters of Africa between 2012-2013. If they are slow at their work, they are lined up and beaten on the face by the cap- tain. “Even worse, any crew member who works slow is tied up and given electric shocks,” said Eko Prasetyo, a youth from Tegal who got off a ship in July last year, af- ter being at sea for two years. According to other seamen, the catches are immediately stored in a freezer room. Theyareonlyallowedtoconsumeforthem- selves damaged fish, those which larger fish have nibbled at, eaten with rice cooked with mung beans in a pot. Biscuits are only provided at sea during Chinese New Year. Some seamen said that it was difficult to obtain fresh water. Clean water supplies were only for the captain. They managed by boiling frost buildup in the fish cold stor- age freezer. Itwassuchmaltreatmentthatled28-year old Visa Susanto, also from Tegal, to turn violent. In mid-July 2013, he called on eight other Indonesian crew members to kill the captain of the Te Hung Hsing 368, Chen Te Sheng, and his head technician, Ho Chang Lin. According to Visa’s younger sister, Nova Karolina, her older brother was caught cooking on the sly. Visa cooked food for himself and other crew members because they were starving. The captain had not given them enough food for the past sev- eral days. When he found Visa cooking se- cretly, the captain became angry and beat him up. “Visa retaliated,” said Nova. Over- come with rage, Visa and his colleagues threw the lifeless bodies of the captain and head technician overboard. In February 2014, Visa was sentenced to 28 years in prison. Seven of his fellow crew members were given sentences ranging from three months to 22 years. One oth- er crew member, Imam Setiawan, was re- leased because he was found not to have been involved. Imam no longer works at sea. According to the records of the Taiwan Fisheries Agency, there have been at least 23 cases in which captains or Taiwanese crew members have been killed by foreign crew members in the past 20 years. Fifteen of these cases involved Indonesian sailors, including the case of Visa Susanto and his fellow crew members. ● ● ● SUPRIYANTO arrived in Taiwan on May 6, 2015, on a visa good for seven days. Be- cause he was only deemed to be staying for a short time, he was not listed as an Indone- sian crew member officially working in Tai- wan. Visa Susanto and other Indonesian sailors working aboard Taiwanese vessels in international waters also have the same illegal working status. Neither are they listed as Indonesian for- eign workers. Of the 243,000 official Indo- nesian foreign workers in Taiwan, those working as seamen number between 8,000-9,000 people. In seamen-speak, such crew members are known as ‘locals’. Seamen like Supriyanto and Visa Susanto are referred to as ‘LG ship crewmembers’, LG being the abbreviation for Letter of Guarantee. Crew members who work outside Indo- nesia should have a work visa, a seaman book, and be equipped with maritime skills. They should also be placed by an of- ficial agency holding a Recruitment and Placement Seamen Agency (SIUPPAK) li- cense. However, most LG crew members are hired by unlicensed recruiting compa- nies which provide no training. Supriyan- toandVisawereabletomakeseveralocean voyages with just a letter of guarantee from a recruitment agency in Taiwan. Their sea- man books were forgeries. Given the prevalence of such illegality, noonereallyknowsjusthowmanyLGcrew members may be working out there. Like someofficialsinTaiwan,therepresentative office of the Indonesian Chamber of Com- merce and Industry (Kadin) in Taipei has no records, while the Indonesian Foreign Ministry only keeps data on 7,000 Indo- nesian sailors disembarking from Taiwan- ese ships every year in Cape Town, South Africa. They also have a record of 5,000 In- donesian seamen listed in Mauritius, an is- land in the Indian Ocean. This data applies only for the two ports. “The total number is estimated to be more than 40,000 peo- ple,” said Lalu Muhammad Iqbal, director for the protection of Indonesian citizens and legal aid at the foreign ministry. Iqbalestimatesthatthe40,000figureac- counts for 80 percent of all LG ship crew- members from Indonesia. The rest work on ships owned or operated by China, Thai- land and other countries. In Taiwan, because they are not official- ly registered as seamen, LG crew members arenotprotectedbylaborlaws.Theydonot get health insurance coverage or foreign ID cards. Their salaries are, on average, half theamountofcrewmembersoflocalships, which per month comes to NT$19,000 or nearly Rp8 million. Indonesians looking for work through il- legal channels tend to be uninformed and holdnoleveragewhendealingwithunscru- pulous or unregistered recruiting agen- cies,acceptingeverythingtheyareoffered. According to his contract with Jangkar Jaya Samudera, a Pemalang-based employment agency not far from Tegal, Supriyanto was promised US$350 a month, about Rp4.7 million. However, he did not receive that amount during the initial months. It was later revealed that Jangkar Jaya Samudera had an agreement with Jin Hong Company, a Taiwanese agency, to with- hold US$100 from Supriyanto’s salary each month for nine months. Supposedly, these 18 | | JANUARY 15, 2017
