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Extension Bulletin E-2973 • Revised • January 2008                                                                        ...
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Attracting Beneficial Insects with Native Flowering Plants - Michigan State University


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Attracting Beneficial Insects with Native Flowering Plants - Michigan State University

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Attracting Beneficial Insects with Native Flowering Plants - Michigan State University

  1. 1. Extension Bulletin E-2973 • Revised • January 2008 Attracting Beneficial Insects N A T U R A L E N E M I E S P O L L I N A T O R S with Native Flowering Plants ollinating insects play a Colletidae (cellophane bees, not P ome insects eat other insects and can provide natural pest control on farms and in gardens. These naturalS J. Tuell J. Tuell Anna Fiedler, Julianna Tuell, Rufus Isaacs, and Doug Landis enemies can be divided into two groups — predators and parasitoids. Many predators and parasitoids are critical role in maintaining shown). Some of the more com- attracted to flowering plants, where they obtain pollen and nectar that help increase their life span and ability productive natural plant mon species in these groups are Department of Entomology, Michigan State Universityto lay eggs. The table in this bulletin can be used to select plants that provide flowers for these insects through the communities, and they also polli- pictured here.growing season. nate most crop plants grown for Most bee species are solitary their fruits, vegetables, nuts, (each female produces offspring in Howard Russell Jim Kalisch & Tom Clark, University of Nebraska-Lincoln seeds, and fiber. Bees are excel-Predators eat many Parasitoids seek Honey bee Bumble bee her own nest), with only one gen- lent pollinators because theyprey in a lifetime, feed- other insects as hosts J. Tuell J. Tuell eration of bees per year. However, spend most of their adult lives col-ing both as young and as in which to lay their some of the most abundant lecting pollen to feed to theiradults, and include some eggs. Each egg hatches species, such as honey bees and developing offspring. The plumedbugs, beetles, flies, within the host, and bumble bees, are social, working hairs on their bodies attract pollenlacewings and spiders. the young feed and together to provision a single nest grains, and “brushes” on their legsAll shown here eat develop within that in which a queen presides and pro- Minute pirate bug Braconid wasp enable them to collect pollen andsmall, soft-bodied single host, eventually duces multiple generations per carry it back to the nest. Flowers Carpenter bee Andrenid beeinsects and help control D. Landis Jim Kalisch & Tom Clark, University of Nebraska-Lincoln killing it. Parasitoids year. Bees with multiple genera- provide energy in the form of nec- J. Tuell J. Tuellaphid, whitefly, and are most commonly tions per year need food resources tar, and many bees have longmealybug populations. small wasps. Hosts can (pollen and nectar) across most of tongues that allow them to reachSpiders will also eat be from almost any the growing season to build their into deep flowers that otherlarger insects. insect group, including colonies. Providing plants with insects cannot use. beetle larvae, cater- overlapping bloom periods in a pillars, flies, and other Five major bee families are found landscape will help these bees Lady beetle Ichneumonid wasp wasps. in the Midwest: Apidae (honey Sweat bee, brown Sweat bee, green survive and prosper. The table in A. Fiedler Gerald J. Lenhard bees, bumble bees, carpenter bees, S. Bambara, N. Carolina State Univ. J. Tuell this bulletin can be used to select For more information and a diverse group of solitary plants that will provide flowers on natural enemies, soil-nesting bees), Andrenidae through the growing season. please see the Other (andrenid bees), Halictidae Resources section on For more information on (sweat bees), Megachilidae page 5. pollinators, please see the (leafcutter and mason bees), and Other Resources section below. Mason bee Leafcutter bee Syrphid fly Chalcid wasp David Keith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Other Resources Enhancing Beneficial Insects with Native Plants Web site: Gardiner, M., C. DiFonzo, M. Brewer and T. Noma. 2006. Identifying Natural Enemies in Crops and Landscapes. Extension Flint, M.L., and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies bulletin E-2949. East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State Handbook: the Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control. University. Publication 3386. Berkely, CA: University of California Press, Shepherd, M., S.L. Buchmann, M. Vaughan and S.H. Black. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2003. Pollinator Conservation Handbook. Portland, Ore.: The Xerces Society. Crab spider 4 5
