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Chapter 10 11 baroque and enlightenment


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Chapter 10 11 baroque and enlightenment

  1. 1. <ul><li>1650-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>The word “Baroque” describes a style of extravagant ornamental decoration. </li></ul><ul><li>An artistic style dominated by emotionalism and theatrical display, embellishment and florid ornamentation. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mannerism – a style marked by spatial complexity, artificiality, and affectation. (behavior intended to impress) </li></ul><ul><li>Parmigianino (1503-1540) mannerist style - Madonna of the Long Neck </li></ul>Parmigianino. Madonna and Child with Angels (Madonna of the Long Neck) , c. 1535. Oil on panel, approx. 7' 1&quot; x 4' 4&quot;. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  3. 3. <ul><li>The mannerist passion for pictorial intensity was most vividly realized by El Greco. </li></ul>El Greco (1541–1614), The Agony in the Garden , ca. 1585-1586. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 1 in. Gre x 9 ft. 1 in. Courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio. Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey.
  4. 4. <ul><li>His David is hailed as the first Baroque sculpture – it depicts a dramatic moment and involves the audience </li></ul>Gianlorenzo Bernini, David ,1623,Marble, height 5'7“ ,Galleria Borghese, Rome
  5. 6. Bernini (1598–1680). Ecstasy of Saint Teresa , Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1645-1652. Marble, 11' 6&quot; high. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  6. 7. <ul><li>Bernini is named architect of St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversees many projects for next 51 years </li></ul></ul>Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, Rome
  7. 8. Saint Peter’s Basilica and Piazza, Vatican, Rome Carlo Maderno, façade, 1607–26; Gianlorenzo Bernini, piazza design, c. 1656–57
  8. 9. <ul><li>Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light </li></ul><ul><li>Accentuates the “sinner” or the lower classes in his works </li></ul><ul><li>Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow </li></ul>Caravaggio (1571–1610), The Crucifixion of Saint Peter , 1601. Oil on canvas, 7 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 9 in. Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. © 1990 Scala, Florence.
  9. 10. <ul><li>:David with the Head of Goliath-Caravaggio (c.1606-7). </li></ul>
  10. 11. Caravaggio Title: Bacchus Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 37 X 33½&quot; (94 X 85.1 cm) Date: 1595–96 Source/ Museum: Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  11. 12. Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, Oil on canvas, 10'7½&quot; X 11'2“, 1599–1600 Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  12. 13. Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½&quot; X 4'7&quot; (1.84 X 1.41 m) Date: 1625 Source/ Museum: The Detroit Institute of Arts. Gift of Leslie H. Green (52.253) <ul><li>The daughter of a highly esteemed painter, himself a follower of Caravaggio. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½&quot; X 4'7“ Date: 1614-1620 Source/ Museum:
  14. 15. <ul><li>Made the walls above to appear to open up, so that the viewers gazes “through” the roof into the heavens. </li></ul>Andrea Pozzo,(1642–1709), Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius, 1691. Fresco. Scala, Florence.
  15. 16. <ul><li>The King James Bible- “authorized” English-language edition of the Old and New Testaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>committee of 54 scholars recruited by James I of England (1566-1625) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Milton (1608-1674) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Following the 1666 fire, Wren played a leading role as an architect. </li></ul>Christopher Wren Title: Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London Date: Designed 1673, built 1675–1710
  17. 18. <ul><li>Was one of many Dutch still-life painters. </li></ul><ul><li>She brought a naturalist’s passion for detail to every object in her landmark Still Life of 1668. </li></ul>Maria van Oosterwyck (1630-1693), Vanitas Still Life , 1668. Oil on canvas, 29 x 35 in. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  18. 19. <ul><li>Typical paintings have light coming from source on left side, uses yellows and blues, subjects tended to be women </li></ul>Girl with the Pearl Earring, Oil on canvas
  19. 20. Jan Vermeer, View of Delft ,Oil on canvas, 38 ½ X 46¼”, c. 1662
  20. 21. Jan Vermeer Title: Woman Holding a Balance Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 15 ⅞ X 14&quot; (39 X 35 cm) Date: c. 1664 Source/ Museum: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Widener Collection (1942.9.97)
  21. 22. Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), The Milkmaid , c. 1658-1660. Oil on canvas, 17 7/8 in x 16 1/8 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The Bridgeman Art Library.