  6. 6. withheld wages would be given back when Supriyanto’s 24-month work term was completed. This was done to prevent crew members from running off. Another US$470 was cut from Supriyan- to’s salary over a four-month period by Jangkar. This was done to reimburse ‘de- parture costs’. So, inthe firsttwomonthsof working, Supriyanto only took in US$100, which he received on board the ship. This unfair contract put Supriyanto in a bind. If he did not honor the agreement, he would lose the withheld funds. If he went back to Indonesia, there would be reper- cussions. It is mentioned in Supriyanto’s contract with Jangkar that, “If I run off, am lazy, or ask to be sent home...the Indone- sian agency has the right to demand that my family pay the fine and costs incurred.” If this is not paid, the family would face a lawsuit requiring them to pay compensa- tion of US$1,000. Rudi Setiawan, a commissioner at Jang- kar Jaya Samudera, played down charges that the contract was a bad deal for Supri- yanto. “Both parties agreed and signed it,” he said. Supriyanto’s recruitment agency in Tai- wan, the Jin Hong Company, is owned by Chen Jin Te, who is also the father of Cap- tainChenKaiChi.AccordingtoChenJinTe, there was nothing wrong with Supriyan- to’s recruitment. “He was recruited under the supervision of the fishermen’s associ- ation in Taiwan,” he said. In Taiwan, each recruitment must be acknowledged by the fishermen’s association. However, after our investigation, it was found that the Jin Hong Company never reported Supriyan- to’s recruitment to the association. In Kaohsiung, a port city next to Ping- tung, Tempo met Pan Ching Ju from the Kaohsiung Fishing Vessel Crew Supply As- sociation. According to Pan, the associa- tion has been using the services of foreign LG crew members for 20 years—using dou- ble contracts as was the case with Supri- yanto. “The contract is more flexible. Crew members can go to all countries,” she said. According to Pan, the local Taiwan associ- ation works with about 39 seamen recruit- ment agencies in Indonesia. ● ● ● TRACING the chain from recruitment to hire of crew members for fishing boats operating overseas is quite simple. At the chain’s begininng is a ‘sponsor’ who is ac- tually a broker in the recruitment business. He looks for candidates in rural areas. Ah- mad Daryoko, a broker, said he first ap- proaches village chiefs or local leaders, to gain the trust of those he intends to recruit. “I initially go to the village chief to talk about how to end unemployment in their village,” he said. The ‘sponsor’ then proposes candidates to recruiting agencies. A broker is paid a commission for each candidate they re- cruit. If the candidate is inexperienced, they are paid about Rp1.5 million a month. However, if they have experience work- ing on foreign fishing boats, their pay can reach Rp2 million. The agencies then offer the crew mem- ber to foreign agencies which supply sea- mento ships.InIndonesia,ofthehundreds of agencies operating, according to the re- cords of the transportation ministry, as of last November, only 72 held SIUPPAK op- erating licenses. In Tegal and Pemalang, where more than 40 agencies operate, none have the required SIUPPAK license. For each seamean sent, the recruiting agency gets about US$500. “The highest demand for crew members comes from Taiwanese ships,” said Herman, chairman of the Indonesia Association of Recruit- ment Agencies. In the recruitment of Supriyanto, Jang- kar got US$550 from the Jin Hong Compa- ny. This fee is clear profit, as other costs are borne by the seamen themselves—de- ducted from their work aboard their fish- ing boats. These costs cover the purchase of a seaman book, basic safety training, all of which come to Rp1.5 to 2 million. Violations have also occurred in provid- ing seamans’ books. According to the regu- TEMPO/IJARKARIM JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 19 I N D O N E S I A N S L A V E S O N F I S H I N G V E S S E L S Letter of agreement between Jangkar Jaya Samudera and Jin Hong Company. Supriyanto’s contract with Jangkar Jaya Samudera.
