With the same intellectual fervor that the Italian humanists brought to their examination of Plato and Cicero. His New Testament became the source of most sixteenth-century German and English vernacular translations of the central text of Christian Humanism. Humanism is the term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy and intellectual and literary currents of the period from 1400 to 1650. The return to favor of the pagan classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression. Zeal for the classics was a result as well as a cause of the growing secular view of life. Expansion of trade, growth of prosperity and luxury, and widening social contacts generated interest in worldly pleasures, in spite of formal allegiance to ascetic Christian doctrine. Men thus affected -- the humanists -- welcomed classical writers who revealed similar social values and secular attitudes
Son of a rural coal miner. He had an unwillingness to accept the pope as the ultimate source of religious authority. He did not wish to destroy the Catholic church but to reform it. In 1520, Pope Leo X issued an edict excommunicating the out spoken reformer. Charged with heresy, he stubbornly refused to recant, concluding, “I can not and will not recant anything, for to act against our conscience is neither safe for us, or open to us. On this I take my stand, I can do no other, God help me. Amen.” New Protestant sects, John Calvin (1509-1564) a French theologian. He placed great emphasis on God’s omnipotence. He believed in predestination.
By the mid-sixteenth century the consequences of Luther’s protests were evident: The religious unity of Western Christendom was shattered forever. Social and political upheaval had become the order of the day.
Two theologians published the Malleus Maleficarum (Witches hammer) an encyclopedia that described the nature of witches, their collusion with the devil, and the ways by which they ere to be recognized and punished The witchcraft craze of this period dramatizes the prevailing a gap between Christian humanism and rationalism on the one hand and barbarism and superstition on the other. Since women were traditionally regarded as inherently susceptible to the devil’s temptations, they became the primary victims of this mass hysteria. Women – especially single, old , and eccentric women – constituted four-fith’s of the witches executed between the 15 th and early 17 th centuries.
By means of satiric irony, Northern Renaissance writers held up prevailing abuses to ridicule, thus implying the need for reform. Erasmus – The Praise of Folly , a satire attacking a wide variety of human foibles, including greed, intellectual pomposity, and pride. More-Unwilling to compromise his position as a Roman Catholic, he opposed the actions of the king and was executed for treason in 1535. Don Quixote-(It was translated from Spanish into more languages than any work other than the Hebrew bible.)
Don Quixote-(It was translated from Spanish into more languages than any work other than the Hebrew bible.)
These works, generally considered to be the greatest examples of English literature, have exercised an enormous influence on the evolution of the English language and the development of the western literary tradition.
Sonnets were more popular then plays
In 1434 Jan painted a landmark full-length double portrait, the first in western art to portray a secular couple in a domestic interior. Witness the joined hands and the raised right hand of the richly dressed man. Above the convex mirror on the wall behind the couple is the inscription “Jan van Eyck was here”, see the reflection in the mirror of the artist and a second observer. Many other objects in this domestic setting suggest a sacred union: The burning candle (traditionally carried to the marriage ceremony by the bride) symbolizes the divine presence of Christ, the dog represents fidelity, the ripening fruit that lies near and on the window sill alludes to the union of the first Couple in the garden of Eden, and the carved image of Saint Margaret (on the chair back near the bed) patron of women in child birth , signifies aspirations for a fruitful alliance.
His artistic prestige rests partly on his unrivaled skill in pictorial illusionism. The landscape of his Crucifixion ( 33.92ab ), with its rocky, cracked earth, fleeting cloud formations, and endless diminution of detail toward the blue horizon, reveals his systematic and discriminating study of the natural world. Van Eyck's ability to manipulate the properties of the oil medium played a crucial role in the realization of such effects. From the fifteenth century onward, commentators have expressed their awe and astonishment at his ability to mimic reality and, in particular, to re-create the effects of light on different surfaces, from dull reflections on opaque surfaces to luminous, shifting highlights on metal or glass. Such effects abound in the Virgin of Canon van der Paele (1434–36), as shown by the glinting gold thread of the brocaded cope of Saint Donatian, the glow of rounded pearls and dazzle of faceted jewels in the costumes of the holy figures, or the small, distorted reflections of the figures of the Virgin and Child repeated in each curve of the polished helmet of Saint George. The almost clinical detail in the face of the kneeling patron vividly illustrates van Eyck's acute objectivity as a portraitist. Through his understanding of the effects of light and rigorous scrutiny of detail, van Eyck is able to construct a convincingly unified and logical pictorial world, suffusing the absolute stillness of the scene with scintillating energy. Despite this legendary objectivity, van Eyck's paintings are perhaps most remarkable for their pure fictions. He frequently aimed to deceive the eye and amaze the viewer with his sheer artistry: inscriptions in his work simulate carved or applied lettering; grisaille statuettes imitate real sculpture; painted mirrors reflect unseen, imaginary events occurring outside the picture space. In The Arnolfini Portrait , the convex mirror on the rear wall reflects two tiny figures entering the room, one of them probably van Eyck himself, as suggested by his prominent signature above, which reads &quot;Jan van Eyck has been here. 1434.