Spnd 456 first weekend writingreading tec


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Spnd 456 first weekend writingreading tec

  1. 1. Assistive Technology and Learning Disabilities Karen Janowski Simmons College 3/08
  2. 2. Assistive Technology Consideration <ul><li>Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Someone knowledgeable on IEP team </li></ul>
  3. 3. Four Possibilities <ul><li>Current Interventions Working – no need for AT </li></ul><ul><li>AT already in place </li></ul><ul><li>Consider New AT </li></ul><ul><li>Team needs additional information to make a decision </li></ul>
  4. 4. How do we learn? <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul>
  5. 5. What does it mean to learn? <ul><li>Active Process </li></ul><ul><li>(What do students do on own time? Summer Break!) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Retain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Apply it to life situations </li></ul><ul><li>Use strategies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where is the Breakdown? http://flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/276131991/
  7. 7. Task Analysis <ul><li>What skills are needed for this task? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the point of this academic task? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copying </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Guiding Principles
  9. 9. <ul><li>Nothing a child does requires more energy than sitting still. </li></ul><ul><li>Denckla as reported by Mel Levine at a </li></ul><ul><li>Conference, 1999 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Guiding Principles <ul><li>Free, appropriate education </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake Tolerant vs. Mistake Tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Teach strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation vs. Remediation/Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Independence vs. dependence </li></ul><ul><li>(upon adults) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal design </li></ul>
  11. 11. Written Expression
  12. 12. Written Output <ul><li>What skills are required? </li></ul>
  13. 13. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Sustained Mental Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Graphomotor Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Automaticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Ideation – IDEAS!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming/Topic Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Working Memory </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Expressive Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Retrieval </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planfulness/Previewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision </li></ul></ul>Mel Levine’s Work
  18. 18. To achieve competency as a writer: <ul><li>Spelling Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Wanderman says “Spelling is the spoiler of thought.” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Research Findings <ul><li>Elementary school children spend 31% to 60% of their school day on fine motor tasks including handwriting. </li></ul><ul><li>McHale & Cermak, 1992 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Findings <ul><li>Studies show teachers grade papers with better handwriting higher. </li></ul><ul><li>Only difference was quality of writing. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Findings <ul><li>Students are less hesitant to reevaluate and edit their written work produced on a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>(Graham and MacArthur, 1988, Jones, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity increases (Mayer-Nichols, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality increases (Jones, 1996) </li></ul>
  22. 25. Difficulties with writing <ul><li>Writing Mechanics – physical, spelling and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Process – generating & organizing text, planning and editing. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Inspiration Kurzweil Solo Writing with Symbols Read and Write Gold WordQ Fable Vision – Essay Express Clicker 5 Classroom Suite (you will explore this more in the next class)
  24. 27. Written Expression continued <ul><li>Voice recognition software </li></ul>
  25. 29. What does it feel like to struggle at school? (Google – PBS Misunderstood Minds)
  26. 30. Speech Recognition <ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>What does the research say? </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>LD 4 th – 6 th graders produced essays significantly faster than typing or handwriting. (De La Paz 1999) </li></ul>
  29. 33. Stories written with SR were longer, more complex, and contained fewer grammatical errors compared to other methods. (Graham,1999)
  30. 34. Research shows marked improvement. (Graham, 1999)
  31. 35. <ul><li>Motivation to write increases </li></ul><ul><li>(Graham & al, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvement writing </li></ul><ul><li>(Lewis, 1998, MacArthur, 1998) </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Has remedial effects </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvements in reading comprehension, spelling and word recognition over a control group </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements with working memory with continuous speech programs. </li></ul><ul><li>(Higgins & Raskind, 2000) </li></ul>
  33. 37. Identified characteristics of “Ideal” VR candidate <ul><li>Ability to use computer </li></ul><ul><li>Limited traditional writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>High need </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to tolerate frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Perception – that they can benefit and they have time to learn it </li></ul>
  34. 38. Disadvantages <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Different cognitive Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled personnel aren’t available to provide support </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated space or computer </li></ul>
  35. 39. Written expression software <ul><ul><li>Text to Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><ul><li>Writing strategies software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Essay Express, Stationery Studio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Support Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Clicker 5, Write Online, ICS,Kurzweil, Inspiration, Draft:Builder) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Reading
  38. 42. Brain Rules by John Medina The Power of Reading by Stephen Krashen Readicide: How Schools are Killing Reading and What You Can do About It by Kelly Gallagher
  39. 43. Tools help us become Architect s for Change
  40. 44. ‘ We’re not reading and writing across and down the page anymore. We’re reading and writing in three dimensions – across, down and out, the out being hyperlinks.
  41. 45. It’s a whole different kind of literacy; it's a whole different kind of writing; it’s a whole different kind of reading. It’s a type of literacy that can’t be done anywhere else but on the web. James Yap Director of instructional technology Ramapo Central School District, Hillburn, NY T.H.E Jounal, april 2009 p. 24
  42. 46. It’s a different world for our students
  43. 48. What does the research say?
  44. 49. National Reading Panel The Big Five 5
  45. 50. <ul><li>Intact phonemic awareness and not intelligence is the best predictor of reading skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaywitz, 2003 </li></ul>
  46. 51. Successful intervention <ul><li>Identifies the weakness in getting to the sounds of words </li></ul>
  47. 52. Successful intervention <ul><li>Identifies the strengths in thinking and reasoning </li></ul>
  48. 53. Successful intervention <ul><li>Then provides early help for the weakness (remediation) </li></ul>
  49. 54. Successful intervention <ul><li>Finally, provides accommodation to help access the strengths </li></ul><ul><li>(“Sea of Strengths Model,” Shaywitz, 2003) </li></ul>
  50. 55. Summary Table for the FCRR Reports
  51. 56. What WorksClearinghouse
  52. 57. Tools for Developing Reading Skills
  53. 59. Why should we provide it? <ul><li>Allows individualized instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Customizable </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Computer is forgiving (are adults?) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides record keeping </li></ul>
  54. 60. Focuses on : <ul><li>Phonological awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Sight words </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul>
  55. 61. <ul><li>Soliloquoy Reading Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Read Naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Simons Sounds it Out </li></ul><ul><li>Lexia </li></ul><ul><li>Edmark </li></ul><ul><li>Earobics </li></ul><ul><li>Reading A-Z </li></ul>
  56. 62. Technology for Reading Support
  57. 63. <ul><li>Start-to-Finish Books </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Solo: ReadOutloud </li></ul>
  58. 64. Technology for Reading Accommodation
  59. 65. Interactive Accessible
  60. 67. <ul><li>TechMatrix.Org </li></ul>
  61. 68. UDL Tech Toolkit http://UDLTechToolkit.wikispaces.com
  62. 70. It’s a different world for our students