  7. 7. lations of the transportation ministry, sea- mans’ books are made at the office of the harbormaster at a cost of Rp100,000 and are to be ready in less than a week. Howev- er, many sailors say that they never went to the office of the harbormaster, which works under the transportation ministry. “A photograph is taken at the agency office, and the next day it’s ready,” said Riski Su- gito, who returned from working at sea in early2016.Riskialsodidnottakepartinba- sic safety training, which usually lasts 3-5 days, although it is the main condition for receiving a seaman’s book. It was not until he returned to Indonesia thatRiskidiscoveredhisbookwasaforgery. That was what officials at Sukarno-Hatta Airport informed him when they checked his documents. He was warned and asked to replace it with an authentic book. Supriyanto’s seaman’s book was also counterfeit. The seamen’s code listed in the book, 6201537910, was not found at the transportation ministry. Tempo took Supriyanto’s book to the Office of the Har- bormaster and the Tegal Port Authority to check it. According to Fahrudin, chief of the Maritime Safety Sub-section, the docu- ment was a fake. Rudi Setiawan, a commissioner at Jang- kar Jaya Samudera, said that he knew noth- ing about the case. Supriyanto already had a seaman’s book when he came to his of- fice. Bima Samudra Bahari, the agency which first sent Supriyanto to Taiwan, de- nied making him any fake documents. “Su- priyanto took care of his own documents,” said Tarman, a company spokesman. In the case of Visa Susanto, the code 6201292887inhisseaman’sbookwasregis- tered under the name of Agustinus Petrus. Tempo met Suyatno, a forger of sailor’s books who was arrested by the Jakarta Po- lice Department in Cengkareng, West Ja- karta, last November, in prison. According to Suyatno, during the year and a half that he operated, he forged about 2,000 blank seaman’s books and an equivalent number of basic safety training certificates. The fake documents had been ordered by two men who claimed their names were Jefri and Jai, whom he met through an asso- ciate who had gone into the printing busi- ness before him. Speaking to Suyatno, Je- fri said that he was ordering the books at the request of ‘an insider at Tanjung Pri- ok’. Suyatno did not know what he was re- ferring to, as Jefri and Jai never gave any de- tails. He mostly spoke with them over the telephone, not in person. The police are still searching for Jefri, who has been iden- tified as being in his 40s and comes from Central Java, and Jai, who is in his early 50s and comes from Makassar. In one month, Jefri or Jai would order 50 to 200 seaman books. The price for one blank book was Rp35,000. Suyatno said the fake training certificates went for Rp8,000 each. After the goods were deliv- ered, Suyatno said he had no idea what was done with them. “After the order is taken, only they are the ones who know what hap- pens,” he said. Some agency people in Tegal said that the seaman books are obtained from insid- ers at the office of the harbormaster. The books are still blanks, containing no name of the seaman, code number, or photo of the crew member. But they have already been signed by the harbormaster and duly stamped. Spokesman for the transportation minis- try, Bambang S. Ervan, said that it was dif- ficult to falsify seamans’ books. “Original seamen books are printed by (state-owned printing company) Peruri,” he said. “There are security features which cannot be cop- ied by forgers.” The book number is perfo- rated by a laser, which makes holes on the pages which are sensitive to the touch. ● ● ● ECONOMIC slavery, minimal protection, and hard labor have not deterred people wanting to risk