&quot; By indicating that these figures occupy the viewer's space, the optical device of the mirror creates an ingenious fiction that implies continuity between the pictorial and the real worlds, involves the viewer directly in the picture's construction and meaning, and, significantly, places the artist himself in a central, if relatively discrete, role. Another reflected self-portrait, this time in the shield of Saint George in the Virgin of Canon van der Paele , functions as part of van Eyck's textural realism but likewise challenges our credulity by reminding us, through this minor intrusion of the artist's image, that his ostensible realism is an artifice. Source: Jan van Eyck (ca. 1380/90–1441) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Although Bosch painted traditional Christian subjects, he brought to them a variety of images that have puzzled and astonished viewers for centuries . The central panel depicts a cosmic landscape on which youthful nudes cavort in a variety of erotic playful pastimes. The terrain, filled with oversized flora, real and imagined animals and birds, and strangely shaped vessels, is similar to that of the panel one the left, where God is shown creating Adam and Eve. In the right wing of the triptych , Hell is pictured as a dark and sulphurous inferno where the damned are tormented by an assortment of terrifying creatures who inflict on sinners punishments appropriate to their sins – the greedy hoarder of gold (on the lower right) excretes coins into a pothole, while the nude nearby, fondled by demons, is punished for the sin of lust.
Grunewald rejects harmonious proportions and figural idealization in favor of dramatic exaggeration and brutally precise detail: The body of Jesus is lengthened to emphasize it’s weight as it hangs from the bowed arms of the cross, the gray-green flesh putrefies with clotted blood and angry thorns, the fingers convulse and curl in agony, while the feet – broken and bruised – contort in a spasm of pain.
Amidst billowing clouds, Death (in the foreground), Famine (carrying a pair of scales), War (brandishing a sword), and Pestilence (drawing his bow) sweep down upon humankind; their victims fall beneath the horses’ hooves, or, as with the bishop in the lower left, are devoured by infernal monsters. Durer’s image seems a grim prophecy of the coming age, in which five million people would die in religious wars.
A pair of richly attired dignitaries are engaged in intellectual activities. Calligraphic writing materials, musical instruments, painted scrolls, and a chesslike board game-enduring symbols of accomplishment among Chinese humanists.
Northern Renaissance <ul><li>Unlike the Italian Renaissance, which took its primary inspiration from classical Greek and Roman culture, the Renaissance in the North was marked by movements for moral and religious change. </li></ul>
Renaissance and Reformation <ul><li>Christian Humanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the Bible and the writings of the church fathers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the Prince of Humanists” Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first humanist to make use of the printing press. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced a critical edition of the New Testament </li></ul></ul>: Albrecht D ü rer (1471?1528), Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1526. Engraving,
Luther and the Protestant Reformation <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1505 he abandoned his legal studies to become an Augustinian monk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke out against the church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His inflammatory sermons and essays offered radical remedies to what he called “the misery and wretchedness of Christendom.” </li></ul></ul>Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther, 1533. Panel, 8" x 5 3/4". .
The Anglican Church <ul><li>Monarch Henry VIII (1491-1547) </li></ul><ul><li>He was determined to have a male heir, but after 18 years of marriage to his wife and produced one daughter he asked the church if he could annul the marriage and take a new wife. </li></ul><ul><li>The pope refused, prompting the king to break with Rome. In 1526 declared himself head of the Church of England </li></ul>Hans Holbein the Younger. Henry Vlll , c. 1540. Oil on panel
Religious Persecution and Witch-Hunts <ul><li>The witch-hunts that infested Europe during the 16 th century were fueled by the popular belief that the devil was actively involved in human affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The first massive persecutions occurred at the end of the 15 th century and reached their peak approximately one hundred years later. </li></ul>
Sixteenth-Century Literature <ul><li>Erasmus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Praise of Folly ,(1511) a satiric oration about human foibles, including greed, intellectual pomposity, and pride. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sir Thomas More, (served as chancellor to King Henry VIII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utopia (1516) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the first literary description of an ideal state since Plato’s Republic. </li></ul></ul>
Sixteenth-Century Literature <ul><li>Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) (Spaniard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don Quixote recounts the adventures of a chivalrous knight who confronts reality through the lens of personal fantasy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) (French) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ father of the personal essay,” </li></ul></ul>
William Shakespeare <ul><li>William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>emerged during the Golden Age of England </li></ul><ul><li>under the rule of Elizabeth I. He produced </li></ul><ul><li>37 plays- comedies, tragedies, </li></ul><ul><li>romances, and histories </li></ul><ul><li>- 154 sonnets and other poems. </li></ul>
Qeen Elizabeth of England, the Armada Portrait, Woburn Abbey (George Gower, ca 1588).
