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First of 4 sessions introducing statistics to librarians and library staff.

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- 1. Why is it important?WHAT IS STATISTICS?
- 2. Goals of SeriesComfortFears
- 3. Series ObjectivesFoundations Descriptive StatisticsInferential StatisticsReading & InterpretingStatisticsComfortLevel
- 4. What is Statistics?•Study of Data•Collecting•Organizing•Summarizing•Analyzing•Presenting•Storing & SharingWhy is it Important?•Make sense of thedata•Explain whathappens and(possibly) why•Make sounddecisions•To know how closewe are to the truth.
- 5. ResultsBias?SamplingError?InvalidMeasures?RandomError?OtherFactors?Purpose of Statistics
- 6. Thinking about Data in your Research Project
- 7. Start with your Research QuestionHow do users differwhen(searching, finding, selecting)(articles, books, Websites)?What are the effects of ___________On ____________?Which is better atimproving_________?How are people (finding, selecting, using) _______?What are factors associatedwith ___________?
- 8. Example of Research QuestionPACS• Low LibQUAL+RatingsCollections •Is it our collections?Do we havewhat theyuse?•Basedoncitations
- 9. VariablesIndependentSubjectsFactorsEffectsof…DependentObjectsOutcomesEffectson…
- 10. Example of Variables•Department•Years at UNTFaculty•# published by typePublished•# cited by type•UNT accessibleCitedIVDV
- 11. Scales of Data (NOIR)Nominal•Counts by category•Binary (Yes/No)•No meaning betweenthe categories (Blue isnot better than Red)Ordinal•Ranks•Scales•Space between ranksis subjectiveInterval•Integers•No baseline•Space between valuesis equal andobjective, but discreteRatio•Interval data with abaseline•Space between iscontinuous
- 12. Likert-Type Scale?ArbitraryFew LevelsIndividualQuestionsOrdinal?SymmetricalMany LevelsCompositeScoreInterval?
- 13. Example of Variable Types•Department•Years at UNTFaculty•# published by typePublished•# cited by type•UNT accessibleCitedNNNNI
- 14. Compared to What?BookCirculations 180,354
- 15. Compared by…Time PeriodsOther LibrariesNational SurveysPatron TypesMaterial Types
- 16. ResearchQuestionData TypeComparisonGroupStatisticalMethodsUsed
- 17. VALIDITY OFMEASURES
- 18. Are you actuallymeasuring what you aretrying to measure?
- 19. Selecting Measures•Counts•Survey responses•Grades/Scores•Ranks•Scales (e.g. Likert)•Age, Length of Time•Frequency•People•Books•Articles•Uses•Levels of Analysis• What is the object (DV)?• What is the subject (IV)?Measures Units of Analysis
- 20. Use a tool with established validityApproaches and Study SkillsInventory for Students(ASSIST)User Engagement Scale (UES)
- 21. Establish Validity of Measures• ConsistencyReliability• Corresponds with expectations• Common understandingsContentValidity• Corresponds with othervariables based on theoryConstructValidity• Corresponds with othermeasuresCriterionValidity
- 22. Image: © Nevit Dilmen found at Wikimedia commons
- 23. ResultsBias?InvalidMeasures?SamplingError?RandomError?OtherFactors?
- 24. ROLE OF SAMPLING
- 25. Allmembers ofpopulationHard tomeasureThe TruthCensusA selectionof thepopulationEasier tomeasureAn estimateof the truthSample
- 26. When to Use Which:Research Question?Census•Book usage at UNT Libraries•Effects of IL instruction onEnglish 1100 studentsSample•Book usage at all libraries•Effects of IL instruction onall students
- 27. Example - Census or Sample?AlljournalarticlescitedAll Items Published byPACS FacultyAll journalarticlespublishedby PACSfaculty
- 28. Random Samples• Every Unit of Analysis has an equal and known chance ofbeing included.
- 29. Importance of RandomnessRandomSamplesRandom, Weighted, etc.Should be representativeof populationCan use inferentialstatisticsMost useful for testinghypothesesNon-RandomSamplesConvenience, Purposive, etc.May or may not berepresentative of populationUse descriptive statistics onlyMost useful for generatinghypotheses
- 30. ResultsBias?InvalidMeasures?SamplingError?RandomError?OtherFactors?
- 31. ROLE OF DATACOLLECTIONIN STATISTICS
- 32. Goal of Data Collection inStatisticsReliabilityBias
- 33. BiasSystematic (not random) deviation from thetrue value (Statistics.com)Selection BiasMeasurement•Observer Bias•Non-response BiasAnalysis Bias
- 34. Data Collection FormsMany orComplexVariablesSurveys1 UnitPerForm FewerVariablesCollected allat onceBibliometricSpaceSurveysSpread-sheet
- 35. Data InputHave a data entry planTrain the inputtersUse data validation tricksDouble-entry
- 36. Organizing DataOne Unit of Analysis per Row
- 37. Example Spreadsheets
- 38. ResultsBias?InvalidMeasures?SamplingError?RandomError?OtherFactors?
- 39. STATISTICALANALYSIS
- 40. CentralTendencyErrorSpreadElements ofStatistical Analysis
- 41. Inferential•InferassociationsDescriptive•Describe
- 42. Descriptive AnalysisJust the Facts, Ma’amSummarizesTablesChartsUnivariateOne variableat a timeComparisonwithPopulationDemonstrates howrandom the sample is
- 43. Measures ofCentral Tendency•AverageMean•MiddleMedian•Most CommonMode
- 44. Central Tendency by ScalesInterval orRatioMeanMedianNominal orRankMedianMode
- 45. SpreadInterval &Ratio•Range•Quartiles orQuintiles•StandardDeviationNominal &Rank•DistributionTables•Bar GraphsHow variable is the data?
- 46. Range &Quartiles
- 47. Standard Deviation•Measure of dispersion of data•Square root of the average variationfrom the mean
- 48. What does the Standard Deviation tell you?Greatervariation, lesscertaintyLowervariation, morecertainty
- 49. Presentation ofSpread•Box plots•Mean•Upper & lowerquintiles•Outliers•Cross-tabulations•Bar graphs
- 50. Spread of Nominal data
- 51. Bar graphs & plots
- 52. Inferential StatisticsTests of hypotheses•Associations•ExpectationsAccounts for uncertainty•Random error•Confidence interval
- 53. HypothesesYourHypothesis(H1)NullHypothesis(H0)
- 54. Example Hypothesis>=75%* <75%**…of journal articles cited by UNT PACS faculty in journal articlespublished between 2008-2011.UNT Libraries provides access to…
- 55. HypothesisTestingpSample SizeCentralTendencySpreadDistributionSignificanceLevel
- 56. Statistical AnalysisNoiseSignal
- 57. ResultsBias?SamplingError?InvalidMeasures?RandomError?OtherFactors?Purpose of Statistics
- 58. Valid•Measures•Data Collection•Sample Selection•Statistical MethodsValid•Data•Sample•Statistical AnalysisValid•ResultsRole ofValidity inResearch
- 59. ResourcesRice Virtual Lab inStatisticsExcel Tutorials forStatistical AnalysisKhan Academy -videosBasic ResearchMethods forLibrarians – ebookDescriptive StatisticalTechniques forLibrarians - ebook

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