their chances on board fish- ingboats.Atpresent,accordingtoHerman, chairman of the association of shipping crew recruitment agencies, in one month one agency can place over 100 crew mem- bers aboard vessels. “If business is good it can reach up to 300 people,” he said. While some are experienced, many of them tend to be new to the sea. Supriyanto was on a Taiwanese fishing boat in 2014, but did not seem to have had a happy experience. He worked for four months then left the boat. Back in Tegal, he worked at various jobs before he went back to sea. “He pushed a pedicab, worked as a motorbike taxi driver, a bus conductor,” said his cousin, Setiawan. Two years ago, he suddenly came to Se- tiawan saying he wanted to give his chil- dren a decent life. After getting a divorce, Supriyanto was raising three children by himself. “I want to go back to sea,” he said. He sailed off in May 2015, boarding the Fu Tzu Chun from Pingtung, south of Taipei. 20 | | JANUARY 15, 2017 Cianjhen port for fishing vessels in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, December 2016. TEMPO/MUSTAFASILALAHI ●
  8. 8. TEMPO/MUSTAFASILALAHI JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 21 I N D O N E S I A N S L A V E S O N F I S H I N G V E S S E L S D ESPITE never having stepped footonaboat,Arofiqunwasde- termined to become a seaman aboard a foreign fishing boat. In his Central Java hometown of Magelang, the 30-year-old man had been working in a gar- ment factory. “I wanted to try new work. Who knows, maybe I could succeed at it,” he said, last December. HewenttotheofficeofJangkarJayaSamu- derainPemalang,notfromMagelang,with- out any sailing skills. His only training was on basic safety, which he had just learned in Cirebon, West Java, for three days. Last December, he and three other candidates waited to travel abroad at accommodation provided by Jangkar, the agency which had also recruited Supriyanto, a sailor from Te- gal, who died aboard a Taiwanese fishing vessel. Supriyanto’s death has not deterred oth- ers seeking to work as crew members on fishing boats or trawlers. There were 25 candidates whom Jangkar Jaya had recruit- ed before Arofiqun’s group came along. Ac- cording to Rudi Setiawan—a company com- missioner—even when business is slow, Jangkar places an average of five seamen each month on board ships. These seamen do not care much about the company’s business authorization. Ac- cording to the Indonesian Transportation Ministry, Jangkar does not have a Recruit- ment and Placement Seafarers Agency (SI- UPPAK) license, a requirement to recruit and place people on board foreign vessels. Because they do not have that license, the recruitment done by the company should be illegal. According to the ministry’s re- cords, as of last November, only 72 compa- nies are registered as having the SIUPPAK. Most of these are employment agencies sending out crew members for commercial vessels such as cruise or cargo ships, which are subject to different conditions than for those working aboard fishing boats. Rudi Setiawan admitted that his compa- ny did not have a SIUPPAK. “How to get a SIUPPAK? I myself am confused about it,” hesaid.Thecompanyonlyhasabusinessli- cense (SIUP) from the Trade Ministry. Rudi is reluctant to apply for a SIUPPAK because he feels the conditions are more appro- priate for agencies placing job-seekers on commercial vessels. There are 12 conditions which must be met before that license can be issued by the Transportation Ministry. One requires the agency to submit records of seamen who have been placed on ships and copies of their agreements with ship owners. Ac- cording to Bambang S. Ervan, a spokesman for the Transportation Ministry, those con- ditions