The Shakespearean Stage <ul><li>Henry V; Richard III (1593-1600) </li></ul><ul><li>Much Ado About Nothing; All’s Well that Ends Well; The Taming of the Shrew(1593-1602) </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet; Macbeth; Othello; King Lear (1600-1606) </li></ul>Complete works :http: //shakespeare.mit.edu/works.html
Shakespeare’s sonnets (1609) <ul><li>SHALL I compare thee to a summer’s day? </li></ul><ul><li>Thou art more lovely and more temperate: </li></ul><ul><li>Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, </li></ul><ul><li>And summer’s lease (1) hath all too short a date: </li></ul><ul><li>Sometime too hot the eye (2) of heaven shines, </li></ul><ul><li>And often is his gold complexion dimm’d; </li></ul><ul><li>And every fair from fair sometime declines, (3) </li></ul><ul><li>By chance, or nature’s changing course untrimm’d; (4) </li></ul><ul><li>But thy eternal summer shall not fade, </li></ul><ul><li>Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st, </li></ul><ul><li>Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade, </li></ul><ul><li>When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st; (6) </li></ul><ul><li>So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, </li></ul><ul><li> So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. </li></ul>Sonnet XVIII , “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” 1) allotted time 2) The sun 3)Beautiful thing from beauty 4)Stripped of beauty 5)Your fame will grow as time elapses 6) the sonnet itself
Northern Art <ul><li>Jan van Eyck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer in early Netherlandish art(1380-1441) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfected the art of oil painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The couple are in the process of making some type of vow. </li></ul></ul>Jan van Eyck (c. 1395–1441), Arnolfini Portrait , 1434. Oil on wood, 32 1/4" x 23 1/2".
Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck. Ghent Altarpiece (open), completed 1432. Oil on panel, approx. 11' 6" x 14' 5".
Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck, The Ghent Altarpiece (closed), completed 1432. Oil on panel, 11' 6" x 7' 7“..
Jan van Eyck, The Virgin in a Church , c. 1410-25. Oil on panel, 12 1/4" x 5 1/2". Gemaldegalerie, Berlin
Jan van Eyck (c. 1395–1441), Man in a Red Turban (Self-portrait?) , 1433. Tempera and oil on wood, approx. 13 1/8" x 10 1/8"
The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment , ca. 1430 Jan van Eyck and Workshop Assistant (Netherlandish, active by 1422, died 1441) Oil on canvas, transferred from wood
Hieronymus Bosch(1460-1516) Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516). World before the Flood , from Garden of Earthly Delights , c. 1510-1515. Oil on wood, center panel 7' 2" x 6' 4". <ul><li>Preoccupied with human folly, most of his paintings reflect the long reach of medieval values into modern times. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed the fallibility of humankind, its moral struggle, and its apocalyptic. </li></ul>
Garden of Earthly Delights, detail of right wing
Hieronymus Bosch Attributed to Hieronymus Bosch. Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things , painted tabletop. Oil on wood, 3' 11 1/4" x 4' 11".
Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516), The Cure for Folly, c. 1490s-1516. Oil on panel, 18 9/10 x 13 3/4 in.
Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516), Death and the Miser , ca. 1485-1490. Oil on oak, 3 ft. 5/8 in. x 12 1/8 in.
Grunewald, Matthias Gothardt Neithardt (1460-158) Matthias Grünewald (c. 1470-1528). Crucifixion with Saint Sebastian (left), Saint Anthony (right), and Lamentation (below), the Isenheim Altarpiece, closed, c. 1510-1515. Oil on panel (with frame), side panels 8' 2 1/2" x 3' 1/2", central panel. Giraudon/Art Resource, NY <ul><li>Naturalistic details and brutal distortion combine to produce the most painfully expressive painting style in all of 16 th century art. </li></ul>
The protestant reformation and Printmaking Woodcut. A relief printing process created by lines cut into the plank surface of the wood. Engraving. An intaglio method of printing <ul><li>Protestant reformers encouraged the proliferation of private devotional imagery-biblical subjects in particular, In the production of such imagery printmaking technology established a landmark. </li></ul>
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). Self-Portrait , 1500. Oil on wood, 26 5/16" x 19 5/16". Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Scala/Art Resource, NY. <ul><li>One of the finest printmakers of all times! </li></ul><ul><li>Trained as an engraver, he earned international fame for his woodcuts and metal engravings. </li></ul>
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , c. 1497-1498. Woodcut, 15 2/5" x 11". <ul><li>He brought to the art of his day a profoundly religious view of the world and a desire to embody spiritual message of scripture in art. </li></ul><ul><li>This woodcut brings to life the terrifying prophecies described in Revelation 6:1-8. </li></ul>
Albrecht Dürer The Seven-Headed Beast and the Beast with Lamb's Horns Woodcut, 39 x 28 cm, from 'The Apocalypse of St. John' 1496 - 98
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), The Knight, Death and the Devil , 1513. Engraving, 11" x 14". HIP/Art Resource, NY.