  22. 23. Johann Vermeer. The Lace Maker , c.1669-1671. Oil on canvas, 9 5/8&quot; x 8 1/4&quot;. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
  23. 24. <ul><li>Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669). – most renowned portrait artist </li></ul><ul><li>Painter and master printmaker. </li></ul>Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), Self-portrait as Saint Paul (aged fifty-five) , 1661. Oil on canvas, 35 7/8&quot; x 30 3/8&quot;. Rijksmuseum Foundation, Amsterdam.
  24. 25. <ul><li>Was well-established in creating group portraiture (“The Night Watch”) </li></ul>Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company (The Night Watch) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 11'11&quot; X 14'4&quot; (3.63 X 4.37 m) (Cut down from the original size) Date: 1642 Source/ Museum: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  25. 26. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn; Rembrandt Christ Preaching (&quot;The Hundred-Guilder Print&quot;) , ca. 1648-1650. Etching, 11 x 15 1/2 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  26. 27. Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (First State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾“,1653, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  27. 28. Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (Fourth State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾&quot; (38.5 X 45 cm) Date: 1653,
  28. 29. Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Self-Portrait Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 52 ⅝ X 40 ⅞ &quot; (133.6 X 103.8 cm) Date: 1658 Source/ Museum: The Frick Collection, New York
  29. 30. <ul><li>Judith Leyster (1609 – 1660) Dutch painter. Was one of the few painters who primarily painted only men. </li></ul>Self-portrait . Oil on canvas, 1630, 746 x 653 mm (29 3/8 x 25 3/4&quot;). National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C
  30. 31. <ul><li>Two Musicians The young Musician </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Louis XIV (1661-1715) defined his era </li></ul><ul><li>At 63, most famous portrait not just for the opulence of his position, but also the vanity of his legs! </li></ul>Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, Oil on canvas, 9'2&quot; X 7'10¾“,1701, Musée du Louvre, Paris
  32. 33. <ul><li>Oversaw the construction of Versailles – palace and gardens were unfortified </li></ul><ul><li>Style emphasized glory; lavish and luxurious </li></ul>
  33. 34. Central Block of the Garden Façade <ul><li>In order to exercise greater control over the French nobility, Louis moved his capital from Paris to Versailles. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Versailles
  35. 37. Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles
  36. 38. <ul><li>A neoclassicists - Greco-Roman mythology and Christian legend. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote an influential treatise formalizing the rules of “the Academy”; he also practiced them faithfully. </li></ul>Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), Arcadian Shepherds , 1638-1639. Oil on canvas, 33 1/2 x 47 5/8 in. Louvre, Paris. Photo R.M.N.—© René-Gabriel Ojéda.
  37. 39. <ul><li>Court painter to King Phillip IV (Spain) (1605-1665), became that country’s most prestigious artist. </li></ul>Diego Velázquez, Water Carrier of Seville , Oil on canvas, 41½ X 31½“, c. 1619 Victoria & Albert Museum, London
  38. 40. <ul><li>Landmark painting was the informal group portrait known as Las Meninas (The Maid of Honor) </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>(1577-1640) German </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Michelangelo and Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><li>Combined portraiture and historical narrative for 21 paintings dedicated to Marie de’Medici </li></ul>
  40. 42. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus , ca. 1618. Oil on canvas, 7 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
  41. 43. Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, Oil on canvas, center panel 15'1 ⅞ &quot; X 11'1½“, each wing 15'1 ⅞ &quot; X 4'11&quot; , 610–11
  42. 44. Peter Paul Rubens, G arden of Love, O il on canvas, 6'6&quot; X 9'3½“, 1630–32, Museo del Prado, Madrid
  43. 45. <ul><li>Gabrieli (1555-1612) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal organist at saint Mark’s Cathedral in Venice, ushered in a new and dramatic style of polychoral and instrumental religious music. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Birth of Opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged out of renaissance efforts to revive the music-drama of ancient Greek theater. </li></ul></ul>Pietro Domenico Olivier, The Teatro Regio, Turin , painting of the opening night, December 26, 1740. Oil on canvas,
  44. 46. <ul><li>Monteverdi (1567-1643) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapel master of Saint Mark’s in Venice in 1621. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bach(1685-1750) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ Master and choir director of the Church of Saint Thomas in, Leipzig (Germany). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vivaldi (1678-1741) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master of the concerto form. </li></ul></ul>Elias Gottlob Haussmann (1695–1774), Johann Sebastian Bach , 1746. Oil on canvas. William H. Scheide Library, Princeton University.