are intended to protect the seamen. Herman, chairman of the Indonesia Em- ployment Agencies Association, said that more than 40 companies in Tegal and Pe- malang do not have the SIUPPAK. “I sug- gested that they not process the SIUPPAK,” he said. “We are agencies looking seamen for fishing boats. This is different from per- sonnel for seafaring vessels.” For the Transportation Ministry, crew members working aboard fishing or for- eign vessels fall into the category of sea- farers not fisherman. For this reason, each seaman sent out must have basic sea train- ing, such as safety skills. Fisherman is a term for crew members working in fishing operating inside Indonesia. This sector is overseen by the Maritime Affairs and Fish- eries Ministry. Differences of interpretation over the regulations have also taken place in the recruitment of crews. The Transporta- tion Ministry maintains that the only con- dition for agencies recruiting and placing crews is the SIUPPAK license. However, the Manpower Ministry requires the agencies to also have a license for the placement of Indonesians working overseas (SIPPTKI), such as recruitment agencies placing mi- grant workers. This is based on Law No. 39/2004 on the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers. “We want to take up this particular employment issue,” said Labor Minister Hanif Dhakiri. “The ships can be there, but the worker must go through the Manpower Ministry.” However, this law does not specifically mention crews working in the fishing sec- tor. Therefore the Transportation Ministry issued Ministerial Regulation No. 84/2013 on the Recruitment and Placement of Crews, which became the legal umbrella for the SIUPPAK. This overlap of regulations meant that cases involving seamen have been unre- solved. No legal or administrative action have been taken against companies such as Jangkar. Imam Syafii, a former fishing crew member who is active in the Indone- sian Seamen’s Movement, said that some of the complaints about sailors not receiving their salaries have not been processed by the Transportation Ministry. “Meanwhile, the Manpower Ministry is confused about whether or not to take any action, because the shipping company comes under the ju- risdiction of the Transportation Ministry,” he said. ● RUTHLESS RECRUITERS AND REGULATORY LOOPHOLES Employment agencies hiring fishing boat crews in Indonesia are unlicensed and seamen fall prey to bureaucratic tussle between two ministries. Jangkar Jaya Samudera office in Pemalang, Central Java.
  9. 9. PHOTOS:TEMPO/MUSTAFASILALAHI 22 | | JANUARY 15, 2017 T HE Indo Express shop gets busy at night. One by one, customers with tanned complexions gath- er in front of a store selling Indo- nesian food, such as instant noo- dles and peyek (a deep-fried sa- vory cracker). After buying their goodies, they hang out in front of the store andchatinJavanese.Acoldwindwasblow- ing that Thursday night three weeks ago. These people are Indonesian migrants (TKI) mingling with ships’ crews (ABK), at Keelung, a city about 23 kilometers from Taipei in Taiwan. Located on Shin San Street in Chung Zheng district, the shop owned by an In- donesian couple is a stone’s throw from KeelungHarbor.