Durer Albrecht Dürer (14711528), Melencolia I , 1514. Engraving, 9 1/2" x 7 5/16“..
Durer Albrecht Durer, Elector Frederick the Wise , 1524. Copper engraving, 7 3/8" x 4 3/4“.
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), Wire Drawing Mill , undated. Watercolor, 11 1/4 x 16 3/4 in. State Museums, Berlin. Photo: B. P. K <ul><li>He also produced panoramic landscapes to be enjoyed in and for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>An avid traveler, he introduced landscape painting as a legitimate genre in Western art. </li></ul>
Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) <ul><li>Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Judgment of Paris , 1530. Panel, 13 1/2 x 8 3/4". </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced a style that tended to flatten form by means of decorative linearity. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a highly acclaimed court painter at Wittenberg. </li></ul><ul><li>And like Durer, a devout follower of Protestant reform. </li></ul>
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther, 1533. Panel, 8" x 5 3/4".
Salome," 1530, Lucas Cranach Salome with the head of John the Baptist has always been a favorite subject for artists. The German Lucas Cranach the Elder painted the Biblical tease several times, always in contemporary 16th century dress
<ul><li>This is an excellent example of Cranach's mature but stereotyped style. The tragic figure of Lucrezia, who has suffered outrage at the hands of Tarquin, is about to take her own life. Every element in the composition is carefully exaggerated. </li></ul>Lucas Cranach's "Suicide of Lucrezia"
Lucas Cranach the Elder ( 1472-1553), Portrait of a Young Woman Oil on wood, 1530, 49 x 42 cm (
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1498–1543), Dance of Death , ca. 1490. Woodcut. <ul><li>His woodcut series brought him renown as a draftsman and printmaker. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543 ) is remembered as a brilliant portrait painter, especially in the court of Henry VIII, and as the designer of a series of remarkable woodcuts, The Dance of Death . The Death and the Knight is one of forty-one woodcuts in 1538. The other images show Death escorting people from all walks of life to their final destiny. </li></ul>
Portrait of Henry VIII - portrait after Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543) Edward VI as a Child , probably 1538 oil on panel, 56.8 x 44 cm (22 3/8 x 17 3/8 in.)
Brueghel, Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569) Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525-1569), The Blind Leading the Blind , 1568. Tempera on canvas, 5 ft. x 2 ft. 10 in. National Museum, Naples. <ul><li>Recreates in the everyday setting of the Flemish landscape Christ’s warning to the Pharisees, “If a blind man leads a bind man, both will fall into a ditch” (Matthew 15:14) </li></ul>
Brueghel Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525-1569), Hunters Returning in a Winter Landscape . Oil on canvas, 3 ft. 10 1/8 in. x 5 ft. 3 3/4 in. Bridgeman <ul><li>His preoccupation with the activities of rustic life earned him the title “Peasant Brueghel” </li></ul>
Brueghel <ul><li>Peter Bruegel the Elder. The Tower of Babel , 1563. Tempera on panel, 3' 9" x 5' 1". </li></ul>
Not all of Brueghel’s paintings depicted the harsh realities of peasant living. The Land of Cockaigne features the peasants in a different light, this time wallowing in the mythical, land of excess.
Elizabethan Music <ul><li>Usually based on Italian models, the English madrigal was generally lighter in mood than its Italian counterpart. It was also often technically simple enough to be performed by amateurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Morley (1557-1602) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Weelkes (1576-1623) </li></ul>
Beyond the West: Japanese Theater Masanobu (?), Kabuki stage, ca. 1740. Colored woodblock print. <ul><li>The oldest form of Japanese theater, No` drama, evolved in the 14 th century from performances in song, dance, and mime. </li></ul>
Ko-omote No mask, Ashikaga period, fifteenth century. Painted wood, height approx. 10 in. <ul><li>16 th century, as Japan emerged from a feudal age, the new merchant class that occupied Japan’s growing commercial cities demanded new forms of entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Kabuki, literally, “song-dance-art” </li></ul>
Humanist of Chinese culture <ul><li>Xie Huan, Literary Gathering in the Apricot Garden , detail. 1437. Handscroll, ink and colors on silk, 14 3/4 x 94 3/4 in. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) These scholar-gentleman played a major role in the administration of governmental affairs. </li></ul>