  45. 47. <ul><li>Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong patronage of arts </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes </li></ul><ul><li>Value on the original work is a modern notion </li></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>Art produced from the end of the 16 th to early 18 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; likes drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramatic works </li></ul><ul><li>Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe </li></ul>
  47. 49. <ul><li>The Rise of the English Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, England experienced a period of political and social turbulence that culminated in the emergence of true constitutional monarchy. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. <ul><li>A Flemish master who became one of the most accomplished portraitist. </li></ul><ul><li>Court Painter for King Charles I of England (1600-1649) </li></ul>Anthony van Dyck (1599 –1641), Charles I on Horseback , c. 1638. Oil on canvas, 12' x 9' 7&quot;. © The National Gallery, London.
  49. 51. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart; gardens by André Le Nôtre Title: Palais de Versailles Date: 1668–85 Source/ Museum: Versailles, France
  50. 52. The Enlightenment The Age of Reason
  51. 53. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), The Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp , 1632. Oil on canvas, 66 3/4&quot; x 85 1/4&quot;. © Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  52. 54. Joseph Wright, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump , 1768. Oil on canvas, 28 1/2&quot; x 37 3/4&quot;. © The National Gallery, London.
  53. 55. <ul><li>On the evidence of mathematical calculations, he had discarded the traditional geocentric (earth centered) model of the universe in favor to the heliocentric (sun centered). </li></ul>Heliocentric (A) and Geocentric (B) models of the universe. Science Photo Library. Geocentric model of the universe. Photo: Sheila Terry / Science Photo Library
  54. 56. <ul><li>The earth’s gravity attracts all objects- regardless of shape, size or density- at the same rate of acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfected the telescope. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought to Rome (catholic Church) on charges of heresy. </li></ul><ul><li>condemned to reside under “house arrest”. </li></ul>
  55. 57. <ul><li>astronomer and mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>His monumental treatise, Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) linked terrestrial and celestial physic under a single set of laws: the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation (by which every particle of matter attracts every other particle of matter). </li></ul>
  56. 58. François Dequevauviller after N. Lavréince (1745–1807), Assembly in a Salon , 1745-1807. Scala/Art Resource, NY. <ul><li>Philosophes – Intellectuals rather than philosophers in the strict sense of the word, they dominated the intellectual activity of the Enlightenment. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Jean-Antoine Houdon, Thomas Jefferson , 1789. Marble, 21 1/2&quot; high. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 , 1776, the American Declaration of Independence echoes John Locke’s ideology of revolt as well as his view that governments derive their just powers form the consent of the governed. </li></ul>
  58. 60. A. Denis Diderot - The Encyclopedia - a compilation of all knowledge! (1751-1772)
  59. 61. The Encyclopedia “ [Our aim] is to collect all the knowledge scattered over the face of the earth, … and to transmit this to those who will come after us.... It could only belong to a philosophical age to attempt an encyclopedia; … All things must be examined, debated, and investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings…. We have for quite some time needed a reasoning age.” “ It is impious to want to impose laws upon man’s conscience; this is a universal rule of conduct. People must be enlightened and not constrained.” “ War is the fruit of man’s depravity; it is a convulsive and violent sickness of the body politic … If reason governed men and had the influence over the heads of nations that it deserves, we would never see them inconsiderately surrender themselves to the fury of war; they would not show that ferocity that characterizes wild beasts.”