“Atnight,ships’crewstend to come here,” Bui Meng, 46, a shop own- er who worked over a dozen years in Sing- kawang, West Kalimantan, told Tempo. That night, many ships were docked and their crews were on a break, walking around. Dwi Tantri, 49, took advantage of his break to meet up with other Indonesian workers, ship crews in particular. Occa- sionally they would hold a religious study session on a Thursday night. Tantri of- ten sits down with workers who are hav- ing problems with their bosses. “Some- times they just want to let it all out, in order to calm down and be ready to work again,” said Tantri. There are also many Indonesian crew members in the city of Kaohsiung, some 320 kilometers from Taipei. Nearly all of those who work on fishing vessels and have Letter of Guarantee (LG) documenta- tion can be found in that port town. It is es- timated that there are thousands of them. Keelung is a town with a special port for fishing boats known as the Cianjhen Port Area. It is located about 10 kilometers from the city center. On Monday four weeks ago, the docks LIVING BY THE DOCK OF THE BAY Indonesian crews live on board their ship at portside. They get their kicks visiting food stalls which remind them of home. 1. Indo Express shop. 2. Amigo Miami cafe. 1
  10. 10. JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 23 TWO TYPES OF CREWS Whiletheybothworkatsea,theyarepaidandtreateddifferently.In themaritimeworld,therearetwotypesofseamen,namely‘Localship crewmember’and‘LGcrewmember’.InthecaseofTaiwan,herearethe differences: ILO CONVENTION NO.188 InternationalLaborOrganization(ILO)ConventionNo.188, adoptedin2007inGeneva,setsouttheminimalstandardsfor fishingvesselsforgoodworkingconditions.Indonesiahasyetto ratifythisconvention.Herearesomeimportantpointsfromthis convention: Minimalworkingageonfishingvesselsis16yearsofage. Involvingcrewsundertheageof18atnightisprohibited Nocrewmembersmayworkonafishingvesselwithoutavalid medicalcertificatewhichstatesthattheyarefitforworkatsea. Aworkagreementforbetweenshipownerandcrewmembersis obligatory Ifaboatsailsformorethanthreedays,theship’screwisgivenat least10hoursofrestevery24hoursand77hoursofrestevery7 days. Shipownersmustprovidetheircrewwithdrinkingwaterand sufficientamountofnutritiousfood. LOCAL SHIP CREW MEMBERS: WorkonTaiwaneseshipsand sailinTaiwanwaters Holdlegalsailingdocuments OfficiallylistedasIndonesian fisheryworkersinTaiwan SalarypaidinTaiwandollars, equivalenttoaboutUS$600 Providedwithhealthinsurance andIDcardsasforeign residents LG CREW MEMBERS: Sailininternationalwaterson Taiwaneseships Useatemporaryvisitvisaand aLetterofGuaranteefromthe recruitingcompany Someholdonlyillegalsailing documents NotlistedattheTaiwanLabor Ministry NotlistedattheIndonesian ChamberofCommerceand IndustryofficeinTaipei SalaryofaboutUS$300-400per monthinUSdollars Nohealthinsuranceprovided were lined with steel-hulled fishing boats. Tens of youths could be seen walking back- and-forth around the docks. Those ships usually dock for a week, then set sail again for several months. “Today many of the crews are getting paid,” said Adi Suprianto, 25, a ship crewmember. As the sun began to set, pushcart food vendors began appearing on street corners and around the docks. Near- ly all of them sell Indonesian food, such as pecel lele (fried catfish), gado-gado (vegetable salad in pea- nut sauce), and bakwan (a vegetable fritter). An ounce of bakwan sells for NT$30 or about Rp13,000. A cup of Kapal Api brand coffee sells for the same price. Near the supermarket, local tax- ies line up waiting for passengers, usually ships’ crews wanting to go into town, like four friends: Enggar Wicaksono, Bayu Prima, Purwan- to, and Diki. They are all 22 years old, and work on the Guo Tong fish- ingboat,whichsailsunderaTaiwan- ese flag. That night, Tempo joined them as they walked around town. They were head- ed for Wanhua Street in Sanmin district. There were many Indonesian workers there, among rows of shops with Indone- sian names. They frequent the eateries. Many Indo- nesian dishes are on the menu, such as sa- tay, chicken soup, soto babat (beef tripe soup), nasi pecel (vegetable rice dish in pea- nut sauce), and mendoan (soycake fritter). TheaveragepriceforoneportionisNT$100 or about Rp42,000. In addition to food, there are shops which offer money transfer services. These shops were the main destination of Bayu and his associates. They send part of their wages to their respective families. “We use the rest to buy food and telephone time,” said Enggar. After relaxing, they return to their re- spective ships before sunup. They live on- board, and the ships must be cleaned every morning. ● I N D O N E S I A N S L A V E S O N F I S H I N G V E S S E L S 2
