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    1. 1. UDL: Using No Cost and Low Cost AT Tools for Writing Karen Janowski Assistive Technology Consultant
    2. 2. Thoughts?
    3. 3. Cause for concern? 70% of students in grades 4-12 are low achieving writers (according to NAEP) More than 7,000 students drop out of school daily and they are typically in the lowest 25% of their class College instructor’s estimate that 50% of HS graduates are not prepared for college level writing
    4. 4. Cause for concern? National Commission on Writing reports that employers (both public and private) say writing is critical in the workplace and “directly affects hiring and promotion decisions”
    5. 5. What skills are required to become a proficient writer? Inspiration document
    6. 6. Group Bulletin Board
    7. 7. What skills are necessary for writing competence? Sustained Mental Effort Selective Attention Graphomotor Function Visual recall Motor Automaticity Regulation
    8. 8. Ideation – IDEAS!! Brainstorming/Topic Selection Research Elaboration
    9. 9. Memory Motor Memory Active Working Memory
    10. 10. Expressive Language Vocabulary Word Retrieval
    11. 11. Organization Narrative Generation Planfulness/Previewing Sequential approach Revision Mel Levine’s Work
    12. 12. Where is the Breakdown?
    13. 13. And what can be done to fix it?
    14. 14. UDL
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Multiple Methods of …
    17. 17. Engagement
    18. 18. Presentation
    19. 19. Expression
    20. 20. Proactive Embedded Reaches all Learners
    21. 21. Ira Socol’s blog post Toolbelt Theory
    22. 22. What Word processing tricks do you show your students? Titan Pad
    23. 23. Research Considerations
    24. 24. Elementary school children spend 31% to 60% of their school day on fine motor tasks including handwriting. McHale & Cermak, 1992
    25. 25. Studies show teachers grade papers with better handwriting higher. Only difference was quality of writing.
    26. 26. Students are less hesitant to reevaluate and edit their written work produced on a computer. (Graham and MacArthur, 1988, Jones, 1996 Productivity increases (Mayer-Nichols, 1996) Quality increases (Jones, 1996)
    27. 27. Keyboarding Discussion
    28. 28. Benefits Improvement in : language arts — reading, spelling, and writing ability. efficiency in using the computer as a writing, editing, and computing tool, thereby maximizing classroom time. attitude toward writing—less frustration in looking for keys rather than entering information.
    29. 29. Benefits Improvement in: motivation creativity Rogers, H. (2003). Elementary keyboarding issues.
    30. 30. When? Introduce formal keyboarding BEFORE frequent computer use
    31. 31. Top 10 Goals of Teaching KB Technique Technique Technique Technique Technique Technique Technique Technique Accuracy Speed Teaching Keyboarding – When? Why? How?
    32. 32. Studies indicate a dramatic increase in language arts skills as a result of children inputting words and sentences frequently using a computer. THE STATUS OF ELEMENTARY KEYBOARDING: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY By Harriet Rogers
    33. 33. The maximum expectation for a one-minute timing: 5-10 wpm for 2nd grade students 10-15 wpm for 3rd grade students 15-25 for 4th & 5th grade students WPM
    34. 34. Custom Solutions Custom Solutions for Special Needs Custom Solutions Assessment Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile by Decoste (Don Johnston)
    35. 35. Explore the Interactive Student Materials
    36. 36. Importance of Text-to-speech Why?
    37. 37. Student Example Case Study
    38. 38. Research Considerations
    39. 39. Writing Next
    40. 40. 11 Key Elements to Improve Writing Achievement in Grades 4 - 12 Writing Strategies - explicit instruction in writing process Summarization - explicit instruction Collaborative Writing Specific Product Goals - identifies purpose & characteristics of final product Word Processing
    41. 41. 11 Key Elements to Improve Writing Achievement in Grades 4 - 12 Sentence Combining – promoting more complex, sophisticated writing. Combining two or more basic sentences into one Prewriting – to generate & organize ideas Inquiry Activities – experiential, provide engaging activities to develop ideas; compare/contrast, collecting and evaluating evidence
    42. 42. 11 Key Elements to Improve Writing Achievement in Grades 4 - 12 Process Writing Approach - writing for real audiences, promoting planning, reviewing, reflecting, self-evaluation, offering personalized individual assistance, customized instruction, stresses ownership of writing Study of Models - provides models for each type of writing that is the focus of instruction Writing to Learn – using writing to learn content
    43. 43. Findings of Meta-Analysis Three Core Recommendations
    44. 44. Writing Practices that Enhance Reading Have students write about the texts they read React, reflect, analyze, interpret Summarize Answer questions in writing
    45. 45. Writing Practices that Enhance Reading Explicit instruction Writing process Paragraph Construction Spelling Skills
    46. 46. Writing Practices that Enhance Reading Increase Quantity of Writing
    47. 47. Writing improves Comprehension
    48. 48. Writing improves fluency
    49. 49. Writing improves decoding
    50. 50. so, what are we doing to increase writing opportunities for our struggling writers?
    51. 51. Five Paragraph Essay ?
    52. 52. Writing Process Brain Pop Video
    53. 53. Writing Process Pre-Writing Writing Revising Editing Publishing
    54. 54. Explore Writing Tools Free Text-to-speech Graphic Organizers Multimedia and Digital Story Telling
    55. 55. Questions to Consider What am I currently doing? Is it working? What can I add to my bag of tricks? Is this UDL? Toolbelt Theory? RTI? What will I try with my students tomorrow? Target at least two new tools to use next week.
    56. 56. Making Connections to the Research
    57. 57. Task Analysis What skills are needed for this task? What is the point of this academic task?
    58. 58. Resources National Writing Project – Teaching Writing