  60. 62. The Encyclopedia “ No man has received from nature the right to command others.... The government, although hereditary in a family…, is not private property, but public property that consequently can never be taken from the people, to whom it belongs exclusively…. It is not the state that belongs to the prince, it is the prince who belongs to the state.” “ It is of the greatest importance to conserve this practice [the free press] in all states founded on liberty.” “ The buying of Negroes, to reduce them to slavery, is one business that violates religion, morality, natural laws, and all the rights of human nature.”
  61. 63. Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia Shoes Button-making
  62. 65. Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia
  63. 66. Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia
  64. 67. <ul><li>D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (later Enlightenment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society is artificial and corrupt - state of nature is better – education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued impulse and emotion more than reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in contract government and individual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ General Will” - republic as ideal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote : The Social Contract, Emile , 1762 </li></ul></ul>The Philosophes
  65. 68. <ul><li>C. Voltaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom of thought and religion ~ toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ridiculed the clergy for their bigotry, intolerance, and superstition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admired Louis XIV and Frederick the Great - thought people unable to govern themselves </li></ul></ul>The Philosophes
  66. 69. The Wit and Wisdom of Voltaire “ I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: ‘Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.’ And God granted it.” “ Almost everything that goes beyond the adoration of a Supreme Being and submission of the heart to his orders is superstition. One of the most dangerous is to believe that certain ceremonies entail the forgiveness of crimes. Do you believe that God will forget a murder you have committed if you bathe in a certain river, sacrifice a black sheep…? … Do better miserable humans, have neither murders nor sacrifices of black sheep.” God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
  67. 70. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741–1828), Voltaire in Old Age , 1781. Marble, height 20 in. Musée de Versailles. © Corbis/Bettmann, London.
  68. 71. <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) This self-educated British intellectual applied Enlightenment principles of natural law, Liberty, and equality to forge a radical rethinking of the roles and responsibilities of women in Western society </li></ul>
  69. 72. <ul><li>In 1776, North America’s thirteen colonies rebelled against the British government, claiming it had made unreasonable demands for revenues that threatened colonial liberty . </li></ul>Briffault de la Charprais and Mme. Esclapart, The Siege of the Bastille, July 14, 1789 , 1791-1796. Engraving, 12 x 18 1/4 in. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Bequest of Gordon N. Ray, GNR 78 (plate #16). Art Resource, New York.
  70. 73. <ul><li>Olaudah Equiano (1745-1799) who was born in the West African kingdom of Benin and kidnapped and enslaved at the age of 11. He was freed in1766.Eventually he mastered the English language and became an outspoken abolitionist. </li></ul>Plan of the Brookes, a 320-ton British slave ship of the late eighteenth century. Library of Congress.
  71. 74. <ul><li>This style portrays the aristocrats in their leisurely pursuits. Paintings can be seductive </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish, no straight lines in the Rococo – sophisticated and elegantly refined. </li></ul>
  72. 75. <ul><li>In the Hotel do Soubise, the Salon de la princesse stands as a landmark of the Parisian rococo. </li></ul>Germain Boffrand. Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, c. 1740. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  73. 76. <ul><li>Has walls that seem to disappear beneath a riot of stucco “frosting” as rich and sumptuous as any wedding cake. </li></ul>Johan Michael Fischer (1692–1766), interior, Benedictine abbey, Ottobeuren, Bavaria, 1736-1766. Painted and gilded wood and stucco. Vanni/Art Resource, New York.
  74. 77. <ul><li>Flemish born, paid tribute to the fleeting nature of love. </li></ul>Antoine Watteau (1684–1721). Pilgrimage to Cythera , 1717. Oil on canvas, 4' 3&quot; x 6' 4 1/4&quot;. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
  75. 78. <ul><li>Sensual and indulgent </li></ul>François Boucher, Venus Consoling Love , 1751. Oil on canvas, 3' 6 1/4&quot; x 2' 9 3/8&quot;. Image © Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Chester Dale Collection. 1943.7.2.
  76. 79. <ul><li>The most famous of a number of 18 th century female artist. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Rubens </li></ul><ul><li>Light Rococo touch to the coloring </li></ul>
  77. 80. Marie-Louise Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun (1755-1842), Marie Antoinette , 1788. Oil on canvas, 12 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 6 ft. 3 1/2 in. BAL Giraudon/Art Resource, New York.