  11. 11. 24 | | JANUARY 15, 2017 T ENSof thousands of Indonesian shipping crews are believed to be vic- tims of human trafficking and enslavement on Taiwanese ships. They generallyworkonvesselssailingoninternationalwaters.Theyhaveno legal documents and their recruiting agents in Indonesia are not reg- istered with the Transportation Ministry. As a result, they are not offi- ciallylistedasmigrantworkersinIndonesianorinTaiwan,wheretheir shipsoriginatefrom. ON HIGH WATERS HELL SOURCES: INDONESIAN TRANSPORTATION MINISTRY, INDONESIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY, INDONESIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN TAIPEI, TAIWAN LABOR MINISTRY, TAIWAN FISHERIES MINISTRY TEXT AND MATERIAL: AHMAD NURHASIM, ANTON SEPTIAN INFOGRAPHICS: MOERAT ILLUSTRATION: KENDRA H. PARAMITA BERTHING Theseshipshavefourmainportsofcall. AT SEA Tunaboatscanstayatseaformonths atatime.ManyIndonesiancrewdonot stepfootonlandforthedurationoftheir contracts.HereiswhereIndonesianLG crewsmakeittofishingboats: -Throughfourmainports. -DirectlyonboardTaiwaneseboats operatingininternationalwaters. CATCHING TUNA MostIndonesianseamenworkonTaiwaneselonglineships.Thesevesselscatchfish bycasting1,000-4,000hooksatatimeintothewater. MAIN CATCH Tunaandskipjacktuna, butthelinesalsocatch non-commercialfishand evenseabirds. OPERATION SCHEDULE 5-10 HOURSTimefordropping fishinglines 3-4 HOURSWaittime TUNA LONG LINE SHIP 50-100 GROSS TONSWeight 15-26.5 METERSLength ±20Crew Behindthelureofthefishingindustryisahuman traffickingbusinessplacingcrewaboardTaiwan ships. CANDIDATES CREW 2-year work contract Pay cut of to reimburse various costs BROKER Brings in job-seeker EXTRA WORK Divingwithoutoxygen tanktofixthepropellers. CapeTown, SouthAfrica Mauritius Taiwan TAIWAN Nanfang-ao Keelung Kaohsiung Pingtung 5-10 HOURSTimeforpullinglines backin 12 HOURSInbadweather 50-400 METERSFishingdepth US$400-500 HUMAN TRAFFICKING BEHIND THE FISHING INDUSTRY
  12. 12. JANUARY 15, 2017 | | 25 BAIT USED Squid,chub mackerels,bali sardinella,small inshorefish,and milkfish.Kept frozen. FLOATS Everytwominutesand30 seconds,acrewmember attachesafloattothemain lineandthrowsitoverboard. Oneofthemisgivenaradio antenna. MAIN FISHING EQUIPMENT Usuallylocatedatthebow oftheshipinlargerolls, thelinesareletoutfrom thestern. Length: 100-200kilometers. BRANCH LINES Branchlinesare connectedtothemain line,whiletheotherend isforbaitedhooks.Aship crewmembermustattach abranchlinetothemain lineeveryfiveseconds. Numberofhooks:1,000- 2,000,butcanbeasmany as4,000 805,889NumberofIndonesians listedasseamen* >40,000EstimatednumberofIndonesiancrew membersonfreely-operatingTaiwanese ships 8,765NumberofIndonesiancrew membersofficiallylistedin Taiwan** 15Numberofcasesofcaptainsbeing murderedonTaiwaneseshipsinvolving Indonesiancrewmembers RECRUITING AGENT AGENT IN TAIWAN TAIWANESE SHIPWork agreement Supplies crews Commission of Salary cut as guarantee Takes job- seekers to agents Commission of Fiji Montevideo, Uruguay wan Rp1.5-2 million US$500-550 US$900 US$300-400Pays crew salary of a month *)2017 **)2014 I N D O N E S I A N S L A V E S O N F I S H I N G V E S S E L S

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