  2. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Introduction Establishing native plants Natural Common name Scientific name enemies Bees MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBERConservation of natural enemies of insects (predators and Local sources of native seed and potted plant materialparasitoids) and pollinators (bees) around the farm or are available for Michigan and many other areas. Where 1. wild strawberry Fragaria virginianagarden can help suppress pests and increase crop yields. possible, use local genotypes — i.e., plant material origi- 2. golden Alexanders Zizia aureaMany beneficial insects rely on plants for nectar and nally collected in your area and best adapted for yourpollen or shelter. Plants commonly recommended to conditions. 3. Canada anemone Anemone canadensis Native Flowering Plants that Attractprovide these resources are non-native annuals such as 4. penstemon/hairy beardtongue Penstemon hirsutusbuckwheat, sweet alyssum, faba bean, dill, and coriander. Determine where you would like to establish native plants. If it is a large area (greater than 500 square feet), 5. angelica Angelica atropurpurea Beneficial InsectsIn a recent Michigan State University study, we found consider using seed to establish plants, which will flowerthat native Midwestern perennial plants could provide 6. cow parsnip Heracleum maximum in 3 to 5 years. If a smaller area, rooted seedlings sold insimilar, and in some cases, more attractive resources. 7. sand coreopsis/lanceleaf tickseed Coreopsis lanceolata The bloom periods shown plugs or pots will flower in 1 to 2 years and will allow for the native perennialsWe selected 46 native Michigan plants on the basis of you to choose the position of each plant. 8. shrubby cinquefoil Potentilla fruticosa are for 2-year-old plantstheir bloom periods and ability to survive in agricultural growing in full sun in 2005 Consult a local native plant producer for seed mixes or 9. Indian hemp Apocynum cannabinum in Ingham County,habitats. All of the species selected historically grew in plants most appropriate for your light, soil type, and Michigan. Bloom times willprairie or oak savanna habitats. Once common in 10. late figwort Scrophularia marilandica vary between years and moisture conditions, as well as for proper plant spacing.Michigan, prairies and oak savannas are now rare, as are locations. All plants are 11. swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnatamany of the plants and animals that formerly utilized Site preparation to minimize weeds is crucial to project native to the north centralthese habitats. By returning these plants to Michigan success. Depending on the history of your site, plan on 12. Culver’s root Veronicastrum virginicum United States; many are native to the eastern Unitedlandscapes, we may be able to increase both pollination 3 months to 2 years for proper preparation. Professional 13. yellow coneflower Ratibida pinnata States. Check with localand pest control while enhancing native biodiversity. plant and seeding installation services are available. If resources to determine if you are seeding an area yourself, you can hand broadcast 14. nodding wild onion Allium cernuum they are native to your area.Plant testing seed with good results. Seed drills require a good deal of 15. meadowsweet Spiraea albaNative species were established as rooted plug or 1-quart time and seed to calibrate correctly, so they are most 16. yellow giant hyssop Agastache nepetoidespotted plants in the fall of 2003 and compared to the effectively used on areas larger than an acre. 17. horsemint/spotted beebalm Monarda punctatanon-native annuals, which were planted as seed the fol- Please note: The information presented in this bulletinlowing spring. During the 2004 and 2005 growing sea- 18. Missouri ironweed Vernonia missurica should be considered a guideline to be adapted for yoursons, we determined dates of peak bloom for each 19. cup plant Silphium perfoliatum local conditions. MSU makes no warranty about the usespecies and collected insects at flowers during peak of the information presented here. 20. pale Indian plantain Cacalia atriplicifoliabloom. We then identified predator, parasitoid and polli-nator insects collected at each plant species. For more information on our research into native plants, 21. boneset Eupatorium perfoliatumThe table in this bulletin shows 26 native plants that can beneficial insects and pollinators, see 22. blue lobelia Lobelia siphiliticaprovide flowers throughout the growing season and are 23. pale-leaved sunflower Helianthus strumosushighly attractive to beneficial insects. 24. Riddell’s goldenrod Solidago riddellii Acknowledgements Entire bloom period. www.nativeplants. 25. New England aster Aster novae-angliae Yellow area shows peak bloom. msu.eduCover photos: clockwise, top left: A. Fiedler; W. Cranshaw, Colorado State University; Project GREEENJ. Tuell; A. Fiedler.Chart photos: flower images 1 through 26: A. Fiedler. MSU Extension and Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station 26. smooth aster Aster laevis USDA NC-SAREMSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are C.S. Mott Predoctoral Fellowship in Sustainable Agriculture 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, politi-cal beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, MSU Sustainable Agriculture: Production and Food Ecologyacts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Thomas G. Coon, Director, MSUExtension, East Lansing, MI 48824. This information is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or Systems Granttrade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Bill Schneider and Wildtype Design, Native Plants & Seed 1