  78. 81. Marie-Louise Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun (1755-1842), Marie Antoinette , 1788. Oil on canvas
  79. 82. Elizabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun (1755-1842), Queen Marie Antoinette and Her Children , 1787. Oil on canvas, 108 1/4 x 84 5/8 in. © RMN / Reunion des Musees Nationaux.
  80. 83. Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun (1755-1842). Self-Portrait . Oil on canvas. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
  81. 84. <ul><li>Was the undisputed master of translating the art of seduction into paint. </li></ul>
  82. 85. <ul><li>Intoxication of Wine , c. 1775 </li></ul>Clodion (Claude Michel), Intoxication of Wine , c. 1775. Terracotta, 23 1/4&quot; high. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913 (14.40.687). Photograph © 1990 The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  83. 86. <ul><li>Responded with humble representations that replaced the indulgent sensuality of the rococo with realistic scenes of everyday life. </li></ul>
  84. 87. .
  85. 88. <ul><li>The revival of Greco-Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>Excavations at Pompeii and on mainland Greece and Asia Minor would follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars assembled vast collection of Greek and Roman artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Louvre, Vatican </li></ul>
  86. 89. <ul><li>The painting was commissioned by the French King some four years before the outbreak of the Revolution; ironically, it became a symbol of the very spirit that would topple the royal crown. </li></ul>Jacques-Louis David (1748-–1825). Oath of the Horatii , 1784-1785. Oil on canvas, approx. 11' x 14'. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
  87. 90. <ul><li>Student of David </li></ul><ul><li>Classical history </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits of middle and upper-class </li></ul>Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Comtesse d'Haussonville . 1845. Oil on canvas, 51 7/8 x 36 3/16&quot;. The Frick Collection, New York.
  88. 91. <ul><li>Notice the elongation of body parts </li></ul>Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Grand Odalisque , 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 11 1/4&quot; x 5' 4 3/4&quot;. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux
  89. 92. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780–1867). Jupiter and Thetis , 1811. Oil on canvas, 10' 8 5/8&quot; x 8' 6 5/16&quot;. Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
  90. 93. <ul><li>Eighteenth-Century Classical Music </li></ul><ul><li>The Birth of the Symphony Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Haydn </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart </li></ul>Louis Carmontelle (1717-1806), The Mozarts in Concert: Leopold, Wolfgang (age seven), and Nannerl, 1764. Engraving. Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, London.
  91. 94. <ul><li>The Way of Tea and Zen </li></ul><ul><li>Among Zen Buddhists, the way of Tea coincided with a revival of Zen painting </li></ul><ul><li>Brush </li></ul>Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768), Meditating Dharuma , Edo period, ca. 1765. Ink on paper Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768 ), Two Blind Men Crossing a Log Bridge , Edo Period (1615-1868). Hanging scroll, ink on paper,
  92. 95. B. Montesquieu - separation and balance of powers; admired the British model of government. Wrote : The Spirit of the Laws, 1748 The Philosophes
  93. 96. <ul><li>18 th Century – revolutions erupted in France and America – ( French, American and Industrial Revolution in England all happened at the same time) </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic life dissolved. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightment was a new way to think critically about the world. To think independent of religion, myth and tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning theories, God, and now experimenting with science. Voltaire and his writings were very important </li></ul>
  94. 97. <ul><li>Voltaire believed that the salvation of humanity was in advancement of science and the improvement of society </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau said that the “arts” had corrupted humanity from its original condition. “ Nature alone must be our guide” </li></ul>
  95. 100. Chartres Cathedral St. Sernin, Toulouse 47.
  96. 101. <ul><li>detail </li></ul>
  97. 102. David, Michelangelo David, Donatello
  98. 103. <ul><li>The church undertook a program of internal reform and reorganization known as the catholic Reformation. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1540s, in an effort to win back Christians, the church launched the evangelical campaign known as the Counter-Reformation. </li></ul>
  99. 104. <ul><li>John Milton (1608-1674) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Christian subject that allowed him to examine an issue particularly dear to his Protestant sensibilities: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667) </li></ul></ul>